A system or a model wherein research resources, such as literature and data, are available free of cost on online platforms for students, scholars, and researchers to search, read, save, and reuse with proper citation of the material is known as an open-access system. This system focuses on the peer-review process and on providing free and easy access to research material.
The currently used open-access models are categorized as follows:
1. Gold Open Access
In this mode of publishing, the research articles can be accessed online for free on the website of the journal as soon as they are published. In this mode, the articles are under the purview of the Creative Commons License (a type of public copyright license) that enables free sharing and usage of the research work permanently.
2. Green Open Access
As per the green open-access system, the authors can self-archive their own articles by publishing them on their own website; alternatively, the authors can publish their work on the open-access repository of the institute with which they are affiliated. However, the final call on which version of the article is made available for free is taken by the publisher or the funder of the research work. The funder/publisher also decides when the article will be made freely accessible on the website; this period is called the "embargo period".
3. Hybrid Open Access
This access system is a blend of the open- and closed-access models. In this system, subscription-based journals permit authors to make a particular research article gold openly accessible on the payment of publication charges.
Gratis and Libre Open Access
The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) has defined two major types of free open access models: Gratis and Libre Open Access
Gratis Open Access refers to those articles or scientific works that are readily available on online platforms for no charge. While this model allows a reader to access and read the scientific work for free, the readers are not permitted to re-use, copy, or modify and use the content in any manner beyond "fair" usage (with due citation of the cited work).
Libre Open Access is the system under which scientific publications are not only accessible free of charge on online platforms, but also can be shared or re-used. Certain Creative Commons Licenses have specified the required acknowledgements that need to be mentioned when the published works of other authors are re-used by an author under the libre open access model. The Libre Open Access system has also been defined in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, as well as the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing.
In simpler terms, gratis does away with the cost of accessing a scientific document, while libre removes the cost as well as consent for accessing the work.
Several studies have compiled data on the currently used open-access systems. The most remarkable findings from these studies can be summarized as follows:
1. A 2010 study found that around 20% of the articles published in 2008 have been available online for no charge.
2. Approximately 4800 active, open-access journals that have been and are currently being published have published around 190,000 free, open-access articles till 2009.
3. A study by the Max Planck Society indicated that gold open-access articles accounted for 13% of all research papers published till 2017.
4. As on February 2019, around 12,500 open-access journals have found a mention in the Directory of Open Access Journals.
Benefits of Open Access
The open-access model provides several advantages to researchers, readers, and the field of research as a whole. Some of the benefits of this system have been highlighted here.
1. Greater Visibility
The open-access system enables the authors to gain better visibility and thereby increases the reach and impact of their research. The open-access model facilitates data mining; this has a direct positive impact on the citation rates. Additionally, scholars, scientists, professors, and students across the world are able to access current research without a paywall; this is a crucial advantage that helps the global scientific community to share scientific breakthroughs promptly, design effective studies, and progress symbiotically.
2. Publishing Cost
Open-access publications involve a lower publication and processing cost than conventional modes of publications. In many cases, the publishing is initiated and paid for by the author. After a journal accepts an author's article, the author is required to pay a publication fee that can be as high as USD 5000. This makes publication difficult and sometimes impossible for some authors who are unable to share their findings with the scientific community, thus killing the main purpose of research.
3. Speed of Publication
The lag time between article submission by the author and the publication of that article varies widely among publishing houses. This duration is influenced by factors like peer review and editorial processes that can be time consuming. However, under an open-access publishing system, the publication process is faster and enables authors to disseminate their findings while they are relevant and current.
Madridge Publishers & Open Access
One of the most established names in the field of open-access journal publication; Madridge Publishers provide extensive information on research in various fields of therapeutic sciences, engineering, and clinical sciences. Our collection of 47 peer-reviewed journals ensures the availability of scholastic insightful data for our readers in the fastest time, within 45 days after distribution. This ensures that the authors can publish their works, be receptive to reader responses, and have a platform on which they can communicate with authors, editors, experts, and scientists from their own and related fields. Complete acknowledgement and credit are provided to the authors, while Madridge Publishers retain the copyright.
Madridge strives to maintain its readership pool of scientists, students, researchers, and scholars by providing easy accessibility to peer-reviewed journals. We aim to present, publish, and propagate the scientific information digitally in print or other forms at insignificant costs.