1Sunchon National University, Korea
2Jeonju University, Korea
Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and a precursor of several bioactive compounds. However, high dietary cholesterol has been known to increase the risk of diseases such as obesity and hypertension. Recently, in Korea, eating-outpopulation has been increasing. In this study, the cholesterol contents of restaurant and home meals for 22 Korean key menu were analyzed and compared. First, Korea was geographically divided into six regions (capital city, east, west, southeast, southwest, and middle) and restaurant menu (10 rice dishes and 12 soup/stew) were collected nationwide (total 1584 =22 menu*12 restaurants/region*6 regions). Next, home meals were prepared according to the national standard recipes for the 22 menu. Each sample was homogenized and analyzed for cholesterol by saponification, derivatization, and GC. The applied analytical method for cholesterol showed excellent accuracy (99.7% recovery) and precision (cvs: 1.22% repeatability and 1.93% reproducibility). The cholesterol content highly varied depending on menu and sampling regions. Home meal showed the cholesterol levels of 2.8~46.0 mg/100 g for rice dishes and 2.5~31.5 mg/100 g for soup/stew. The mean cholesterol contents of restaurant foods representing six regions ranged from 1.4 to 40.3 and 4.1 to 39.4 mg/100 g for rice dishes and soup/stew, respectively. The overall mean of cholesterol content was higher in home meal than restaurant food for rice dishes while it was lower in home meal than restaurant food for soup/stew. Results show that dietary cholesterol intake from 22 Korean key foods is much less than the daily reference intake of cholesterol (300 mg).
Su-Jin Park completed her bachelor and masters degree at the department of food science and technology. And she worked as a researcher at Gurye Wildflower Institute in Korea. At present she is working as a researcher in the department of food science and technology at Sunchon National University, Korea.
Sunchon National University, Korea
Vitamin A plays a role in immune function, vision, reproduction, growth and epithelial cell integrity. Recently, population in insufficient vitamin A intake is steadily increasing in Korea, which is partially due to a low-fat diet aimed to control weight. In order to profile national vitamin A data for restaurant and processed foods in Korean key foods, a comprehensive vitamin A analysis project began according to a statistical sampling and national analysis system designed by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). Restaurant foods were collected nationwide from six regions of Korea and processed foods were purchased from local markets (54 rice dishes, 98 stew, 20 kimchi, and 131 side dishes). Retinol and β-carotene were analyzed simultaneously by using saponification coupled with HPLC-UV (325 nm for retinol and 452 nm for β-carotene). Restaurant and processed foods showed large variations in retinol and β-carotene contents (mg/100 g): 0.0~925.4 and 0.0~168.7 for rice dishes, 0.0~1495.8 and 0.0~427.1 for stew, 0.0~6375.2 and 0.0~163.0 for side dishes, and 28.8~3138.4 and 0.0~18.0 for kimchi, respectively. Overall, β-carotene content was much higher than retinol, especially in side dishes and kimchi due to use of red pepper and sesame oil. Recovery more than 95% was obtained for simultaneous analysis of retinol and β-carotene, indicating good accuracy. All CV values of the applied method were less than 5%, showing good precision. Analytical quality control charts plotted for 7-years study showed that all assay were under the control. This study provides reliable retinol and β-carotene data for Korean key foods.
Jiyeon chun is presently working as a professor in the department of food science and technology at Sunchon National University, Korea. As well as she the Editor-in-chief at Editorial board of KOMYRA. Jiyeon Chun is also one of the Committee member in the Eco-friendly agriculture development board.
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia
2Tartu Laboratory, Estonia
3National Institute for Health Development, Estonia
4University of Oslo, Norway
Tdhis study examined the intake of nitrite among Estonian children by consumption of processed meat products and drinking water. Daily intake estimations were based on the food consumption data from the Estonian National Dietary Survey. In addition, nitrite/nitrate concentrations of the meat and processed meat products were determined by laboratory analyses to estimate nitrite intake. The mean intake of nitrite among 1087 studied children was 0.015 and 0.016 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively among children in age 12–35 months and 3–10 years. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.07 mg nitrite kg-1 body weight day-1 was exceeded among 34 children (3.1%). The prevalence was higher in the youngest age group (4.1% of boys and 4.7% of) than in the oldest age group (3.8% of boys and 1.7% of girls). Nevertheless, statistical analysis did not show significant differences among different age groups and genders, respectively p=0,157 and p=0,179 in logistic regression. Considering the consumption of processed meat and drinking water the mean nitrite intake in the age groups of 12–35 months and 3–10 years were respectively 21.9% and 22.9% from ADI value. Presuming that the food consumption data is representative, we can state that among the total population of the age group 12 months to 10 years the exceeding of the ADI value was 3.13% (95% CI; 2.18–4.34).
Andres Elias Master`s degree in Dairy Technology in Estonian University of Life Sciences. Andres doctoral thesis is involved with chemical and biological hazards in food products. Heading of Andres thesis is – “Acrylamide and nitrite content in selected foods and dietary intake by Estonian children”.
Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania
Plums, through their rich content in phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonols and resveratrol) and fibers, are a natural source of biocompounds with antioxidant properties that have many applications in the pharmaceutical or food industry, medicine and cosmetics. The fruits of Prunus domestica ssp. insititia (Damson cultivar) were purchased from the local market, washed and cut into small cubes. The vegetal matrix was used in a fresh, dry form or as lyophilized powder. A 1012 CFU/g inoculum of an overnight Lactobacillus brevis 16GAL was scattered across the vegetal tissue. For all the obtained products the viability of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was evaluated by cultural methods over a period of 30 days. Total phenolic content of the plum extracts was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric. The antioxidant activity was assessed based on the DPPH method. The polyphenols yield varied between 18.93 ± 2.3 mg GAE/100 g DW. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of 91.53% was correlated to the phenolic compounds content and the lactic acid bacteria viability in regards to the proposed assortments. After 30 days of refrigeration, the total number of Lb. Brevis was 109 CFU/g in fresh plums, 107 CFU/g in both dried plums and in the powder supplement. The comparative confocal analysis of the samples was performed in order to capture the structural, textural and compositional changes of the experimental variants. Functional food supplements as ready-to-eat single dosage, based on plums enriched with lactic acid bacteria were designed, for optimal nutrition and health well-being or that could correct some digestive diseases.
Barbu Vasilica graduated in 1991 the Faculty of Biology in the University of Bucharest. Since 2003 she is holder in Faculty of Food Science and Engineering (Dunarea de Jos University of Galati) for disciplines: cellular biology, genetic engineering, biotechnology of cell and tissues cultures, environmental monitoring and phytosanitary control. Associate Professor since 2009.5 books as author/coauthor, 36 papers published in ISI or DBI journals, over 29 studies published full or summary in the proceedings of international scientific events,12 research and innovation projects. Silver Medal at the International Exhibition of Inventions in Geneva, in 2014 for Patent Number RO126627-A0.
Universität Hohenheim, Germany
Dehydration of dices of white-flesh and yellow-flesh cassava varieties from high to intermediate water activity was conducted using osmotic solutions of salt, sugar, and salt-sugar at different temperatures (30-60°C), and concentrations (10-70°Brix) Kinetics of water loss (WL) and solids gain (SG) was observed by fitting data to four osmotic dehydration (OD) models (Page, Weibull, Azuara, and Peleg). The best conditions selected for OD, judged by highest WL and WL/SG ratio, was obtained by using 70 °Brix salt-sugar solution at 45°C, where estimated WL was 0.5220 g/g and 0.7197 g/g, estimated SG was 0.2934 g/g and 0.2778 g/g, and WL/SG ratio was 1.779 and 2.591, for white-flesh and yellow-flesh cassava, respectively. Estimated WL, SG, and WL/SG ratio increased with concentration of salt-sugar solution, but varied with temperature. Multiple linear regression equations of high R2 (0.6368-0.9988) and adjusted R2 (0.5642-0.9979), and low MAPE (0.67-11.49%) were derived to estimate WL and SG. Over 300-minute OD process at selected conditions, water activity (aw) at 23°C, 34°C and 45°C reduced from 0.94 to 0.75, 0.98 to 0.78, and 0.99 to 0.78, respectively, for white-flesh cassava; whereas aw reduced from 0.96 to 0.74, 0.98 to 0.76 and 0.99 to 0.78, respectively, for yellow-flesh cassava. Sorption isotherm models were also used to fit moisture sorption data and to explain aw-moisture content relationships during OD. Net isosteric heat of desorption data were calculated. The surface colour lightness, L*, and whiteness, W, reduced significantly, while yellowness, b*, increased significantly for white cassava at selected OD conditions. Preliminary results also revealed OD and subsequent drying significantly reduced total cyanogenic glucosides (assayed as total HCN equivalents). Shrinkage of yellow-flesh cassava was more than for white-flesh cassava, as also observed from scanning electron images. Osmotic dehydration may be useful for reducing water activity of cassava prior to drying.
Keywords: Cassava dice, Diffusivity, Moisture ratio, Osmotic dehydration, Water activity
Oluwatoyin Ayetigbo is working as a junior researcher in the Universität Hohenheim, Germany. His main specialization in the Agricultural engineering and basically his researches and publications are on the Agricultural Engineering in the tropics and sub tropics.
University of Kashmir Hazratbal Srinagar-Jammu & Kashmir, India
The utilization of soybean milk with skim cow milk in manufacturing yoghurt and quality evaluation during storage was investigated. Two samples of soy-yoghurt namely sample a (100% soymilk) and sample b (1:1 soymilk: skim cow milk) were prepared and were stored at refrigeration temperature (7±2°C) followed by analysis for physico-chemical properties for 20 days at 5 days interval. The type of milk significantly (p≤0.05) affected the ph-values of the soy-yogurt. Sample a showed higher values of ph than sample b throughout the storage period. Storage period significantly (p≤0.05) affected the ph-values of soy-yogurt samples. The highest ph-value for sample a (4.70) was obtained at the beginning of the storage period, whereas the lowest (4.20) at the end. Similarly the highest ph-value for sample b (4.30) was obtained at the beginning of the storage period, whereas the lowest (3.10) was obtained at the end. The type of milk significantly (p≤0.05) affected titratable acidity of soy-yogurt samples. Sample b was recorded as having the higher values of acidity than sample through out the storage period. Storage period significantly (p≤0.05) affected titratable acidity of soy-yogurt samples. Sample a showed higher values of wheying off (ml) than sample b throughout the storage period. Storage period significantly (p≤0.05) affected wheying off of soy-yogurt samples. The highest value of wheying off for sample a (3.10 ml) was obtained at the end of the storage period, whereas the lowest (0.50 ml) at the beginning. Similar observations for wheying off were reported for sample
Keywords: Soy yoghurt, skim cow milk, storage, analysis, ph, acidity, wheying off
Dr. Hilal Ahmad Punoo was born in 1978 at grandmotherʼs house at District Pulwama which is known as Milk town of Jammu and Kashmir. He did his B. Sc Agriculture at Narain College Shikohabad, U.P. in 2000. He did his M. Sc Dairy Science from Raja Balwant Singh College Agra, U. P. in 2003. He did his Ph.D in Dairy Technology from National Dairy Research Institute Karnal-INDIA in 2009. He has been appointed as Assistant Professor at University of Kashmir Srinagar-J&K in 2010 at Food Technology Department. He is involved in teaching and research work. His research area includes dairy foods, functional dairy foods etc.
1University of Hohenheim, Germany
2University of Ibadan, Nigeria
3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Tanzania
Phytochemicals like phenols, carotenoids, tocopherols present in plants are strong antioxidants that play vital roles in the health care system. The economic value of cassava can be enhanced by incorporating the utilization of all the different parts through a complete reduction, recycling and reuse of the by-products. The focus of this study was to investigate the content of total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the yellow cassava peels and stems; and the effect of different particle size using different antioxidant assays. The peels and stems of the yellow cassava variety were collected and total phenolic and antioxidant activities were determined in their methanolic extracts. Average total phenolic yield from the extracts were 584.52 Gallic acid equivalent (GAE) mg /100 g (peel) and 272.47 GAE mg/100 g (stem) and 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity ranged from 8.08 - 18.93% and 9.43 – 20.77% (Peel; 6hr and 24hr) and -0.20 – 11.35% and 2.34 – 11.34% (Stem, 6hr and 24hr) respectively. The peel and stem extracts measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the antioxidant activities ranging from 102.00 – 169.50 µm TE/g for the peel and 73 – 107.50 µm TE/g for the stem. The findings in this study suggested that the peel and stem particle sizes influenced the extraction of antioxidants; and the samples particle sizes were dependent on the solvent concentration, the incubation time and the different antioxidant assays used. Yellow cassava peels exhibited high antioxidant scavenging activities due to the high phenolic content and the particle size, dilutions and incubation time also had significant impact on the TPC and antioxidant activity and can be considered good source of natural antioxidants.
Keywords: Ferric reducing antioxidant power, Gallic acid equivalent, Antioxidant activity, Yellow cassava, Radical scavenging activity, Total phenolic content.