Clalit Health Services, Israel
In a recent study the risk of developing future heart failure (HF) among >1.5 million young men was nine times higher in the highest BMI category (≥35 kg/m2) compared with those with normal BMI.
With regards to the WHO estimation that 50% of adults in Europe are overweight or obese, the magnitude of problem is obvious.
Which impact has obesity on the cardiovascular system and what do we know about the direct effects of obesity on the myocardium and developing HF?
In this lecture Iʼll try to show the association between high BMI and developing of HF through the prism of the coronary artery disease and via the direct effects of obesity on the heart, like increasing blood volume with high cardiac output, changes in pressure– volume loop in the left ventricle, etc.
From immunological point of view, the relationship between obesity and HF goes through the inflammatory cascade and the pathological level via cardiac statuses which are a consequence of Obesity, so discussion about recent findings in this field is mandatory.
Obesity is common in HF with preserved ejection fraction as well as with subclinical ventricular dysfunction has been proved recently.
Thus, if obesity is related with preserved EF%HF is a distinct entity of heart failure does is require specific treatment? The traditional three categories of treatment options, drugs, physical activity and surgical treatment will be discussed with emphasis on studies concerning physical activity and bariatric surgery impact on chronic subclinical myocardial damage HF incidence.
Finally, the significance of BNP as prognostic and diagnostic marker in HF, as well as the issue of the “Obesity Paradox” will be discussed.
Eugeny Radzishevsky is a Head of Herat Failure Center, Clalit Health Services, IL. He completed academic Degree MD, 1990-1996 University of Medicine Kharkov, Ukraine. Professional Experience in 1996-2011 Cardiology training, Bnai Zion Medical Center & Faculty of Medicine, Teknion, Haifa, IL In 2011 worked as a Senior Cardiologist, Dept. of Cardiology, Bnai-Zion Medical Center. 2016 He is working as a Faculty of Health Sciences (Lecturer) University of Haifa, Israel.
NutriClaim BV, The Netherlands
The potential role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of various human diseases has attracted massive attention in the last decade. Experiments in animal models have produced evidence for a causal role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of obesity and insulin resistance. However, with a few exceptions, such causal relation is lacking for humans and most publications merely report associations between intestinal microbial composition and metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Dietary recommendations are generally based on epidemiological evidence of an association between a food, food component or diet with the prevalence of a disease. However for microbiome-targeted dietary recommendations, little or no epidemiological evidence is available. In fact, world-wide no microbiome-related dietary recommendations have been proposed.
Nevertheless, diet-induced changes in the microbiota have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and development of diabetes. However, it is as yet an enigma as to which extend the altered microbiota is causally related to insulin resistance and diabetes or whether these changes in the microbiota are secondary to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes, the latter two induced by non-microbiota dependent pathophysiological mechanisms. Thus, the reciprocal relationship between the gut bacteria and these metabolic disorders remains a matter of debate. In addition, and in particular with respect to fiber, the health benefits of its consumption may be conferred even without the apparent involvement of the microbiome.
In particular, e.g. studies into the role of fiber in its capacity to modify the microbiota to confer a health benefit have until now solely relied on measuring the changes in the microbiota at the start and completion of the study. Therefore, changes in the microbiota by itself are not sensitive enough to provide for a causal explanation of the observed metabolic effects. Unless multiple time points are included in the study design, kinetic of changes in the microbiota, combined with simultaneously revealing the kinetics of gene, protein and metabolome expression, applying multiple -omics techniques, microbiome-targeted dietary recommendations will remain elusive
Department of Internal Medicine and Nanomedicine
California Innovations Corporation and Fluorotronics Inc., CA, USA
Hyperlipidemia refers to the excess of lipids in the bloodstream, and is characterized by diverse lipid profiles (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia) that often lead to undesirable health effects such as obesity.
Randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare the effects of Kalonji and Honey with Atorvastatin (Lipitor®) on the lipid profile of a large cohort of hyperlipidemic patients with moderate to severe central obesity.
Sixty male informed consent patients aged from 35 to 65 years (47.40±9.10) were enrolled for a study period of 30 days. They were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group 1 was treated with 2 g of Kalonji seed; Group 2 was given one tablespoon of pure Honey; and Group 3 was treated with 10 mg per morning day of Atorvastatin. Fasting baseline laboratory values at time 0 (i.e. before treatment) were obtained for all parameters (i.e. TC, LDL-c, HDL-c, TGs) on each subject prior to the study start. The plasmatic parameters were then assessed enzymatically at 15 days and 30 days after treatment, normalized with the baseline values, and the end point values submitted to between-group statistical analyses.
Interestingly, all three medicines significantly lowered (p<0.05) TC, LDL-c, and TGs levels. Conversely, any of the three treatments showed significant increase in HDL-c levels. These effects were improved in a time-dependent manner, except for Honey. Globally, after 15 and 30 days of treatment, the best reduction in TC, LDL-c and TGs levels was obtained with Kalonji. However, Atorvastatin was found more effective on HDL-c levels after 15 and 30 days of treatment.
Thus, comparative effects of Kalonji or Honey with Atorvastatin showed relative and time-dependent effectiveness in reducing TC, LDL, TGs and increasing HDL-c, and suggest that these natural medicines could be used to improve the outcome of adult obese patients suffering from hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Obesity; Hyperlipidemia; Kalonji; Honey; Atorvastatin; Alternative and complementary medicine.
Dr. Menaa is an multidisciplinary professional with a holistic concept to solve health issues and biosystems limitations. His strong academic background is completed by many yearsʼ experiences in prestigious organizations. In 2009, Dr. Menaa was promoted to CSO and R&D&I EVP for
Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania
The obesity etiology is complex, involving genetic, environmental, psycho-socio-cultural, neuro-endocrine and metabolic factors. The purpose of my presentation is to concentrate on the effect of technology such as the TVs and computer screens that shape our lives rhythm and bodies harmony. Technology doesnʼt just keep us seated in front of our desks or on sofas, but changes our eating habits, adding more weight than the lack of physical activity alone. For every 10 % increase in information communications technology investment as a share of gross capital formation, the obesity rate climbs 1.4 % on average. At the same time 1 percentage point increase in the number of physically active people can prevent a 0.2 percentage point rise in obesity. The cell phone use was negatively associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in a sample of college students, suggesting that cell phones use disrupt physical activity and encourages sedentary behaviour. Bending the head forward and down in a hunched position over a device for typing or gaming causes a higher pressure in the spine. This pressure increases with every degree of head flexing. A hunch posture compresses the internal organs restricting their function and making the body appear heavier. The cumulative effect of multiple sedentary behaviors reduces total daily energy expenditure, explaining the context in which the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased worldwide in recent decades and continue to rise in an alarming path. The ultimate risk of heavy technology use is that it diminishes empathy by limiting how much people engage with one another, even in the same family or the same room. The use of intelligent phones bright side, which stimulates the people interest for physical activities, can be recording their heart rate, step counts and energy expenditure, among other applications, demonstrating increases in physical activity and fitness level.
Dr. Cristiana Lucretia Pop is Professor at the Bucharest Economic Studies University, Physical Education and Health Department. Her research interests include: overweight and obesity risk assessment, well-being, quality of life, and promoting physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. She is member of Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, member of Romanian Athletic Federation women commission and has research collaboration with Romanian Academy, Anthropological Institute Research Center. She is Senior Editor and Editorial Board Member of several reviews in education, health and sport sciences domain.