Food Technology Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, Indonesian Scientific Society for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISSPP), Indonesia
By definition, probiotics supposed to survive in the gut, strain and dose dependent, provide health benefit to the host. The term probiotic encompasses live microbes and safe for intended use and have documented health effects. Two novel probiotics of dadih origin have been studied for 24 years, in in vitro, in vivo, and human studies mostly in children. The survival of encapsulated L. plantarum IS-10506 was much higher than the free cells, and encapsulation technique protects viability of cells reaching GI tract. The proven dose for Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 is 1010 cfu/day, while Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 is 108 cfu/day. The efficacy of the strains is on enhancing immune response, especially humoral immune response as well as balancing Th1/Th2 in allergic subjects and improving nutritional status, especially body weight and serum zinc in apparently healthy and immunocompromised subjects. No adverse effects were recorded during the intervention studies, confirming the safety of novel indigenous probiotic strains. Strain L. plantarum IS-10506 showed ability in repairing bursh border damage in rat model. Development of probiotic based functional foods are challenging, and promising for food microbiologist and food technologist in response to more health conscious consumer attitude for the development of the Indonesian probiotic market.
Keywords: Novel indigenous probiotics, dadih, survival, immune response, nutritional status
Ingrid S Surono, MSc, PhD, graduated from Food Technology Department, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Bogor Agricultural University in 1980. She earned MSc in Dairy Microbiology and Food Processing from Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok-Thailand, in 1984. PhD was obtained from The United Graduate School, Gifu University-Japan, in 1996. She dedicated herself to probiotic research since 1992, and her research interests are in child nutrition, functional foods and food safety. In 2009, she attended Workshop on Management of Microbial Hazard in Food organized by
European Chair in Food Safety Microbiology, hosted by the Laboratory of Food Microbiology Graduate School VLAG, Wageningen University, The Netherland. There are 30 international published papers in peer reviewed journals mainly on probiotics, and she is also a reviewer of British Journal of Nutrition, Beneficial Microbes, Appetite, Springer plus, and some national journals. She is co-promoter of 12 PhD students from Post Graduate Programs at Faculty of Medicine Airlangga University, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, Faculty of Human Ecology Bogor Agricultural University, and Faculty of Public Health of Airlangga University and of Andalas University. She supervised 11 MSc Students from Faculty of Medicine/Seameo Recfon University of Indonesia, Faculty of Human Ecology, BogorAgricultural University, and Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences,Airlangga University, and supervised more than 40 under graduate students. She has published 7 books, and wrote 2 chapters in text book published by CRC and Springer, and wrote 3 chapters in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. She actively involved as a member of expert team at National Agency of Drug and Food Control Republic of Indonesia (NADFC) especially in Food Safety and member of task force on Probiotics and Prebiotics Guidelines. She is an author of Probiotic, Microbiome and Functional Foods, published in 2016 in Indonesian. She was a visiting Professor at Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku-Finland, during 2004-2006. In 2011, Science and Technology Award have been granted to her from Toray Foundation. In 2012, she was nominated as ten best researcher of Ristek Kalbe Science Award 2012. Two awards of Third best winner of Oral Presenter at the XXXII International Congress on Microbial Ecology in Health & Disease in Athens, Greece, and at FASEB Summer Research Conference, Carefree, Arizona, USA, in 2010 and 2011, respectively have been recorded. A patent on Probiotic has been granted in 2010. She also serves as Advisory Council of Swedish South Asian Network on Fermented Foods (2009 - present time). She is President of Indonesian Scientific Society for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISSPP), and one of Scientific Members at Danone Institute Indonesia since 2013-present time, and appointed as Head of Food Technology Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, Alam Sutera Campus, Tangerang, Indonesia (2013-present time).
1Suzhou Key Lab of Green Chemical Engineering, Soochow University, China
3Agrocampus Ouest, France
4Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, China
Introduction: Probiotics efficacy relies on administration of live and active probiotic strains in adequate dose. Growth yield and stress tolerance during probiotic production and delivery thus constitute a key bottle neck. Probiotics are widely produced, stored and used under a dried form, mainly by freeze-drying. Drying process generally comprises culture, harvesting, washing and drying steps in which preservation of viability remains a quest for the Holy Grail.
Methods: The aqueous phase of fermented dairy products was shown to enhance stress tolerance in both lactic and propionic acid bacteria. We used sweet whey, a dairy industry by product, as a two-in-one medium to sustain both growth of probiotics, and then directly spray-drying without harvesting and washing steps. Moreover, hyper concentrated sweet whey was developed to achieve one-step drying with higher level of dry matter.
Results: Both lactic and propionic acid bacteria were adapted to growth within sweet whey and resulting cultures were directly spray-dried with various survival rates, depending on dairy components concentration. Interestingly, growth of probiotics in hyper concentrated sweet whey led to enhanced stress tolerance, over expression of key stress proteins, accumulation of intracellular storage molecules and compatible solutes, consequently resulting in yet unknown survival upon heat, acid and bile challenges, as well as spray-drying and storage.
Discussion: Spray- being far more cost-effective than freeze-drying, this innovation opens new avenues for sustainable development of probiotic products with enhanced delivery efficiency. This patent-protected new process indeed uses a dairy industry byproduct, requires limited amounts of energy, affords high bacterial viability and protects probiotics from injury undergone within the digestive tract.
Dr. Gwénael Jan completed his Ph.D at STLO (INRA-Agrocampus Ouest), France. He did his Master degree at the University of Rennes, France. At present Dr. Gwénael Jan is working as Directeur de Recherche INRA-Agrocampus Ouest Rennes.
1Auburn University, USA
2Gromashevsky Institute of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases, Ukraine
Antibiotic resistance in pathogens was identified as a serious health threat, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. The total economic cost of antibiotic resistance to the US and EU healthcare systems was calculated as $20-35 and EUR 1.5 billion a year correspondingly. The emergence of multiresistant pathogens requires the development of new approaches to their control. Probiotic prophylaxes and therapies are gaining wider acceptance as more scientific data emerge regarding the interaction between pathogen and beneficial microbes in the human intestinal tract and molecular mechanisms of probioticsʼ action. Probiotic bacteria which confer beneficial effect for the host and have pronounced antagonistic activity against pathogens is expected to present a clear alternative for control of drug-resistant infections. Bacteria of the Bacillus genus are known as potent producers of a wide variety of antimicrobial compounds. These bacteria are also reputed to promote health benefits on the host. We believe that Bacillus bacteria with high activity against pathogens can be a valuable alternative strategy to control multi-resistant infections.
Our study showed high activity of B. subtilisprobiotic strain against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including multiresistant S. aureus, Salmonella, Candida. We also found an inhibitory effect of this strain on influenza virus in vitro and in vivo studies. New peptide P18, produced by B. subtilis strain was isolated and characterized. Peptide P18 was not toxic and completely inhibited influenza virus at concentration 12.5 µg/mL. In animal studies theantiviral effect of P18 was comparable with Tamiflu. In conclusion, our results showed that Bacillus probiotic can be used as a valuable new approach for treatment of bacterial and viral infections.
Dr. Iryna Sorokulova, Professor of Microbiology, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA. She received her MS degree in Microbiology from Taras Shevchenko Kiev State University (Ukraine) and Ph.D. and D.Sc. Degrees in Microbiology from Institute of Microbiology and Virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Dr. Sorokulova is the author of 92 refereed scientific publications, 4 books, and 23 patents (1- US, 1-France; 6-Ukraine, 15-Russia). Six patents are now licensed and commercialized. She created several biotechnological products; some of them are commercially available.
Shanghai Childrenʼs Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
Department of Clinical Nutrition/Department of Neonatology, China
Objectives: Recent studies have shown that pathophysiology of NEC includes intestinal microbial dysbiosis and mucosal barrier disruption. This study tends to investigate intestinal microbiota in preterm newborns with NEC.
Methods: Our prospective study enrolled 24 preterm newborns admitted to the NICU in Shanghai Childrenʼs Medical Center from March 2013 to August 2014, whose gestational age ranged from 29 to 33 weeks. Among the 24 preterm, 4 were diagnosed as NEC, while 3 were treated with antibiotics due to serious infections (infection group) and 17 without any infectious complications (normal group). Totally 192 longitudinal fecal samples were collected right from admission until discharge day. The intestinal microbiota composition and its longitudinal trend were analyzed using Illumina-MiSeq high-throughput sequencing.
Results: At phylum level, Firmutes and Proteobacteria dominated respectively in three groups, while Proteobacteria abundance of NEC group significantly ranked first (NEC vs Infection vs Normal: 59.84% vs 42.97% vs 44.13%, p=0.048). At class level, three groups shared the same domination microorganisms which are Bacilli, Clostridia and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteriae abundance of NEC group is significantly the highest (NEC vs Infection vs Normal: 53.63% vs 33.96% vs 39.46, p=0.018).
Longitudinal comparison showed different microbial colonization pattern among three groups. Notwithstanding the same microbial development mode shared by three groups from Bacilli to Gammaproteobacteriawithin two weeks after birth, Bacilli and Clostridia domination from the 14th to 30th day of life and Clostridia domination after the 30th day of life in NEC group was distinctive and noticeable.
Conclusions: Abnormal intestinal microbiota at early life might account for NEC. However, more longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes are needed to reveal microbial dysbiosis at different stages before and after the onset of NEC, hopefully to provide evidence for its early recognition and prevention.
Keywords: Preterm newborns, necrotizing enterocolitis, gut microbiota, microbial dysbiosis, high-throughput sequencing
Dr. Li Hong is Professor of Pediatric Surgery at the Shanghai Childrenʼs Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, and Director of the Department of Clinical Nutrition.
Dr. Hong got her surgical training in Cincinnati Childrenʼs Hospital and Chicago Comer Childrenʼs Hospital, US, from 2007-2008. She also got her nutritional training as a clinical observer in Childrenʼs Hospital of Los Angeles in 2010, and Boston Childrenʼs Hospital from 2014-2015.
She has played a major role in the development of Nutrition support strategies for Children in China. Her special interests include intestinal rehabilitation, and microbiome research in neonates.