Wayne State University, USA
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting millions of people. It leads to a myriad of health problems with the most serious being death. By increasing physical activity, obesity can be reversed and or prevented. The purpose of this study was to determine how having a structured exercise program affects overall physical activity and psychological health. Specifically, this investigation examined how body image, self-efficacy and motivation would affect overall physical activity. Using a mixed-method design, subjects were evaluated using pre and post intervention surveys on physical activity, self-efficacy, body esteem and motivation. Results showed that there was a significant difference in self-efficacy, motivation and male body esteem when comparing their post-intervention scores to their pre-intervention scores. However, there was no significant difference in the three phases of overall physical activity or female body esteem. Although there was no significant difference in overall physical activity, the results show it was trending in a positive direction. The small sample size, study duration, physical activity assessment may have influenced the results. Even though there was no significant difference in overall physical activity or female body esteem, a structured exercise program appears to be promising tool for increasing overall physical activity and psychological health.
Keywords: Body esteem, motivation, self-efficacy, physical activity, structured exercise program, obesity, African American, psychological health, Health Belief Model, Logic Model
Lakina Moseley, DHEd, is an adjunct professor at Wayne State University for the Division of Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies. Her areas of expertise are exercise and nutrition, physical education, health education, and aquatics. Her research interests are obesity prevention and treatment, physical activity and nutrition behavioral intervention, and exercise motivation and adherence. Dr. Moseley is also the owner of Destination Fitness, which provides individualized exercise programs to her clients. She holds a bachelorʼs in kinesiology and a masterʼs in the art of teaching from Wayne State University. She also holds a doctorate in health education from A.T. Still University.
King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
The rapid onset of obesity in the setting of hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysfunction constitutes the syndrome of ROHHAD-NET, with some cases presenting with a neuroendocrine tumour. It is a rare fatal disease due to respiratory failure that necessitates early recognition and consequent provision of ventilatory support to improve outcome. We report the recognition of a second case of ROHHAD-NET syndrome in Saudi Arabia.
Asmaa Milyani is a 21year old medical student in her final year of medical school at King AbdulAziz University. With a recognisable merit in literature since childhood, and having always been an advocate for science with a strong belief in the moral pillars of Medicine, she aspires to further pursue her clinical practice in Paediatrics with great passion and achievement in research.
Department of Nutrition, University of California, USA
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as superfood and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC) was made by extracting fresh leaves with water utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert the glucosinolatesintochemically stable moringa isothiocyanates (MICS). MC and MICs significantly decreased inflammatory makers and glucose production in vitro. MC, supplemented in the diet at 5%, significantly reduced pathologies of metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese C57 mice; MC-fed mice exhibited reduced weight gain and lower levels of insulin, leptin, inflammatory markers, liver damage, and cholesterol. Our results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a nutritious food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases and malnutrition. Future studies will evaluate the nutrient and MIC content of moringa varieties present in Kenya and mechanistic studies to understand the role of MC and MIC in diabetes and obesity prevention.
Dr. Carrie Waterman is an interdisciplinary research scientist at the intersection of nutrition, agriculture, health and development. She received her PhD in Pharmacognosy and spent the following years as a post doc in Natural Products Chemistry. She was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Nairobi, Kenya and served as a Peace Corps volunteer in West Africa. She is currently a Professional Research Assistant in Nutrition at UC Davis with a NIH Fogarty International K01 grant. She is working with in Kenya on moringa, a plant used to treat malnutrition and prevent chronic diseases including diabetes and obesity.
Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. Its prevalence has tripled in many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region since the 1980s, and the numbers of those affected continue to rise at an alarming rate. In addition to causing various physical disabilities and psychological problems, excess weight drastically increases a personʼs risk of developing a number of non-communicable diseases), including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Worldwide, current dietary recommendations donʼt refer to the role of the gut microbiome in health. Nevertheless, from a public health perspective, establishment of a physiologically relevant, beneficial health effect following modification of the microbiome on obesity should best be established by the favourable modification of one common denominator that is directly linked to a physiological beneficial effect. As common denominator of studies into the dietary modulation of the microbiome by probiotic and prebiotic foods, ‘insulin resistance’ has been proposed. Not only is insulin resistance a hallmark in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but it is also implicated in a plethora of disease states and diseases associated with metabolic syndrome, like excessive weight, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia and chronic low-grade inflammation. This notion implies that insulin resistance should be one of the important, if not the most important primary outcome measure in clinical studies, applying pre- and probiotic interventions and performed in the context of applied microbiome research. Taken together, in order to make the shift from microbiome research towards its application in dietary strategies and recommendations, as well as into health claims made on newly developed microbiome-modifying foods, we hypothesize that microbiome research should, at least in part, be targeted at deciphering the impact of (un)favourable modulation of the micro biome on insulin resistance.
Stoffer has acquired a BSc-degree in Tropical Agriculture at the Royal Dutch College for Tropical Agriculture Deventer, the Netherlands, was trained a Nutritionist (MSc) at Wageningen University (1992) and has obtained his PhD in Medical Sciences/Immunology at the Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam/ (1998). Following a career in the food supplement industry as science communicator and health educator he founded NutriClaim in 2007 (www.nutriclaim.com), providing specialist services pertaining to the scientific substantiation of health claims made on food, and in the marketing authorization of Novel Foods in the EU. Currently, Stoffer is also Work Package Leader in the EU FP7-funded project “My New Gut”.
Taiyo Kagaku Co Ltd, Japan
The prevalence of obesity may differ with age, ethnic background and economic conditions. However, the health implications associated with obesity were nevertheless same. Although the genetic factor may cause the obesity, the behavioral influence such as diet, physical activity and environmental factors have stronger influence on the prevalence and propagation of obesity. Therefore the energy balance in the intake and use of calories by the body plays a critical role in weight gain. Several healthy diet guidelines recommends eating veggie and low fat diets but excess intake of the same may again cause energy imbalance and therefore is less effective in preventing the weight gain. On the other hand nutraceuticals such as green tea, Graciani Cambodia, Coleus forskohilli, fucoxanthinetc and supplements like Acetyl l-carnitine, 5-HTP and CLA etc are exhibited to be effective in fat burning and weight loss in adult populations. Maintenance of regular energy balance is the strategical and logical approach such as limiting the calories from the daily diet and increasing the pysical activity must be observed as routine and with the aid of nutraceuticals may effectively prevent the prevalence of obesity in both children and adults. Nutraceuticals targeting weight control alone does not support overall improvement, but rather a comprehensive approach tackling glucose metabolism, fat burning and circulation may require to counter obesity and related complications. A number of nutraceuticals are recommended for weight management while providing a proper nutritionalbalance.
Dr. T.P.Rao has completed his Ph.D. and postdoctoral studies at Nagoya University, Japan and a certificate course in International Food Laws and Regulations at Michigan State University, USA. He is General Manager at Taiyo Kagaku, Japan. He started his career at ICRSAT (International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, India) and acquired extensive research, marketing and regulatory experience ranging in the fields of agriculture, nutrition to health. He has published one book and more than 65 papers in reputed journals and books. He has been serving as an editorial board member of NutraCos magazine and Austin Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism.
De Montfort university, UK
An excessive number of calories consumed daily, in addition to a sedentary lifestyle, are the main causes of increasing type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence worldwide (LEE, H.K. et al., 2010). Diabetes usually accompanied by hypertension, lipid disorders and obesity. Recent studies show that the reduction in HbA1c cause 35% relative risk reduction for fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular disease. Also 56% reduction in CVD when this reduction of HbA1c accompanied with systolic blood pressure (SBP) decrease. Moreover, 75% reduction in CVD if reduction of HbA1c and SBP accompanied with decrease in non-HDL level (Eeg-Olofsson et al., 2016).
The aim of this study to prove that combination exercise is better than aerobic or resistance alone. It is going to compare T2D and ND who are doing combination exercise with same study groups who are doing either aerobic or resistance training. Moreover, it is going to compare the intervention group with control group of both T2D and ND who are following sedentary life style. All these comparisons to show if the changes in primary and secondary outcome are significant between the different groups. This study is also looking for the changes in incretin level in all groups to see if there is any effect of exercise on the secretion of this hormone and compare it to T2D who are using different medication for diabetes. T2D is considered as a serious disease, which needs immediate intervention. This intervention depends on the severity of the case. It could be either diet and exercise or pharmacological intervention by using anti-diabetic medication or insulin to control blood glucose levels within normal levels. It is necessary to check routinely to discover T2D at an early stage because identification and early treatment can prevent further complications in pre-diabetes or metabolic disorder. Diet and exercise can potentially prevent the development of T2D of many of those at risk or in early stages (Diabetes UK, 2016).
Are there demonstrable health differences after the six weeks exercise intervention?
Does exercise change glucose and lipid derangements?
Does exercise affect the inflammatory nature of T2D?
Are the metabolic and inflammatory profiles related?
Do the improvements correlate with medication type?
Do the improvement affect in cretin involvement?
Conclusion: In T2D and ND combination exercise has significant effect on HbA1c, and the anthropometric variables (weight, waist, BMI and lung capacity). Previous studies and researchers had evaluated the effects that aerobic training and resistance training had on the glycaemic control in term of HbA1c in patients suffering from T2D (Sigal et al., 2007); (Yavari et al., 2012). This study shows reduction in BG after aerobic exercise more than after resistance, which illustrate that, performing resistance exercise before aerobic exercise improved glycaemic control during exercise (Yardley et al., 2013). OGTT shows a very significant improvement of BG level in both groups, that was higher in T2D. This suggests that combination exercise is valuable in improving insulin sensitivity in T2D. It was concluded that the combination exercise was the best exercise for improvements to insulin resistance (Davidson et al., 2009).
Nawal Hamad completed her MSC. Degree (Clinical Pharmacy International Practice and Policy) and currently she works as a Clinical Pharmacist, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, (PSMMC). Lecturer at King Saud University as part time for Clinical Ocular Pharmacology.
Bucharest Economic Studies University, Romania
Obesity and physical inactivity seem to have a common evolution and a reciprocal determination with disastrous combined effects on morbidity and mortality. Beside an average increase of weight and the predisposition to overweight and obesity, a decrease in fitness level and skills is observed in the newest generations. The excessive energy intake combined with the decreasing energy expenditure contribute to a concerning balance between fat and lean body mass even in young people. The weight management quantitative issues tackled in this research are weight, body mass index and body composition. The main research question is if the ratio between body fat and muscle mass could return different results regarding overweight and obesity risk, comparing with BMI results While by calculating BMI the estimated number of overweight and obese subjects was of 14 %, by measuring body fat percentage that number increased to 43% of the young women (19-24 years) in the research sample. The t test returns a significant difference between BMI values and the body fat percentage for the study sample: t(155) = 2.37 p<0,01. The conclusion is that BMI results may be insufficient for a correct estimation of overweight and obesity risk. The body composition adds useful information about health and fitness status. Considering that muscle mass is decreasing with age, promoting physical activities in preschools, schools, universities and among adults through active transportation, spending time or exercising outdoors as leisure time, or joining sport competitions in a proper environment could prevent sarcopenic obesity. Integrating physical and health education in overweight preventative strategies would have effect in reducing the occurrence of physical and emotional disorders and co-morbidities over the lifetime.
Dr. Cristiana Lucretia Pop is Professor at the Bucharest Economic Studies University, Physical Education and Health Department. Her research interests include: overweight and obesity risk assessment, well-being, quality of life, and promoting physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. She is member of Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, member of Romanian Athletic Federation women commission and has research collaboration with Romanian Academy, Anthropological Institute Research Center. She is Senior Editor and Editorial Board Member of several reviews in education, health and sport sciences domain.
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra, Spain
Advances in genetics and epigenetics have resulted in the identification of about 100 and 200 loci respectively, related to human adiposity. Fto gene variants are the most replicated and showed the highest statistical significance. However, despite these advances, the combined effect of genome identified so far account for about 5% of the inherited contribution to obesity risk (40 to 70). These statistics confirm the complex nature of obesity and the need to identify additional factors including (epi) genetic markers and also their interactions with environmental factors. The omics technologies could help to study genetic predisposition (genome), and changes in epigenetics (epigenome), gene expression (transcriptome), proteins (proteome), and metabolites (metabolome) to further improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment of obesity and related complications.
Here I will present some examples of the importance of genetic and epigenetic markers when studying the response to nutritional interventions such as: The Predimed Navarra study (based on a Mediterranean diet pattern in high cardiovascular risk subjects), and the evasion study (a weight loss program for Spanish obese adolescents).
Amelia Marti is working as a professor in human physiology, university of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Marti has received the silver medal of the British society for nutrition, the Merck & Daphne award, the award of the naos Spanish strategy, the European prize for the best doctoral thesis supervised in obesity. She is an expert in the board of the Spanish society for obesity her research in the field of nutrition and obesity, with more than 229 scientific publications and h Factor=37 (web manager).15 doctoral theses supervised and participation in over 22 research projects.
Department of Zoology, Kakatiya University, India
Background: The search for new alternative and effective treatment methods were ongoing for obesity which is worldwide epidemic that reduces life expectancy. The present study aimed at investigating anti-obesity potential of physagulin-F isolated from Physalis angulata fruits.
Methods: The rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (2) Normal Diet with 50 mg/kgBW of physagulin-F (ND + 50 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet with100 mg/kgBW of physagulin-F (ND + 100 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 50 mg/kgBW of physagulin-F (HFD + 50 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 100 mg/kgBW of physagulin-F (HFD + 100 mg/kgBW). Through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight and blood biochemicals like total cholesterol, triglycerdies, HDL-C, LDL-C, insulin, adipoectin, leptin and fecal fat content anti-obesity potential was evaluated.
Results: Rats receiving physagulin-F together with HFD showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in body weight gain compared to rats receiving HFD only. At the end of study, the body weight gain of physagulin-F treated rats was not significantly (p > 0.05) different with those of normal diet rats. Plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin like obesity biomarkers levels also showed significant improvement (p < 0.05). Administration of physagulin-F caused significan t(p < 0.05) increase in fecal fat excretion, which validates the hypothesis of lipase inhibition, similar to standard drug of Orlistat.
Conclusion: This study concludes that the physagulin-F isolated from P. angulata fruits showed anti-obesity properties by inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and also by modulation of adipocytes markers.
Dr. Estari Mamidala completed his under graduation and post-graduation from Kakatiya University. He did Ph.D in Zoology Department, Kakatiya University, India. He awarded DBT rapid grant young investigator award. After the completing of his Ph.D he was selected as Fast Track Young Principal Investigator from DST, New Delhi. Now he is doing post-doctoral research. He published more than 15 research publications in reputed journals.
University College Cork, Ireland
Introduction: Gaining weight outside of the Institute of Medicine guidelines puts a woman and her foetus at an increased risk. Currently, limited or incorrect information about weight management is being provided to women during antenatal care. Despite the global obesity epidemic, research shows that physicians do not perceive this to be an important issue. Women are not getting adequate advice about weight management in pregnancy.
Aim: To assess what Irish women want Regarding Weight Gain and the Management of Weight during Pregnancy.
To assess physician understanding and attitude to weight gain in pregnancy. To assess current weight management during the antenatal period.
Methods: This was a quantitative cross-sectional study. There were two aspects to the data collection. Patient data was collected by printed questionnaires in the Cork University Maternity Hospital antenatal clinic; 100 first bookers completed the questionnaire. Physician data was collected via SurveyMonkey. Physical questionnaires were also used to gather physician data.
Results: The majority of women (71%) want to be given a target weight to gain during pregnancy; 74% want to be told if they are inappropriately gaining weight. 91% want information about diet and exercise. 18% think discussing weight gain is sensitive and should be avoided. Some 87.5% of physicians believe that weight management is important; 31.3% advise patients about weight gain. 68.8% perceive discussing weight gain as a sensitive subject.
Conclusion: Women want discussions about weight gain to be an integral part of their antenatal care. Physicians think weight management is an important part of antenatal care however they do not discuss it with patients, mainly because they feel it is a sensitive issue. More advice needs to be given to women regarding weight gain in pregnancy to prevent excess weight gain. Physicians would benefit from further education in this area to ensure they can provide accurate and up to date advice to women.
Egyptian National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Egypt
Background: Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is known to convey its signals through a single G protein coupled receptor (CX3CR1). It is characterized as a structurally unique chemokine with both membrane-bound and soluble forms. Fractalkine expression has been detected in activated or stressed endothelial, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, macrophages, neurons, hepatocytes and adipocytes. Inflammation up regulates Fractalkine particularly in adipose tissue of obese individuals.
Aim of Work: This study was designed to assess fractalkine level in obese subjects and its relation with some clinical and laboratory finding It compares basal plasma fractalkine and hs CRP in obese patients (with and without metabolic syndrome) and lean healthy controls.
Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 140 subjects; 70 controls and 70 obese subjects 38 with metabolic syndrome and 32 without metabolic syndrome. All were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination, fasting and post prandial blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, fractalkine level and hs CRP.
Results: Serum fractalkine level was significantly raised in obese subjects compared to lean controls (being higher in those with metabolic syndrome). There was a significant positive correlation between serum fractalkine level and BMI, WC, WHR, fasting and post prandial blood glucose, HBA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and it was inversely correlated with HDL while there was no significant correlation between serum fractalkine level and hs CRP.
Conclusions: Fractalkine, like other known adipocyte derived chemokines was increased in obese individuals and associated mainly with metabolic syndrome. This is a step in the way to understand and explain the exact pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome as well as obesity linked complications.
Dr. Mohsen Khalid has graduated from faculty of medicine Cairo University in November 1980. He has completed his Master degree in Internal Medicine May 1986, and then he completed his Medical Doctorate in Internal Medicine November 2003. He is a consultant of Diabetes and Endocrinology in the Egyptian National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals. The research interest of Prof. Dr. Mohsen Khalid is Genetics of Diabetes, diabetic complications and how to assist diabetic patients to live a good life with life style modification and medical treatment.
Clinical Professor & Consultant Endocrinologist Gulf Medical University, UAE
Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective intervention to treat obesity and its related co morbidities. For multitude of factors, access, insurance, patient fears, referrals and the procedures risks, only 1% of the eligible undergoes bariatric surgery. Considerable needs for effective nonsurgical treatment modalities are mandated. The minimally invasive novel endoscopic therapies with less morbidity could be the answer for many morbidly obese patients.
Researches advocate the important role of the foregut in the regulation of glucose homeostasis & diabetes. A novel purely endoscopic catheter-based procedure that targets the duodenal mucosa had been developed by Fractyl Laboratories targeting the abnormal hypertrophy and hyperplasia and the alterations in the enteroendocrine cells of the foregut usually seen in patients with diabetes. This minimally invasive Duodenal Mucosal Resurfacing System DMR is known as Revita.
Revita involves 2 main steps: First, creation of a protective barrier by lifting the sub mucosal space of the duodenum with endoscopic injection of saline and second, hydrothermal ablation (recirculation of hot water within a balloon tipped catheter) of the circumferential duodenal mucosa. This rejuvenation of the lining of the duodenum will change gut signaling in patients with metabolic diseases caused by insulin resistance. The early results with Revita DMR are quite encouraging, with well tolerated procedure, concerning safety, three instances of duodenal stenosis was reported, and treated using endoscopic balloon dilation.
The 1st study involving 39 T2 DM who were failing oral medications, at 6 months, the treatment had improved glycemic control, with significant decrease in FBG, PPG, and HbA1c. The patients receiving DMR on a long segment (average ¼ 9.3 cm, n ¼ 28) compared to short (average 3.4 cm, n ¼ 11) of the duodenum experienced a greater reduction in HbA1c levels at 3 months and achieved a reduction in HbA1c levels from 8.5% to 7.1% at 6 months & about 5 pounds of weight loss.
Further studies are necessary to understand the core mechanism, long-term safety, efficacy, durability and how the procedure performs in a randomized clinical trial setting, while also embracing the potential for wider metabolic benefits.
Dr. Jallo is a Clinical Professor of Medicine and Consultant Endocrinologist in Gulf Medical University GMU in UAE & Faculty in the Canadian Academy of Natural Health. Granted his MBChB from Mosul Medical College in IRAQ, postgraduate Board Certification in Internal Medicine CABM (PhD Equivalent) from the Arab Board, Fellowship of the American College of Endocrinology FACE & certified with Diploma in Dyslipidemia from Boston University School of Medicine from USA. He was an Affiliated Faculty in the Department of Medicine, Mosul Medical College & Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Mosul College of Pharmacy in IRAQ till 2004.
He is actively involved as an inviting speaker in many National & International conferences & CME programs. He is the organizer of the annual GMU Diabetes & Endocrinology Conference, and organizing committee member of many international conferences.
Editor In Chief: Diabetes Digest from Iraq, Editorial Board Member & reviewer for many international Diabetes & Endocrinology journals, with many publications in medical periodicals and medical conferences abstract & Active Principle Investigator in many National & International Clinical studies. He is a member of many national & international medical societies & associations.
Brawijaya University, Indonesia
The interaction nutrients, lifestyles and genetic factor modulate molecular pathway in human related to developing chronic diseases. Healthy nutrients composition can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus diseases due to repairing abnormality molecular mechanism signaling. AGEs provide new possible targets for the treatment of both diabetes. Hyperglycemia is an abnormally high blood glucose (blood sugar) level. Among the irreversible changes that occur as a result of hyperglycemia is the formation of AGE through a reaction between sugars and the free amino groups on proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. AGEs react with their receptors (RAGEs) to induce oxidative stress. Recent study, we found the local caprine milk CSN1S2 protein has eight peptide residues contain seven to twelve amino acid residues which are suggested to reveal multifunctional properties. The goals to be achieved in managing diabetes are prevention or control of pancreatic β-cells damage, prevention of loss of function, and reduction of complication. This study used 24 rats of control and diabetic models treated with CSN1S2of Caprine milk and then analyzed the physiological character, protein expression and in silico analysis. The study results showed that the body weight gaining and some organ weight reduced, the level of sRAGE up-regulated and AGE level down-regulated on DM-750mg/kg caprine milk compared with DM group. The fragment 41-47 of CSN1S2 has inhibitor activity of Argypirimidine-RAGE interaction. In other hand, CSN1S2 fragment 214-221 can also require the imidazole bind to arginine residue 221 of the peptide. These results indicated the possibility of Caprine CSN1S2 peptide able to take place biological function as a competitive inhibitor of AGEs and RAGE interaction that may intervenes its cellular mechanism and impaired signal transduction cascade at the cellular level.
Prof. Fatchiyah F., PhD., is a professor of Molecular Genetics and has completed a PhD program at the Graduate University for Advances Studies, Department of Molecular Biomechanics, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, and Aichi, Japan, 2006. She is senior lecturer in molecular genetics at Biology Dept. Faculty of Sciences, Brawijaya University. Malang, Indonesia since 1989 till present; as director of Center Laboratory of Life Sciences, UB during 2007-2012; as director of Institute Biosains of UB, 2012-present, and as a head of Center Research of SMONAGENES UB focus on: Nutrigenomics study of Natural Genetics Resources, Molecular Biomechanics of Gene Cascade of Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases and Genes Mapping.
University College of Medical Sciences & Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, India
Background: We hypothesized that higher circulating levels of a novel adipokine CTRP3, would promote a favorable metabolic profile in obesity.
Objective: To study and correlate the circulating levels of serum CTRP3 and metabolic parameters in obesity.
Design: A non-randomized case control study in a tertiary care hospital.
Subjects & Methods: Sixty subjects were recruited from general population into the study and control groups, based on Body mass index (BMI as kg/m2). There were no drop outs. Newly diagnosed, drug naïve obese subjects with BMI 25-35kg/m2 of both genders, aged 18-40yrs, with no associated co-morbidity or substance abuse, were grouped as CASES (n=30) and compared with age, sex and socioeconomic status matched CONTROLS (n=30) with BMI 19- 22kg/m2. The baseline fasting metabolic parameters (HbA1c, SBP, DBP and TSH) were within normal range in both the groups, thus excluding confounders for CTRP3 and obesity.
Statistical Analysis: Unpaired Studentʼs t-test and Pearsonʼs correlations and linear regression Using SPSS -20 Software. Data was presented as mean ± SD. p <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: We found lower levels of serum CTRP3 (p<0.001), adiponectin (p=0.025), HDL(p<0.001), and higher BMI(p<0.001), leptin (p=0.04), insulin(p=0.003), HOMA-IR(p<0.001), LDL(p<0.05) and atherogenic index(p<0.001) in cases. Also, CTRP3 inversely correlated with serumtriglycerides(p<0.001), atherogenic index(p=0.04), leptin(p=0.02), and positively with adiponectin(p=0.02) in obese group.
Conclusions: Serum CTRP3 levels are lowered in obesity. This was probably the first study to show that CTRP3 levels are inversely correlated with the atherogenic index in obesity. Hence, in future, optimizing CTRP3 levels may prove as a potential therapeutic target to improve obesity and its co-morbidities.
Keywords: C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3), Body Mass Index (BMI), Obesity, Adiponectin, Leptin & Atherogenic Index.
Dr. Neha Bindlish Jain was born in New Delhi, India, in 1984. After graduating from University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur hospital, Delhi, in the year 2008, she is currently pursuing her MD Physiology from the same institution. She also underwent a short term training course in autonomic function tests from Department of Physiology, AIIMS, Delhi, for a better understanding of her current research interest. To the best of her knowledge, the current research on C1q/TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3) and obesity shall be the first one to be conducted in India. This current research is her gateway to pioneer in the field of Physiology.
1Faculty of Health and Social Care, Edge Hill University, St Helens Road, Lancashire, UK
2Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Biological Sciences, Queen Margaret University, Queen Margaret Drive, Edinburgh, UK
Arterial stiffness is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and dietary polyphenols, particularlyanthocyanins, may play an important role in mediating vascular tone. The present single-blind randomised cross-over placebo controlled study investigated the effect of consumption of an anthocyanin-rich potato, Purple Majesty (PM), in 14 healthy male and female adults. Participants consumed 200g PMcontaining 114 mg anthocyanins, or placebo (Osprey) with negligible anthocyanin content for 14 days, separated by a 1-week washout period. Non-invasive assessment of vascular tone (arterial stiffness) by pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined in addition to systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and c-reactive protein (CRP). Arterial stiffness was significantly reduced (p=0.001) following PM consumption. There were no significant changes with anyother clinical parameter measured, and no changes were observed following placebo. PM contained higher levels of total phenolics, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity and daily consumption of PM over 14 days was well tolerated by participants. The findings from this study suggest improved vascular tone following daily consumption of PM and inclusion in the diet could provide a rich and valuable source of anthocyanins.
1Food Technology Departement, Faculty of Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia
2Biomedical Departement, Medical Faculty Andalas University, Indonesia
3Nursing Faculty, Andalas University, Indonesia
4Agroecotechnology Departement, Agriculture Faculty, Andalas University, Indonesia
5Nutrition Departement, Medical Faculty Andalas University, Indonesia
6Beneficial Microbes Consultancy, Wageningen, The Netherlands
7Maastricht University – campus Venlo, Healthy Eating & Food Innovation, Venlo, The Netherlands
Minangkabau ethnic people have particular dietary patterns with higher fat intake as compared to other ethnic groups in Indonesia. Fifty one teenager girls (aged 12- 15 years) were recruited from four regencies in West Sumatera and divided into two groups: obese (n= 26) and non-obese (n=25), and their stools were assessed by NGS for the profile of gut micro biota. In obese teenagers, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio tended to be higher, Prevotella (Bacteroidetes) and Mitsuokella (Firmicutes) were significantly higher, (p=0.049) and (p=0.048), respectively, while Proteobacteria was significantly lower (p=0.045) as compared to non obese teenager girls, with Enterobacteriaceae and Klebsiella as predominant bacteria.
Prevotella was the predominant genera in Bacteroidetes phylum, whereas Ruminococceae and Feacallibacterium were the most dominant genera in Firmicutes phylum.
Keywords: Gut micro biota, NGS, obese, non obese, teenager girls, Minangkabau ethnic
National Institute of Health and Medical Research, France
Background/Objectives: Altered energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of obesity-related myocardial damage. The adiposity-derived peptide apelin has a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis and may contribute to the link between obesity, energy metabolism and cardiac function. Here we investigate the role of apelin in the transition from metabolic adaptation to maladaptation of the heart in obese state.
Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J, apelin knock-out (KO) or wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. To induce heart failure, mice were subjected to pressure overload after 18 weeks of HFD. Long-term effects of apelin on fatty acid (FA) oxidation, glucose metabolism, cardiac function and mitochondrial changes were evaluated in HFD-fed mice after 4 weeks of pressure overload. Cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed mice were isolated for analysis of metabolic responses.
Results: In HFD-fed mice, pressure overload-induced transition from hypertrophy to heart failure is associated with reduced FA utilization (P<0.05), accelerated glucose oxidation (P<0.05) and mitochondrial damage. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with apelin for 4 weeks prevented pressure overload-induced decline in FA metabolism (P<0.05) and mitochondrial defects. Furthermore, apelin treatment lowered fasting plasma glucose (P<0.01), improved glucose tolerance (P<0.05) and preserved cardiac function (P<0.05) in HFD-fed mice subjected to pressure overload. In apelin KO HFD-fed mice, spontaneous cardiac dysfunction is associated with reduced FA oxidation (P<0.001) and increased glucose oxidation (P<0.05). In isolated cardiomyocytes, apelin stimulated FA oxidation in a dose-dependent manner and this effect was prevented by small interfering RNA sirtuin 3 knockdown.
Conclusions: These data suggest that obesity-related decline in cardiac function is associated with defective myocardial energy metabolism and mitochondrial abnormalities. Furthermore, our work points for therapeutic potential of apelin to prevent myocardial metabolic abnormalities in heart failure paired with obesity.
Zefat Academic College, Israel
In previous articles[1-2,4], I studied the role of Cortisol, the “stress hormone”, produced to promote transfusion of sugar to the bloodstream in stressful situations, as the cause for Alzheimerʼs Disease, based on the deteriorating effect it has on alpha, beta and gamma secretase, enzymes in charge of the peptide of amyloid beta. I hypothesized that one way to downplay Cortisol secretion is by elevating blood glucose levels in nutrition , but this was challenged by Alzheimerʼs occurrence in Type2 Diabetes Patients. In this 2nd article I hypothesized that Insulin treatment could be the reason for this malice. This based on the logic that the body could be responding to Insulin infusion - the hormone in charge of sugar transfusion from the bloodstream to the body - with elevated Cortisol secretion, because it has impact similar to glucagon, the hormone opposite to Insulin. This proved to possibly be true . I also brought evidence that Glucagon having Cortisol like effect thus possibly be making it redundant could be why GLP1 (Glucagon Like Peptide) has been researched with very good results as AD treatment and that diabetics on noninsulin diabetes medications were shown to be having lower AD occurrence.. In the following paper  I argued that Diabetes type 2 should not be treated with Insulin or at all, but that Diabetesʼ hallmark of sugar in the urine, is the bodyʼs natural way of treating the disease. I concluded the paper by suggesting that medical intervention to diabetes should only be done by advocating Sports or Diet . I later pondered a conclusion that diabetes could be in some ways a behavioral reaction to high Cortisol levels, for the same logic of answering Cortisol secretion with Glucosic nutrition which also proved to possibly have some merit. And when I tried to think what could cure high Cortisol Levels, not by duplication of its role, but by itself, I thought of Folic Acid, for the soothing effect of leaves. and indeed, Several studies show low folate levels and not just high cortisol levels as correlated with Alzheimerʼs.[6-10] This, by the way, could also be true for Cushing Syndrome  and Schizophrenia , where high cortisol levels and low folate levels are evidenced. And could also be true for Diabetics if high Cortisol levels are indeed related to the development of Diabetes [5, 13, 14}
Amos Gelbard, a theology student in the Zefat Academic College “Misticism and Spirituality” program in Zefat, Israel. Has written more than a dozen papers suggesting possible cures and treatments to several key diseases. Been to the “2017 Health Conference” in Oxford, England, where he presented his idea of possibly treating Malaria by excessive water drinking.
Also written about Cancer where he suggested Zinc as a possible treatment; On Aids regarding Castanospermine as an important research target; Regarding Sclerosis possibly being a result of Vitamin D deficiency; Migraine Headaches being potentially prevented by more spicy food in nutrition and of several other illnesses.
Gastrointestinal surgery center, Mansoura University, Egypt
Background: Laparoscopic gastric plication (LGP) is one of the restrictive bariatric procedures. It seemed attractive to both morbidly obese patients and bariatric surgeons due to two main factors; safety and low cost. Moreover, many studies documented its efficacy in terms of weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. This study tests the mid-term outcome of LGP in morbidly obese patients.
Patients and Methods: The data of morbidly obese patients who underwent LGP were analyzed. LGP was offered to obese patients with BMI > 40 kg/m2 or > 35 kg/m2 with one or more comorbidities. Superobese patients (BMI > 60 kg/m2) and those who have previous bariatric surgeries were excluded. The technique of LGP was standardized. After gastric mobilization the stomach was plicated in two rows of extramucosal non-absorbable sutures over 36 Fr calibrating tube. Perioperative and in-hospital data were recorded. Postoperative follow up visits was scheduled at 1, 3, 6, 12 months then annually. Patients were followed for complications, weight loss and resolution/improvement of comorbidities.
Results: Eighty eight consecutive morbidly obese patients had been operated by the standardized technique of LGP between March 2010 and September 2014. There were 19 men and 69 women, with a mean age of 24.2 years and a mean BMI of 38.7 kg/m2 (range 35–51 kg/m2). Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and back pain were reported in 4, 10, 12, 4, 6 patients respectively. There were no significant intraoperative complications and no conversion to laparotomy. The most frequently reported complication was prolonged early postoperative nausea/vomiting and occurred in 5 of 88 (5.7 %) patients and were treated with conservative means. Early leak occurred in 3/88 (3.4%) patients and it was managed by conversion to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in two patients (one of them died of sepsis) and suture repair with undoing plication in the last patient. Postoperative follow-up period ranged from 6 to 42 months with a mean of 25 months. %EWL was 27.2 %, 35.0 %, and 41.1 % at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Weight regain had been reported in 10 (11.4%) patients at a mean follow up period of 9.5 months. It was treated by laparoscopic replication (n=2), conversion to LSG (n=1), laparoscopic minigastric bypass (MGB) (n=1). One of replicated patients had inadequate weight loss and was converted to laparoscopic MGB. Resolution/improvement of comorbidities was documented in 5/36 (13.9%) patients only.
Conclusions: Inadequate weight loss, prolonged hospital stay, inadequate resolution/improvement of comorbidities plus risk of leak forced us to stop LGP. However, more studies on a larger number of patients with longer follow up is required.
Keywords: Laparoscopic gastric plication, bariatric surgery, leak, weight regain, morbid obesity
King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia
Obesity and overweight among children and adolescents is increasing at an alarming rate, which lead to the increase in the incidence of their related co-morbidities. Our objectives are to establish the following: 1) the prevalence of hyperinsulinism among overweight and obese pediatric patients. 2) The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among those with hyperinsulinism. 3) The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among T2DM pediatric patients. A retrospective cross-sectional study conducted on overweight and obese pediatric patients attending the pediatrics diabetes clinic at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from 2006 to 2010. Serum insulin level was measured for 387 patients (ages from 2 to 18 years). Those with hyperinsulinism underwent further investigations to assess the prevalence of T2DM and the prevalence of MS among T2DM patients. The overall prevalence of hyperinsulinism and T2DM were 44.7%, and 9.04%, respectively. Among children and adolescents with T2DM, 62.86% had a body mass index BMI≥85th percentile, 37.14% had a BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 14.29% had MS, 34.29% were hypertensive and 28.57% had dyslipidemia. Obesity and its co-morbidities were prevalent among Saudi pediatric patients. We recommend preventing excessive weight gain through the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, family educational seminars and the reinforcement of indoor exercises.
Abdulmoein Al Agha is a Professor of Pediatrics & Pediatric Endocrinology at King Abdul Aziz University. He received his Fellowship certificate in Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes from Sydney, Australia, 2001. Fellowship of the Royal College of Physician (Edinburg) since 1997, and graduated King Abdul Aziz University Medical School, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1991.
He has many present and past academic and administrative positions including; MRCPCH Overseas examiner and host as well supervisor for Saudi Board Pediatric residency training for western Region since 2001. He is a coordinator, Pediatric Club Western Region, since 2007 to present. He is the chairman of Reproductive Modules “New Faculty Curriculum” from 2009 to present. He was acting Chairman, of Pediatric, KAUH 2006-2007. He is as well, a visiting instructor and teacher, Ibn- Sina Medical School, 2008 to present. He has been invited to be an external examiner for many of Gulf and Arab countries; including Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Egypt for Pediatric under and post graduates as well for Endocrine examinations. He has been invited as speaker for many of local educational programs and conferences as well Gulf, Arab and international conferences. He developed interest in medical education and he had Certificate of medical education-university of Illinois, Chicago, USA 2009. In research he has published more than 40 publications in refereed journals and orally presented more than 60 presentations in international meetings. He has also authored an English textbook of Pediatric Endocrinology and diabetes textbook, and 10 Arabic books. Finally, he is a member of many of Pediatric and Endocrine local and international societies.