Madridge Journal of Food Technology

ISSN: 2577-4182

International Conference on Nutrition, Health and Aging

Sep 26-27, 2018, Frankfurt, Germany
Scientific Session Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2577-4182.a2.002

Evaluation of In Vivo Iron Chelating Activity of Wheat Grass (Triticum aestivum) In Iron-Dextran and NA-STZ Induced Iron Overload Diabetic Model

Komal Chauhan

National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management, India

Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum), belonging to Gramineae (Poaceae) family has been used since ancient times to treat various degenerative diseases viz. cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other morbidities like gastrointestinal disorders, anaemia, skin diseases as well as ageing. Wheat grass is a rich in antioxidants and have high phenolic and flavanoid content. The high bioactive content in wheat grass confers chelating properties thereby rendering protection at molecular level from oxidative insults owing to the increased iron levels. Iron overload has been pointed out as one of the determinants in the etiology of metabolic syndrome resulting in steatosis, insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, resulting in metabolic alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

The study was planned to evaluate the effect of wheat grass (T. aestivum, 100mg/kg) in iron dextran (12.5mg/100g body weight) and nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ) (230mg and 5mg/kg body weight respectively) induced iron overload diabetes in wistar rats (150-200g). The rats were given single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ and six i.p. injections of iron-dextran evenly spaced over a period of 30 days. Glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) and desferroxamine (40 mg/kg, p.o., per day) were used as standard drugs to treat diabetes and iron overload.

Methanolic extracts of T. aestivum showed the presence of flavanoids, phenolic compounds and in-vitro iron chelating activity. A considerable decrease (p≤0.05) was observed in blood glucose lipid- lipoprotein fractions, serum iron and ferritin levels in wheat grass treated groups as compared to the diabetic control and iron dextran treated control group and the levels were near to normal as in animals treated by standard drugs and control group fed on isoenergic normal diet. The increased excretion of iron in urine and faeces illustrate the chelation of iron by wheat grass thereby resulting in reduction in iron overload induced altered glycaemic biomarkers. Furthermore, antioxidative enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GSHPx, GSH) activity increased with concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation and TBARS levels in treatment groups indicating wheat grass besides chelating iron also have a marked effect in reducing oxidative stress. In conclusion, the study suggests that wheat grass possess beneficial effects on iron over load henceforth regulating diabetes and its associated complications.

Dr. Komal Chauhan, Assistant Professor, in the Department of Food Science and Technology, NIFTEM, Sonipat, Haryana, India embarked her teaching career about two decades back. She has published several papers in National and International Journals. She has supervised several students at post graduate and doctorate levels. She has undertaken several research projects sponsored by UNICEF, University Grant Commission (UGC), Department of Science and Technology (DST/ SERB/MoFPI) and Department of Tribal Affairs, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, India. She has a track record of one and a half decade of working in the area of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods and Chronic Diseases.

Ginger Causes Subfertility and Abortifacient in Mice by Targeting both Estrous Cycle and Blastocyst Implantation without Teratogenesis

Azza Ahmed Attia* and Reda H ElMazoudy

Alexandria University, Egypt

Due to renowned medicinal properties, Ginger rhizomes (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) used traditionally in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, muscular aches, constipation, indigestion, hypertension, dementia, fever, and infectious diseases. As an antiemetic, Ginger is consumed by approximately 80% of pregnant women to treat nausea and vomiting of early pregnancy.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of ginger extract on the estrous cycle and implantation in female mice.

Study design and methods: Four experimental episodes were identified. One considered the main study of outcomes and lasted 90 days; one lasted 35 days and considered the estrous cycle; while the third and fourth intended antifertility and abortifacient and continued 20 days for each. Mice dosed Ginger orally at 0, 250, 500, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg bw/day (GNC, GN1, GN2, GN3, GN4, respectively).

Results: GN3 and GN4 dams showed maternal toxicity. High dose significantly reduced the number of live fetuses and increased fetal death and resorption. Mice treated with 2000 mg/kgbw/day displayed significant decreases in implantation sites. At a dose of 2000 mg/kg bw/day, Ginger prolonged the length of estrous cycle with a significant decrease in the duration of diestrous-metestrus (luteal) phase, prolonged pro estrus-estrus (ovulatory) phase and reduced the number of cycles as well. Therefore, Ginger impairs the normal growth of corpus luteum because of progesterone insufficiency during early pregnancy. The observed-adverse effect dose set at 2000 mg/kgbw, but no-observed-adverse-effect dose set at 250 and 500 mg/kgbw.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that Ginger can disrupt the estrous cycle and blastocyst implantation without teratogens.

Keywords: Ginger; Estrous cycle; Implantation; Fertility; Fetus; Resorption.

Dr. Azza Ahmed Attia is currently working as a professor in Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt. She obtained her Degree, Masterʼs and PhD in Alexandria University, Egypt. After completion of her PhD in Alexandria University, she started working as Assistant professor in Zoology department, Faculty of science, Alexandria University. From 2014 she working as professor in the same university.

Nutrition Cloud System for Diseases Prevention, Control and Management

Radwan Qasrawi

Al-Quds University, Palestine

Nutrition is one of the cornerstones of the individualʼs health status. The lack of proper nutrition at various life stages increases the risk of numerous conditions that may affect the quality of life, as well as mortality rates. Chronic diseases are increasing in Palestine and are influenced by the individualʼs dietary habits. Without the availability of the appropriate resources, it is difficult to manage and control their incidence and progression. In order to do so efficiently, one of the suggested tools is a nutrition cloud system, which would also promote healthy behaviours among other benefits relating to incorporating technology into health services. Palestinians lack the availability of such systems; therefore this project aims to develop and implement a comprehensive nutrition information system.

The Palestinian Online Intelligent Nutrition Information System will be based on nutrition data that have been implemented by Al-Quds Nutrition and Health Research Institute (ANAHRI) in collaboration with International universities and agencies such as; The University of Toronto, Tufts University, Emory University, and Johns Hopkins University under the support of USDA and USAID. The data includes 6,800 recipes in total have been analyzed to 83 nutrient values using the USDA database and NutriBase software. These recipes reflect the Palestinian dietary trend, needs, requirements, and preferences. Additionally, it reflects the dietary pattern of countries with similar trends, such as Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, and it also includes dishes from other countries that are commonly consumed in the Palestinian community, such as Egyptian, Saudi, and others.

Generally, the system is based on adding the different caloric and nutritional values and presents an overall pattern for individuals reflecting their 24-hour dietary intake. Therefore, the system provide services including providing the Palestinian population with a comprehensive and interactive tool to monitor individualʼs intake and suggest dietary alternatives and recommendations based on their health and social background and eating behaviors. The vast amount of data that is crucial in various domains allows a large room for future development. The program is planned to be utilized in the following areas:

Nutritional Medical Therapy: The system is able to include a module that is specific for certain nutrition-related conditions, which aim to reduce the progression of the condition and/or control its consequent side effects. This is accomplished through the analysis of assessment information in order to plan an effective course plan.

Food Security and Sustainability: This is one area where there is a large room for innovation. Ideas for progressing this area include providing functions that recommend more different varieties of a nutrient that are more sustainable, as well as information about the environmental footprint of oneʼs diet. This function requires a preliminary market analysis in order to provide a cost plan alongside the diet.

Community and Public Health: Applying technology with nutrition is considered to be an innovative tool in public health interventions targeting certain populations and conditions. This can be studied to further prioritize certain areas of public health in regards to the community.

Dr. Radwan Qasrawi is Director of Al-Quds Business Center for Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship (B-CITE). He is Researcher and lecturer at the department of computer science and information technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dees, Palestine. His research combines computer engineer, public health, and medicine to study and develop ICT solutions at the national and international levels. One of his research areas is the development of predictive and preventive models of cancer diseases diagnosis and treatment. Another area is the intelligent systems designing and implementation for providing areal solution to health problems, such as occupational hazards and exposures, nutrition and food insecurity.

Nutrition, a Future Medicine

Prakash Kondekar

Indian Institute of Naturopathy, India

Research…. Since 1964, after passing Homoeopathy Exam, started using those medicines but not happy with the results, particularly on Hepatoma and Hepatitis hence switched over to Ayurveda.

After Ayurvedic practice for some years, thought why to use even Ayurvedic preparations for treating the patients?

Hence for last more than 26 years using, Naturopathy, a Nutrition based diet for treating the patients and getting good results.

The father of the modern medicine, Hippocrates has rightly said 2500 years before that, Let FOOD BE THY MEDICINE and Medicine be thy Food. Many hundreds of experiments have been performed, to get a solution for the drugs and chemicals for treating the human ailments. Thus Nutrition will play major roll henceforth.

Modern science and Traditional Indian wisdom can be very useful for solving many health issues through Nutrition. This can be useful for maintaining immunity and enhancing it by use of various dosages of vitamins and minerals.

Along with nutrition, Genetic factor also role to play but that does not mean that the person should throw all sensibility to the wind and stuff himself with fat and sugar.

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India came out with slogan to say that reduce Fat, Salt and Sugar from their present intake.

Many times I have seen that, people taking drugs to lower cholesterol and on the other hand eating very oily and spicy non vegetarian foods. Fats can upset the balance of our hormones which are linked to certain types of cancer, particularly breast cancer. On the other hand high fiber diet and prevent colon cancer.

Japanese have virtually no cancer of breast, colon or prostate. And very less heart and artery related problems.

With the proper Nutrition and suitable exercise or Yogasanas a person can live longer life like 80+ and then their heart can work as well as of 20 year young one.

Dr. Prakash Kondekar currently is Director of Indian Institute of Naturopathy, India. He Conducted 18 Workshops-Health Mgmt-UK-USA-Germany, Mauritius, Singapore, UAE, Vietnam, Austria, Italy & India, 465 workshops. He is faculty member of Food Laws, Science, Microbiology departments, Mumbai & Saurashtra University.

Hepatitis C Virus Infection: An Overview

Cristina Stasi1,2*, Caterina Silvestri1 and Fabio Voller1

1Regional Health Agency of Tuscany, Italy
2University of Florence, Italy

Globally, the World Health Organization estimated that 71 million people are chronically infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The HCV transmission has changed considerably, reflecting the evolution of medicine (the cloning of the HCV), the health and social changes. Parenteral exposure is the main way of HCV transmission. Currently, in many countries, routine blood donor screening by nucleic acid amplification testing for the presence of HCV RNA has been introduced. Although the HCV prevalence people who inject drugs exceeds 80% in some countries, the ongoing transmission of HCV is reducing in some countries by harm reduction efforts due to needle and syringe programs and opioid substitution therapy.

In 2014, the WHO published the first guidelines on HCV, which point out how HCV infection takes a different path from other chronic viral infections because currently available therapies allow eradication. Nosocomial or iatrogenic factors, behavioural risk (such as experimentation with injection drug use, unsafe tattooing, and high risk sex) were key contributors to the HCV epidemic in baby boomers (people born between the years 1946 and 1964). Currently, people most at risk for HCV infection are those had blood transfusions, blood products, or organ donations before the 90s, prisoners, health care workers, drug users, infants born to HCV-infected mothers.

The recent introduction of new direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) has completely changed the scenario of HCV treatment, probably because they are able to treat more than 90% of HCV-infected patients. Moreover, the DAA treatment in these populations at higher risk of contracting infection could potentially decrease transmission but much more re-infections.

Therefore, given the high prevalence in these groups of patients, it is conceivable that an anti-HCV screening, with subsequent detection of HCV-RNA in positive subjects could be offered to greatly reduce by anti-viral treatment the HCV infection in the world.

Dr. Cristina Stasi graduated in Medicine and Surgery at the Catholic University of “Sacred Heart” in Rome. In 2006 she specialized in Gastroenterology at the University of Pisa. From 2006 to 2009 she took part in clinical research projects at the “Careggi” University Hospital in Florence. At the same time she improved her knowledge in Study Design, Management of Clinical Research Project, Statistics, and Epidemiology. In 2013 she received her PhD in Experimental and Clinical Medicine from the University of Florence. Currently, she is collaborating with the Regional Health Agency of Tuscany and with the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence on clinical research projects on chronic hepatitis. In 2017 she obtained the National Scientific Qualification to function as Associate Professor of Gastroenterology in Italian Universities. She has published more than 50 papers in reputed international journals and she is serving as an editorial board member of some peer-reviewed journals.

Effect of Dietary Potassium on High Sodium Diets in Salt-Resistant Adults

Shannon L Lennon*, Alexis Mdawke, Katarina Smiljanec, David G Edwards and William B Farquhar

University of Delaware, USA

Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impaired dilation is an important non-traditional risk factor for atherosclerosis. We have shown that high sodium diets, independent of blood pressure (BP), result in endothelial dysfunction in salt-resistant (SR) adults. Potassium is known for its BP lowering properties but its beneficial role on the vasculature alone remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary potassium can offset the deleterious effect of high sodium on vascular function.

Methods: Twenty-two normotensive adults with salt-resistant BP (10M, 12F; 27±1yr) completed 7 days each of the 3 following diets: 120mmol potassium/300mmol sodium (HK/HS); 65mmol potassium/300mmol sodium (MK/HS); and 65mmol potassium/50mmol sodium (MK/LS) in random order (controlled feeding study). SR, defined as ≤5 mmHg change in 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) was assessed on the MK/HS and MK/LS diets. On the last day of each diet, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in response to reactive hyperemia and venous endothelial cells (EC) were assessed for endothelial sodium channel (EnNaC) abundance, a marker of cell stiffness.

Results: 24-hMAP was unchanged between the 3 diets (p>0.05) confirming SR. Sodium excretion was increased on the HS diets compared to LS/MK (p<0.05). FMD was lower on MK/HS (5.1±0.6%) compared to MK/LS (7.6±0.6%; p<0.05) while HK/HS (6.8±0.7%) trended towards improvement compared to MK/HS but was not different from LS/MK (p=.16). Venous ECs showed a 38% decrease in abundance of EnNaC on the HK/HS compared to MK/HS diet.

Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that potassium may provide vascular protection against the deleterious effects of high sodium by improving FMD potentially by reducing endothelial cell stiffness.

Dr. Shannon L Lennon is an Associate Professor at the University of Delaware (USA) in the Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology. Dr. Lennon has a background in nutrition and exercise physiology. Her laboratory, the Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Lab focuses on the role of dietary nutrients on the cardiovascular system in healthy and diseased states. Her lab group uses a variety of techniques to study heart and blood vessel function in humans.

Italian Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil Nutrients: Fatty Acids and Antioxidant

Salvatore Ciano*, G Vinci and M Rapa

Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Industrial hemp is an ancient multi-purpose culture. Its reborn involved consumers, academia and industry attention, due to important sustainability features. It belongs to the Cannabis Sativa L. species known for its psychoactive effects. Some varieties, with tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) content < 0.2%, are allowed for cultivation (EC Reg. No 1673/2000; EC Reg. No 73/2009). From hemp cultivation main products obtainable are: fiber (from the stem) and seeds (from the inflorescences). The seeds are characterized by a good content of macro and micro nutrients, leading to consider this product as an important nutritional and nutraceutical resource. By pressing the seeds itʼs possible to obtain an oil with a characteristic fatty acids composition. A 3:1 ratio in ω3-ω6 fatty acids is considered ideal for human needs, in accordance with the recommendations of the European Food Safety Agency EFSA. Hempseed oil contains linoleic and linolenic acid, otherwise of other oils. Several studies reported health benefits associated with consumption of these fatty acids in cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and types of dermatitis. Hemp seed oil shows excellent oxidative stability, suggesting the presence of phenolic and antioxidant compounds. Natural antioxidants may play a role in reducing the risk of chronic diseases and in containing the oxidative damage to cellular components. In this study different oils are analyzed. Sampling was carried out by considering Italian hempseed oil in different processing of seeds and in different years of cultivation. The determination of the fatty acid profile was carried out with HPLC-UV, after a pre-column derivatization. The antioxidant capacity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. The total phenolic content, indeed, was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagents. Moreover, the multivariate statistical (chemometric) treatment of the data has allowed to characterize the oils on the basis of the original cultivar and the place of cultivation.

Salvatore Ciano pursuing PhD in Commodity Sciences at the Management Department of Sapienza University of Rome. In 2015, he obtained a bachelorʼs degree in Agro-Industrial Biotechnology and in 2017 a masterʼs degree in Science and Technology for the quality and enhancement of agri-food products at Sapienza University of Rome. He works at the commodity laboratory and collaborates with the departmentʼs research team, focused on the characterization of food commodities, their production process and their environmental, economic and social sustainability.

Post Gastrointestinal Surgery, Enteral Feeding When and What?

Abdullah Al Ghamdi

King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia

Traditionally, the post-operative (post-op) management of patients undergoing gastrointestinal (GI) surgery has been to keep them “nil by mouth” and provide gastric decompression by nasogastric tube “NGT” until the post-op ileus resolves and bowel function resumes. However, clinical trials do not support this and showing the early oral feeding is safe and effective, also itʼs the preferred mode of nutrition for surgical patients. Delaying feeding increase the risk of underfeeding during the post-operative course after surgery. Considering that malnutrition and underfeeding are risk factors for post-op complications. The focus of this lecture is to cover nutritional aspects of the Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) and the special nutrition needs of patients undergoing major surgery.

Dr. Abdullah Al Ghamdi was graduated from King Faisal University, AL Khobar Obtained his MBBS in 2006 and completed the General Surgery Residency Training Program at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Al Ahsa from 2007 to 2012. He obtained a Saudi Board in General Surgery in 2012. He completed a Clinical Fellowship in Trauma at the Surgery Department at McMaster University Canada from 2015 to 2016. Upon his return to King Abdulaziz Hospital, Al Ahsa in 2017, he was appointed as Consultant in Trauma and General Surgery Department. He was credentialed as Joint Appointed, Assistant Professor, General Surgery at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, Al Ahsa, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences on April 2017. Likewise, he was appointed as Associate Dean, Academic & Student Affairs at the COAMS-A, KSAU-HS on June 2017.

Oaxacan Indigenous Immigrant Communities in California, USA: Health Needs, Challenges, and Opportunities

Helda Pinzon-Perez

California State University, Fresno, USA

The Central California San Joaquin Valley is a major migration site for Indigenous groups from Oaxaca, Mexico. Currently, they are the fastest growing farmworker group in California. Along with the traditionally found health issues such as intestinal parasitism, iron-deficiency anemia, higher infant mortality rates, and higher rates of infectious diseases, Oaxacan communities are experiencing a new group of emergent chronic diseases such as Diabetes, Hypertension, and Obesity. The public health response to these needs and challenges should include International programs and inter-regional work. This presentation addresses multiple mechanisms for global collaborations as opportunities to respond to the challenges faced by Oaxacan immigrant communities in California.

Dr. Helda Pinzon-Perez is a professor at California State University, Fresno, USA. Her research interests include Indigenous Health, Holistic Health-Alternative Medicine and International Health. She has been a recipient of Fulbright Teaching and Research Awards in the Dominican Republic and in Peru.

Modulation of Cardiac Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and PGC-1α Protein and Gene Expression with Regular Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion of Rats

Ramzi A Al-horani*, Bahaa Al-Trad, SajaHaifawi

Yarmouk University, Jordan

We aimed to examine the oxidative and protective biomarkers responses in cardiac muscles to regular post-exercise cooling. Thirty-five male Spargue-Dawley rats were assigned into post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI; n = 13), exercise only (Ex; n = 12), and untreated control group (Con; n = 10). CWI and Ex were trained on treadmill 5 sessions/week, 30-60 min/session, for 10 weeks. Following each session, CWI rats were immersed in cold water (10 °C) for 15 min. Left ventricle protein content of PGC-1α and VEGF was determined by western blotting, while HSP70 was assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured using colorimetric method. Gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. PGC-1α and SOD mRNA were not changed in CWI or Ex relative to CON (P = 0.28). VEGF mRNA was markedly increased in CWI compared to Ex and CON (P < 0.001), and was similar between CON and Ex (P = 0.9). HSP70 mRNA increased in Ex compared to CON (P 0.002) and CWI (P = 0.02), but was not different between CWI and CON (P = 0.3). Ex and CWI induced higher PGC-1α protein content compared to CON (P < 0.001), and was higher in CWI than Ex (P = 0.01). VEGF protein was elevated in CWI relative to CON (P < 0.001), and Ex (P = 0.008). No VEGF changes were observed in Ex compared to CON. HSP70 protein was increased in CWI and Ex compared to CON (P = 0.02), and was similar in CWI and Ex (P = 0.3). SOD activity and mRNA expression were similar among all groups. These results suggest post-exercise CWI may further enhance cardiac oxidative capacity through increasing the regulating factors of mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, PGC-1α and VEGF. In addition, CWI does not seem to worsen the exercise-induced cardio protection and oxidative stress.

Dr. Ramzi A Al-horani earned his PhD degree in exercise physiology from the University of Alabama in 2015. His research area has been focusing on the environmental effects on cardiovascular responses and cardiac molecular adaptation. He has been involved in swimming coaching and personal training for over than 12 years. He has taught several courses in kinesiology such as exercise physiology, functional anatomy, and athletic training. Also, he has a trend in the public health, where he gives lectures, courses, and presentations in the topics of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in association with exercise.

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Red Korean Cabbages Ethanol Extract on LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells

Jean Kyung Paik1*, Da Won Kim1, Je Hee Jang1, JuYoen Go1, Min Ho Lee1 and Soo In Ryu2

1Eulji University, Republic of Korea
2Eulji Life Science Co. Ltd., Republic of Korea

The red Korean cabbage extracts with high levels of polyphenol compounds has been reported to have anti-oxidative effects. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of red Korean cabbage extracts. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of red Korean cabbage extracts and red Korean cabbage complex extracts on RAW 264.7 cells. Cell toxicity was determined by MTT assay. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of red Korean cabbage extracts and red Korean cabbage complex extracts by measuring nitric oxide(NO), inducible NOS(iNOS) production, β-actin, and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) expression by Western blotting and pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The present results show that red Korean cabbage extracts has potent anti-inflammatory effects on RAW264.7 cells. Two kinds of extracts reduced the expression of NO, iNOS proteins. In addition to, the red Korean cabbage complex extracts also suppressed LPS-induced TNF-a, iNOS COX-2 protein expressions in RAW 264.7 cells. The results suggest that red Korean cabbage complex extracts has an anti–inflammatory effect that is due to the blocking of the expression of the iNOS and COX-2 enzymes and leads to the suppression of the production of NO and TNF-α. Therefore, these results suggest that the Red Korean cabbage might be used as a promising anti-inflammatory agent for inhibition of LPS-induced inflammation.

Dr. Jean Kyung Paik is Assistant Professor in the Department of Food and Nutrition at Eulji University, Republic of Korea. She graduated from the University of Yonsei, Republic of Korea in 2010, and obtained a PhD degree in clinical nutrition sciences. She holds license Certified Dietitian and Clinical dietitian of Korea. She works in health functional food and Anti-Aging (Antioxidants, oxidative stress and inflammation status) and Clinical Nutrition field. Her research interests are Clinical Nutrition for chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome etc.). She has more than 40 publications in international journal in Nutrition, metabolic disease and functional food field.

Clinical Use of Coenzyme Q10 and Selenium Combined Reduces Cardiovascular Mortality: Effects and Mechanisms over a 12 Years Perspective

Urban Alehagen

University of Linköping, Sweden

The trace element Selenium is an essential element for all living cells. As there is low selenium concentration in the European soil, there is a need to give supplements.

Coenzyme Q10 is also needed for a normal cellular function. Selenium and coenzyme Q10 needs presence of each other in order to function optimally.

The endogenous production of coenzyme Q10 decreases as the person becomes older.

We have supplemented 443 healthy elderly persons with selenium and coenzyme Q10 during 4 years in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study, the KiSel-10 study. The result showed a significant reduction in cardiovascular death, increased cardiac function and less production of the cardiac stress biomarker – NT-proBNP.

In further analyses in order to better understand the mechanisms behind the surprising clinical effects we have shown less inflammation, reduced oxidative stress as one of the explanations.

In evaluations using metabolomics we could show significant effects in different metabolic pathways as a result of the intervention.

We have also analyzed the different expressions of microRNA as these are the keys to the protein production in the cell. We could demonstrate highly significant differences in those receiving supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 compared with those on placebo.

We have now more than 12 years of follow-up, and could still demonstrate positive effects of the intervention in terms of reduced risk for cardiovascular mortality.

Finally, we could demonstrate better health related quality-of-life and less health resource costs for the participants on treatment with selenium and coenzyme Q10 compared with those on placebo.

Bottom-line, we have indications that supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 has positive effects for elderly persons, both those with overt heart disease, as well as those without heart disease, as reported in 14 different publications from our group.

Dr. Urban Alehagen is Professor in Cardiology from University of Linköping, Sweden. He is specialist in internal medicine, cardiology and Odontology. During the last 15 years pioneer research of the effect of supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 has been performed. From first demonstrating the clinical positive effects, further research has been performed. Dr. Urbanʼs research group has investigated effects on oxidative stress and on inflammation by the supplementation, and the results are reported and published. Metabolomics studies, protein profile analyses, and micro-RNA influence by the intervention have been performed. And also demonstrated positive effects on the fibrosis tendency in the cardiovascular system as an indicator of aging by the intervention of selenium and coenzyme Q10.

Ameliorative Effect of Egg Shell Membrane on Inflammatory Bowel Disease Delineated By Multi-Omics Approach

Hisanori Kato

The University of Tokyo, Japan

One of the natural byproducts of egg processing is the eggshell membrane (ESM), which is usually discarded as an industrial waste. We have previously reported that dietary intake of ESM counters injury and fibrosis of the liver using a CCl4-induced rat cirrhosis model. Since an anti-inflammatory effect of ESM had been reported we then hypothesized that consumption of ESM powder could prevent inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). ESM attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production and promoted the Caco-2 cell proliferation by up-regulating growth factors in vitro. In mice, IBD was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Consumption of ESM powder significantly suppressed the disease activity index and colon shortening. Such an effect was also observed in a spontaneous IBD model (IL-10 KO mice). These effects were associated with significant ameliorations of gene expressions of inflammatory mediators, intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, restitution-related factors and antimicrobial peptides. Multifaceted integrated omics analyses revealed improved levels of energy metabolismrelated genes, proteins and metabolites. Concomitantly, cecal metagenomic information established an essential role of ESM in improving dysbiosis characterized by increasing the diversity of bacteria and decreasing absolute numbers of pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli, as well as in the regulation of the expansion of Th17 cells by suppressing the overgrowth of segmented filamentous bacteria. Such modulations have functional effects on the host; i.e., repairing the epithelium, regulating energy requirements and eventually alleviating mucosal inflammation. These findings are first insights into ESMʼs modulation of microbiota and IBD suppression, providing new perspectives on the prevention/treatment of IBD.

Dr. Hisanori Kato is a Project Professor of The University of Tokyo. Dr. Kato received his PhD from the University of Tokyo in 1990. He has been at the current position since 2017. Dr. Kato is the Secretary General of Federation of Asian Nutrition Societies (FANS) and is the Chair of the Organizing Committee of the 22nd International Congress of Nutrition (ICN2021). He is also the President-Elect of Asia-Pacific Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics Organization. He is the president of the Japanese Society for Amino Acid Sciences, the vice-president of Japan Society of Nutrition and Food Science, and a member of Science Council of Japan.

Cluster Analysis of Food Consumption Patterns of Palestinian School Children: Macro and Micro Nutrient Analysis

Radwan Qasrawi*, Diala Abu Al Halawa, Rawan Ayyad, Halema Al Sabbah and Ziad Abdeen

Al-Quds University, Palastine

Background: Promoting a healthy diet and lifestyle to reduce the national burden of nutrition related problems among Palestinians requires an understanding of food consumptions trends and patterns. Few studies have examined the food consumption patterns in relation to the macro and micro nutrient intakesand nutrition risk factors.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze and describe the food consumption patterns in the general Palestinian population and their associations with the socioeconomics and risk factors.

Method: A national school survey has been conducted in 2013 to collect information on food consumption, demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and riskfactors among Palestinian school children aged 11-15 years. Respondents from West bank schools were selected from the Ministry of Education school system. A representative random sample of 3470 students was collected. The food intake 24h Recalland the HBSC questionnaires were used to collect the required data. The food intake was entered and analysed using the USDA, Nutribase, and ANAHRI databases. Food consumption patterns were identified using the K-means clustering method, the Multinomial logit (MNL) model cluster and the factor analysis.

Findings: Respondents were classified into three clusters according to the food frequency results: low-consumers, moderate-consumers and high- consumers. These clusters were compared according to participantʼs demographic variables. The clusters indicated that the high consumersʼ cluster had more females, physically active, healthy food consumption and non-obese students. The low-frequency consumersʼ cluster had more male, unhealthy food consumers, non active andobese students. The macro and micro nutrient consumption were segmented into two clusters: The traditional pattern (greater intake of meat, poultry, vegetables and lesser intake of fruits and fat), and the non-traditional pattern (greater intakes of sweet, high sugar beverages, white bread, rice and lesser intakes of vegetables, fruits, cereals and grains). The traditional cluster was associated with healthy, non-obese and physically active students, and the non traditional cluster was associated with unhealthy and obese students, but both were associated with gender, age and family economic status.

Conclusion: Our study shows that consumers can be classified into two major segments based on food groups consumption. The findings indicate the importance of considering the food groups intake variations among Palestinian school children. As the segments relate to children health, nutrition diet programs should consider the high scores of non-traditional food consumption among schools children.

Dr. Radwan Qasrawi is Director of Al-Quds Business Center for Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship (B-CITE). He is Researcher and lecturer at the department of computer science and information technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dees, Palestine. His research combines computer engineer, public health, and medicine to study and develop ICT solutions at the national and international levels. One of his research areas is the development of predictive and preventive models of cancer diseases diagnosis and treatment. Another area is the intelligent systems designing and implementation for providing areal solution to health problems, such as occupational hazards and exposures, nutrition and food insecurity.

The Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Soccer and Futsal Players

Beril Köse* and Esen Yeşil

Baskent University, Turkey

This study was conducted to compare the nutritional status of soccer and futsal players. This study was carried out in a futsal and a soccer club in Ankara who competed at the top of their league during the 2017-2018 seasons. 14 players from futsal club and 14 players from soccer club participated in the study. In order to assess participantsʼ nutritional status, 3-day food consumption and physical activity records were taken on training day, match day and non-training day. Within the same week, fat mass, body mass, percentage of body fat were measured by anthropometric measurements. The mean age of the soccer players is 26.0±4.00 years and the mean age of futsal players is 24.5±4.60 years. The frequency of using nutritional ergogenic aids was found to be 42.9% in soccer players. Nevertheless, none of the futsal players used nutritional ergogenic aids. The mean energy intake of futsal players (3278.6±449.68 kcal) was higher than soccer players (2863.7±190.31 kcal) (p<0.05). There were statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of CHO (%TE), protein (%TE), vegetable protein, animal protein, fat (g), fat (%TE), fiber, vitamin E, tiamin, riboflavin, niasin, vitamin C, vitamin B6, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc (p<0.05). As a result; there were statistically significant differences between the soccer and futsal players according to nutrition status.

Dr. Beril Köse graduated from Baskent University, Nutrition and Dietetic Department at 2009. She obtained Master degree in Hacettepe University at 2013 and PhD degree in Baskent University at 2017 on subject is “Evaluation of Body Composition, Nutrition and Hydration Situations of the Soccer Players in Different Leagues during the Season”. She has been working at Baskent University as an assistant professor. Her interests are advanced nutrition and sports nutrition. Moreover, she is a nutrition consultant for “Gençlerbirliği Sports Club” since 2013. In university, she has been teaching “Sports Nutrition” for 6season. My phD thesisʼ

The Co-Development of a School-Based Nutrition Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Manal Almughamisi*, M OʼKeeffe and S Harding

Kingʼs College London, UK

Background: Childhood obesity is a topical issue in Gulf Countries (GC), but there are no known community intervention evaluations. This study aims to develop a culturally-appropriate, nutrition-focused, school-based intervention for obesity prevention in adolescent females.

Method: A mixed-method approach included a systematic review of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence, dietary assessment of pupils (n=190), school readiness for interventions (n=6), and concept mapping (CM) with stakeholders (n=30) to obtain the perspectives of pupils, teachers, policy makers and parents on priorities and feasible school-based interventions.

Among adults, CM prompts: ‘Factors influencing childhood obesity are…ʼ and ‘A school based programme should consider...ʼ to generate responses that were then sorted by conceptual similarity; and rated for importance and feasibility to change. Photovoiceenhanced CM was used among children.

Result: Childhood/adolescent obesity increased, while overweigh decreased in the 2000s in GC. Survey responses indicated 28% skipped breakfast and 62% did not meet fruit and vegetable intake recommendations. CM clusters revealed concordant perspectives across stakeholders, which signalled the importance of family and school environments, and the Ministry of Education (MoE) in driving change. Several changes were perceived as important and feasible, including improving access to healthy foods in the canteen, promoting regular meals and less eating away from home.

Conclusion: Childhood obesity is increasing in GC. The correspondent perspectives across stakeholders signal the feasibility of a partnership between schools and the MoE to deliver a school-based intervention to improve adolescent nutrition. Collaborative development of the intervention content and mode of delivery is in progress.

Manal Almughamisi graduated from king Abud -AL Aziz University in BSc in Nutrition and Food science, He successfully completed the MSc degree in clinical and public health nutrition at UCL in London. He worked at King Fahd hospital, Saudi Arabia, There; he had obtained a certificate for Diet Technician for 2 years. He had been working as an Assistant Lecturer in Taibah University, Saudi Arabia. Currently he is in scholarship to do his master and PhD degrees in the UK. He is interested to read more in his field Nutrition and public health.

Effects of Nutrition Education on Nutrition Knowledge Levels of National Triathletes

Esen Yeşil*, Beril Köse, Merve Özdemir and Gizem Asırlı

Baskent University, Turkey

The aim of study was to determine effect of nutrition education on nutrition knowledge levels of national triathletes. The study was carried out 18 triathletes at June 2018. Firstly, each participant was interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain demographic information and nutrition knowledge status. Participants interviewed face-to-face at their leisure time. Nutrition education was provided for healthy nutrition recommendations for athletes. The questionnaire was repeated at the beginning of the study after two weeks. The responses to each nutrition question were scored 0 point or 1 point to determine the level of nutrition knowledge. A total of 18 athletes participated in the young national triathlon branch. The mean age of the athletes were 17.5 ± 1.65 years; 77.8% of them were under 18 years old, 4% of them were over 18 years old. The mean years of licensed athletes were 7.17 ± 2.50 years ; it has seen that the mean of their playing sports was 9.17 ± 3.09 years. The athletesʼ nutritional knowledge level scores mean were found to be 22.9±2.62 in pre-nutrition education; 27.6±1.71 post-nutrition eduction. There was statistically significant difference in mean of pre-education and post-education nutritional knowledge level score between genders (p<0.05). When the nutrition education was grouped according to educated by a dietitian, the difference in the mean of pre-education and post-education was found statistically significant (p<0.05). As a result; the nutrition knowledge level is an important issue for sport performance and there is educational necessary for them.

Dr. Esen Yeşil graduated from Baskent University, Nutrition and Dietetic Department at 2009. She obtained Master degree in Hacettepe University at 2012 and PhD degree in Baskent University at 2016 on subject “Effect Of Weight Loss Diets On Some Biochemical Parameters And Anthropometric Measurements In Prolactinomas Patients”. She had been working at Baskent University as a lecturer. Her research interests are nutrition education, obesity and nutrition science. In university, She has been teaching “Nutrition Education And Counseling” for 4 season.

Heat Stress in Dairy Cows: Causes, Consequences and Possible Solutions

Éva Cenkvári

University of Veterinary Medicine, Hungary

High temperatures and humidity put stress on dairy cows. Dairy cows suffer from heat stress at lower temperatures than humans. If a dairy producer is starting to feel the heat and humidity, then the milking cow is already under stress. According to the Temperature Humidity Index for Dairy Cows if the temperature is 35°C and the humidity is 75% humidity the cow is under “severe” stress. Water intake increases significantly, and higher producing cows may require as much as 50% more water when the temperature humidity index (THI) is ca. 29°C and 65% relative humidity.

Research shows that cows spend about six hours a day eating, but only five to ten minutes drinking. Because cows drink mainly after being milked and when fresh feed is offered, water systems must be designed to fit this drinking pattern, so water can be delivered to each drinking location at a flow rate to keep up with peak demand. The water should be fresh, clean and free of contaminants as water quality affects consumption. Cows prefer to drink water with a temperature around 21- 30°C rather than cold water (4°-15°C). Reformulate the diet if dry matter intake declines. Work with a dairy nutritionist to prepare a ration calculated for cows under heat stress to minimize a drop-in milk production. Do not overfeed highly degradable protein (65% or greater) as this increases the heat increment and requires more heat to be dissipated from the animal. Add extra water to the TMR, silage or haylage if dry matter intake (DMI) drops seriously. This sometimes will increase DMI appreciably.

Preparations for hot and humid weather should minimize the potential for cows to experience heat stress. Cow comfort should be a priority. Access to cool, clean drinking water should be the priority.

Dr. Éva Cenkvári obtained PhD at Pannon University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition, Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary and Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary, 1991. She completed M.Sc. at Pannon University of Agricultural Sciences, Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary, 1986 University of Reading, Department of Agricultural Economics, Management and Marketing, Reading, United Kingdom, 1993. From 1986-1991, she worked as research fellow in Department of Animal Nutrition, Pannon University of Agricultural Sciences, Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary. From 1991-1998, Cenkvári worked as senior research fellow in Department of Animal Nutrition, Pannon University of Agriculture Sciences, Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary. Since 2000 she is senior research fellow at Department of Animal Breeding, Animal Nutrition and Laboratory Animal Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Links between Food Intake, Physical Activity and Obesity in Increasing Academic Performance among Palestinian School Children

Diala Abu Al Halawa*, Rawan Ayyad, Halema Al Sabbah, Ziad Abdeen and Radwan Qasrawi

Al-Quds University, Palastine

Background: The effect of nutrition and health on academic performance has been approved by many research studies. Good health, nutrition and physical activity improves cognitive functions among students and lead to a better academic performance. There is a strong association between nutrition, physical activity and physical health in increasing the academic performance.

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of nutrition, physical activity, and obesity on the academic performance of schoolchildren in Palestine.

Method: A national school survey has been conducted in 2013 to collect food consumption, demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and risk factors among Palestinian schoolchildren aged 11-15 years. Respondents from West bank schools were selected from the Ministry of Education school system. A representative random sample of 3470 students was collected. A quantitative tool that includes demographic variables, physical activity, food consumption 24H recall and the anthropometric measurements was used to collect data from the schoolsʼ sample. In addition, the studentsʼ grades were obtained from the schoolsʼ system under the supervision of the Ministry of Education.

Findings: Results showed a strong significant association between academic performance and nutrition, physical activity levels and obesity. Students who consumed higher healthy food (fruits, vegetables and milk) reported higher grades than the unhealthy consumers in arts and sciences with a maximum deviation of 5.7%, 5.2%, respectively. Students with nutrient intake less than RDA standard and non physically active scored lower grades in math and science with percentage deviation of 2.1%, 1.9%, respectively. Overall, students with good nutrition intake, physically active and are non-obese reported better school achievement in science and technology.

Conclusion: Healthy food consumers and physically active students scored better academic grades. Thus, results from our study approved the relationship between studentsʼ health status (food consumption and physical activity) and the academic achievement. Findings emphasize the importance of linking the food intake, school physical activities and health policies for improving cognitive functions and academic performance of Palestinian schoolchildren.

Diala Abu Al-Halawa is a medical student in the faculty of Medicine at Al-Quds University. She joined the biomedical and technology research group two years ago. She is working as research assistant on the artificial intelligent nutrition and health related problems prevention and management project, and on cancer detection and treatment planning research project. Her interests are focused on the medical and technology research to solve medical problems. In particular she is working on the role of artificial intelligent technology on prevention and management of medical diseases such as nutrition health related problems and cancer.