Madridge Journal of Food Technology

ISSN: 2577-4182

International Conference on Food Science and Bioprocess Technology

November 20-22, 2017, Dubai, UAE
Accepted Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2577-4182.a1.012

Development of Process and Value Added Products from Tropical/Subtropical Fruit - Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L)

A.B. Patil

University of Agricultural Sciences, India

Pomegranate popularly known as elixir of life and fruit of paradise owing to its medicinal / therapeutic values that support healthy diet. Recent medicinal and nutraceutical studies on pomegranate suggested that the antioxidant properties of pomo juice are far outstripped than all the tested fruit juices igniting the international interest in it specifically claiming it as super food. The fruit is suitable for diverse topography in agro climatic conditions of arid and semi arid regions and is in great demand from middle-east countries. In this study, two wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera) like cabernet sauvignon and sauvignon blanc and three pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum) like ganesh, arakta and kesar were selected for wine production and wine analysis. The Biochemical analysis of the so prepared wines was done to know the parameters like pH, titrable acidity, ethonol per cent, volatile acidity, free SO2, total SO2, reducing sugar and phenol content. The study indicated that, wine prepared from ganesh variety was superior over that of kesar and arakta. The sensory evaluation indicated that, the quality of Pomegranate wine was on-par with grape wine. The protocols and process developed for home wine making from pomegranate could be explored for the production on commercial scale and could be used as an alternate fruit for future wine industry. Apart from this, value added products from pomegranate are also developed in lab scale like juice, jelly and anar-rub, anardhana, rind powder, pomegranate vermouth. The protocols and processes were developed for these pomo value added products. These products could be explored for the production on commercial scale. This study was carried out at College of Agriculture, Vijayapura campus, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.

Dr. Ashokraj Bapugouda Patil hails from Vijayapura District of Karnataka in India and was born on 1st of October, 1956. He was awarded B.Sc. (Agri) in 1977, M. Sc. (Agri) in Agriculture Microbiology in 1980 both from UAS Bangalore and Ph.D. in Agriculture (Agriculture Chemistry and Microbiology) from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, St. Petersburg, Russia in 1992 and further obtained Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM) in 2012, Post Graduate Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE) in 2013 and PG diploma in Mass Communication and Journalism in 2014 Karnataka State Open University (KSOU) Mysore, Karnataka, India. To his credit he has published 25 research papers, 78 popular articles, authored 9 books and edited 14 books published by UHS Bagalkot and UAS, Dharwad. He has guided 15 PG Students.

Total Polyphenolic Compounds in Strawberry Pomace were found to be Degraded at Different Storage Conditions

Betul Cilek-Tatar, Gulum Sumnu and Mecit Oztop

Middle East Technical University, Turkey

Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are widely used in food industry for production of juices. This causes production of high amounts of strawberry pomace. It would be beneficial to develop a novel approach in the utilization of these waste materials. Strawberry pomace contains phenolic compounds which decrease the proclivity to several chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Natural phenolic compounds are easily degradable because of their sensitivity to light, oxygen and heat. Therefore, storage conditions of phenolic compound containing fruits affect the polyphenolic content.

The objective of this research was to study the effects of storage conditions on the total polyphenolic content of strawberry pomace. The pomace was kept in three different mediums having different temperatures; namely, fridge (+4 °C), freezer (-18 °C) and deep freezer (-82 °C). The analyses were conducted by Folin-Ciocalteu phenolic method by using ethanol:aceticacid:water (50:8:42 v/v) mixture in order to solve the phenolic compounds found in pomace. As expected, the result of total phenolic content analysis of strawberry pomace was the lowest when stored in fridge as compared to freezer and deep-freezer after waiting 45 days. The results of total phenolic content analysis of strawberry pomace kept in fridge, freezer and deep-freezer were found as 2.41, 6.72 and 7.15 mg GA/g pomace, respectively. The strawberry pomace had 10.61 mg GA/g pomace; therefore the best storage condition is found as deep freezer in order to prevent phenolic loss. For further studies, encapsulation of strawberry pomace could be performed.

B. Cilek Tatar is research/teaching assistant at the Food Engineering Department of Middle East Technical University, Turkey. She received her Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees from the same department in 2010 and 2012. While she was working as a project assistant for her graduate studies, she started working as a research/teaching assistant in 2011. She is particularly interested in improving functionality of foods by increasing their bioactive components. As a Ph.D. candidate, she aims to advance her quantitative skills further, to deepen her understanding of various methods such as double emulsions and magnetic resonance imaging.

Investigation of the Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nigella Sativa Oil on Acrylamide Formation in Cereal Products

Imen Ben Taher1 and Mnasser Hassouna2

1Higher Institute of food industries of Tunis, Tunisia
2Private University of Tunis, Tunisia

Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed by a reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars via Maillard reaction and it was detected in a wide range of cereal products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Nigella sativa oil on the formation of acrylamide in bread. For the lactic acid fermentation, Lactobacillus plantrum was used as a starter at different levels (2%, 4%). As for Nigella sativa oil, it was applied on the surface of dough before baking at the level of 4%. Acrylamide determination was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection. The results showed that both LAB and Nigella sativa oil could effectively reduce the formation of acrylamide. Lactic acid fermentation, as individual factor, had significant effect on acrylamide inhibition depending on the starter concentration in the bread models. A decrease in acrylamide content was found to range from 16.6% to 27.4% for breads containing 2% and 4% of L.plantarum, respectively. Significant effect was also observed when Nigella sativa oil was applied. The results indicate that acrylamide concentration decreased by 28% for bread models added by Nigella sativa oil. The maximum reduction rate (53.01%) was achieved when the addition level of LAB was 4% and the Nigella sativa oil was applied. In the conclusion, both LAB and Nigella sativa oil showed their inhibitory effect on acrylamide formation in bread.

Keywords: acrylamide, bread, liquid chromatography, Nigella sativa oil, Lactobacillus plantarum.

Bioactive Compounds, Therapeutical Properties and Processing of Aloe Vera Gel

Bhupendar S. Khatkar

Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, India

Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, protection against skin damage, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive compounds. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization and preparation of the food products. Aloe vera gel products have been used for internal consumption as a tonic and diversification in its products is on progress.

Processing and Food Applications of Aloe Vera Gel: The industrial processing of aloe vera gel and its products invariably involve unit operations such agitation, filtration, pasteurization, evaporation and drying. Technical and economic feasibility of these industrial processes depends greatly on knowledge of physico-chemical properties and rheological behavior of aloe vera gel. The knowledge of rheological properties of aloe vera gel can be exploited for its functionality in food systems, including textural attributes and mouth feel. As a matter of fact, the polysaccharides found in aloe gel are not stable, especially under conditions such as heat, the presence of acid and enzymatic activities. Processing may cause irreversible modifications to the bioactive polysaccharides components, affecting their original structure which may diminish the proposed physiological and therapeutical properties of these constituents. Thus, preservation of bioactivity and physiological effectively of aloe vera gel constituents is of great concern. Seeing the popularity of aloe vera gel as food supplements there is great potential to process aloe vera gel to its products like juice, concentrate and powder to diversify its food uses. Incorporation of aloe vera gel in already popular food products to impart therapeutic effects is a promising option in food processing sector.

Conclusion: Aloe vera leaf yields two liquids viz. yellow exudates and a colorless gel. The major bioactive compound of yellow exudates is aloin which is credited with pharmaceutical applications. Some researchers have reported acemannan as the main active substance present in the aloe vera gel which is reported to accelerate wound healing, modulate immune function and demonstrates antineoplastic and antiviral effects. Recent studies indicate that aloe vera gel can also be used in the treatment of HIV-AIDS. The aloe vera gel is presently used in many food products such as juice, jam, yoghurt, ice-cream and other formulations for health, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The aloe vera gel has found an extensive application in the cosmetic and toiletry

Prof. Bhupendar Khatkar received his Masterʼs degree in Food Technology from CFTRI, Mysore, India and Ph.D. in Food Science and Technology from the University of Reading, Reading, England. Presently he is Dean Faculty of Bio-Sciences & Technology at G. J. University of Science &Technology, Hisar, India. He is recipient of Lalji Godhoo Smarak Nidhi Award of AFST (India), Commonwealth Scholarship Award, U.K; best paper awards by the AACC, USA; ICFP, Malaysia & AFST (I), Mysore, India. He was nominated to the Research Board of Advisors of American Biographical Institute (ABI), USA and published 4 books, filed three patents and 150 research and review papers.

Stability of Bioactive Non-Nutrient Resource from Olive Leaf Waste: Ph Influence

Elaf Abdelillah Ali Elhussein and Selin Şahin

Istanbul University, Turkey

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is the member of Oleaceae family, which characterized an evergreen and an important source of polyphenol compounds. Furthermore, the highest polyphenol contents were determined in olive leaves when compared with the other parts of the tree or olive fruit. In addition, olive leaves are evergreen and easily available in all seasons as by-products of olive tree cultivation and olive oil mills [1]. Oleuropein is considered as a main appearing active compound in olive leaves extracts. oleuropein have a wide variety of physiological properties, such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiallergenic, antimicrobial, anticancer, platelet aggregation inhibit and cardioprotective [2]. In general, the polyphenol extracts have the specific range of pH values. The decreasing or increasing over these values may cause degradation of polyphenol contents resulting from occurred hydrolysis and oxidation reactions [3]. Microwave-assisted Extraction method was used to prepare all the ethanolic extracts of olive leaves with the different pH (4, 7, and 10). At regular time intervals, the total polyphenol contents, antioxidant activities and oleuropein amounts were determined.


1. Şahin, S (2015) A Novel Technology for Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Mandarin (Citrus Deliciosa Tenore) Leaves: Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 32: 950–57.
2. Amro B, Aburjai T, Al-Khalil S (2002) Antioxidative and Radical Scavenging Effects of Olive Cake Extract. Fitoterapia 73: 456–461.
3. Friedman M, Ju HS (2000) Effect of pH on the Stability of Plant Phenolic Compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48: 2101–10.

Elaf Abdelillah Ali Elhussein got a Bachelorʼs degree in chemical engineer (University of Science and Technology, Sudan, 2013). In 2014, she went to Turkey for continue her education journey in Istanbul University. Her interested research area: Food processing by-products, Phytochemical compounds, Separation processes. In 2017, she joined two scientific research projects “Investigation of Stability of Olive Leaf Extractʼs Phenolic Profile” through PAB/İÜ and “Investigation of Graphene Oxide as a Highly Selective Adsorbent for the Recovery of Biophenols Rich in Hydroxytyrosol from Olive Mill Wastewaters: Equilibrium and Kinetic Models” through TÜBİTAK. She also participated in 12 international conferences in Turkey and Italy. Currently, she is developing the thesis approach with her supervisor Assoc. Prof. Selin Şahin.

Storage Conditions of Olive Leaf Extract: Effect on Oleuropein Stability

Elaf Abdelillah Ali Elhussein and Selin Şahin

Istanbul University, Turkey

Olive leaf is considered as a rich source in photochemical compounds such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin-O-7-glucoside, apigenin-O-7-glucoside, gallic acid, rutein and ligstroside [1]. These compounds have pharmacologic and health-promoting properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiarrhythmic, antiallergic, analgesic, antimicrobial and anticancer. Phytochemical components are too sensitive to the surrounding conditions like light, temperature, and humidity. These parameters must be taken into consideration in packaging and storage operations of pharmaceuticals [2,3]. In the current study, we investigated the effect of light on the concentration of the total /individual phenolic contents and antioxidant activities for olive leaves ethanolic extracts. The decreasing in the concentration of phenolic contents in extracts of natural products was indicated by the decreasing in the ability to inhibit the activity of free radicals of DPPH solution. The examined appropriate parameters of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) method were applied to prepare ethanolic extracts.


1. Sumbul S, Ahmad MA, Asif M, Akhtar M (2011) Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer : An overview. Food Chemistry 3: 361–368.
2. Stamatopoulos K, Katsoyannos E, Chatzilazarou A (2014) Antioxidant Activity and Thermal Stability of Oleuropein and Related Phenolic Compounds of Olive Leaf Extract after Separation and Concentration by Salting-Out-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction. Antioxidants 80: 229–244.
3. Longo E, Morozova K, Scampicchio M (2017). Effect of light irradiation on the antioxidant stability of oleuropein. Food Chemistry 237: 91–97.

Elaf Abdelillah Ali Elhussein got a Bachelorʼs degree in chemical engineer (University of Science and Technology, Sudan, 2013). In 2014, she went to Turkey for continue her education journey in Istanbul University. Her interested research area: Food processing by-products, Phytochemical compounds, Separation processes. In 2017, she joined two scientific research projects “Investigation of Stability of Olive Leaf Extractʼs Phenolic Profile” through PAB/İÜ and “Investigation of Graphene Oxide as a Highly Selective Adsorbent for the Recovery of Biophenols Rich in Hydroxytyrosol from Olive Mill Wastewaters: Equilibrium and Kinetic Models” through TÜBİTAK. She also participated in 12 international conferences in Turkey and Italy. Currently, she is developing the thesis approach with her supervisor Assoc. Prof. Selin Şahin.

Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Yogurt Processed from Cowʼs Milk and Soymilk alone and in Combination

Amrouche Tahar, Baileche Neila and Assous Samira

M. Mammeri University, Algeria

Consumption of fermented soymilk was reported to be beneficial to human intestinal health. Fermented soymilk, unlike fermented milk or yogurt drinks, contains no lactose or cholesterol. In addition, soy protein was found to have a greater antioxidative ability in preventing lipid oxidation, compared to casein. In this study, yogurt was processed by inoculation of cowʼs milk and soymilk used alone and in combination (ratio 1/1 v/v) with freeze-dried culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Three samples from each processed yogurt were evaluated for physico-chemical and organoleptic properties using a commercial yogurt as control. The pH values of yogurt samples ranged from 4.65±0.03 in cowʼs milk yogurt, 4.60±0.05 in soymilk yogurt, and 4.64± 0.01 in the mix. Soymilk yogurt was low in Dornic acidity (81.66±1°D). Fat and total dry extract were highest in cowʼs milk yogurt: 31±1 g/l and 106.6±0.2 g/l, respectively. There was significant difference (P < 0.05) in the protein content between cowʼs milk yogurt (3.1±0.2 g/l) and soymilk yogurt (3.47±0.01 g/l). Soymilk yogurt and cowʼs milk yogurt and their mix compared favorably well with commercial yogurt in overall acceptability.

Soymilk yogurt alone or in combination with cowʼs milk yogurt can be adopted as substitute to cowʼs milk yogurt especially by the low income earners due to its cheaper raw materials, and as protein supplement at household level. It can also be processed with simple processing technology.

Keywords: Cowʼs milk, soymilk, yogurt, mix, physico-chemical properties, sensory properties

Amrouche has is expertise in evaluation and passion in improving the health and wellbeing of consumers via new food ingredient combination. His experimental model based on new dairy products creates new pathways for improving health combining animal product (cow milk) and plant products (soymilk). He has built this model after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching and administration in industry and education institutions.

Physiochemical and Sensory Properties of Yoghurt made by Culturing Milk from Different Dairy Producers; Buffalypso, Goat and Cow

Dimple Singh-Ackbarali and Rohanie Maharaj

University of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

Physicochemical and sensory attributes of yoghurt produced from buffalypso, goat and cow milk were analyzed. Variation in compositional analysis of fresh milk was different in fat, SNF and lactose, fat was highest for goat milk while SNF and lactose were highest for buffalypso milk (P<0.05). Cow milk had the highest pH and all milks had similar decrease after culturing, the 3 yoghurts also had similar pH (P>0.05). Composition of three yoghurt types was different when compared to the fresh milk especially for protein, SNF and lactose (P<0.05). Viscosity was different for all three yoghurts (P<0.05), highest for cow and lowest for goat. No one of the 3 milk yoghurt was inferior with respect to overall acceptance (P>0.05) or for the four different attributes score on a scale from 1 to 5 (P>0.05). Using descriptive sensory analysis technique, common terms were developedas “goaty,” “creamy,” “fermented,” “cooked,” “sweet,” “salty,” “sour” and “astringent.” Yoghurts made by cow milk had weaker intensitiesof descriptive attributes including sweet, goaty, and sour than thatmade by goat and buffalypso milk. Goat yoghurt was least astringent and creamy and most fermented. However the intensity scores for the four attributes of appearance, aroma, texture and flavour and the hedonic rating for acceptability showed that no one of the 3 milk yoghurtswere inferior with respect to the four different attributes intensity score or for overall acceptance (P>0.05).

Keywords: Buffalypso, goat, cow, attributes, yoghurt

Dr. Maharaj has over twelve years of Industry experience in various capacities as Operations Director, Process Excellence Director, Compliance/Regulatory Director and Quality Assurance Manager prior to joining the University of Trinidad and Tobago (UTT). In 1993, she was awarded the Institute of Food Technologists George F. Stewart International Research Award for her work on the use of Ultraviolet radiation for preservation of horticultural crops. She has published in reputable journals in Food and Agriculture and in the areas of Postharvest Storage Technology of Caribbean crops such as Tomato, Banana, Papaya and Breadfruit. At UTT, she has been employed as an Associate Professor in the Biosciences, Agriculture and Food Technologies (BAFT) unit for the past eight years. She has led the launch of the new B.Sc. degree in Food Science and Technology along with Diploma and Certificate programmes in Food Technology. She has been Programme Leader for the past eight years, been responsible for curriculum development for these programmes including the design and commissioning of a food lab and industrial kitchen to conduct food quality and safety analyses in a variety of products.

Physico Chemical Attributes of Raw Cow Milk Marketed in and Around Namakkal City

Poorani and A. Elango

A. Poorani Arunachalam, Veterinary College and Research Institute, India

A study was conducted to assess the physical and chemical quality of raw milk marketed in and around Namakkal city. A total of 150 samples of raw cowʼs milk was collected in the morning. All the samples were collected using random sampling method. The means for temperature, pH, specific gravity, titratable acidity, fat, SNF, total solids, protein, lactose and ash contents of milk samples analyzed were 29.51 ± 0.75°C, 6.43±0.02, 1.033±0.021, 0.17±0.02, 3.73±0.14%, 8.5±0.71%, 12.57±0.15, 3.89±0.52%, 4.12±0.72% and 0.67±0.12% respectively. Significant differences were found(P<0.05) for the values of temperature, pH, specific gravity, titratable acidity, total solids, fat, SNF, protein, lactose and ash contents of milk samples (local vendors, shops and small scale producers). Therefore, it was concluded that the chemical composition was adequate as compared to the standard level.

Keywords: Physical quality, Chemical quality, raw cow milk, Namakkal city.

Pre and Post Harvest Factors Responsible for Fruit Keeping Quality of Citrus

Akash Sharma, Satish Sharma and Shilpi Sharma

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India

Losses in citrus fruits crop are influenced by pre- and postharvest factors. Preharvest factors include climatic conditions, especially relative humidity, rain, temperature, cultivation practices, tree health, stage of fruit maturity, and fruit type. Post-harvest practices such as harvesting, handling, treatments, packaging, and marketing greatly influence fruit losses. Losses take place at various stages of handling, from harvesting until fruit reaches consumers. Usually higher losses are encountered in mechanically harvested citrus. Physiological disorders are the result of dysfunction or malfunction of the physiological processes of the fruit tissues due to abiotic stresses and are therefore distinct from disorders caused by biotic factors such as disease-causing pathogens and insect-pests. Quality changes in the harvested fruit can be studied from two different angles, namely, postharvest physiology and postharvest pathology. Respiration is the predominant physiological process in harvested fruits. In contrast to most other fruits, citrus fruits are non-climateric and the rateof postharvest respiration is low and does not show a tendency to increase. Detached citrus fruit does not ripen. The rate of respiration is faster at higher temperature. As long as the oxygen supply is adequate, the respiration quotient is close to unity. Respiration can be depressed by decreasing the concentration of oxygen or increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere surrounding the fruit. In essence, this is the technology of “controlled atmosphere.” Another important postharvest change is moisture loss due to transpiration, partially depressed by waxing. Postharvest changes in mechanical properties include softening. Postharvest deterioration of taste and aroma is particularly important in mandarins. Chilling injury is observed most frequently when fruit, previously stored at low temperature for a few weeks, is exposed to ambient temperature. The most common type of chilling injury in citrus is “pitting,” to which grapefruit is particularly susceptible. The most common postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit are fungi and particularly Penicilliumdigitatum and Penicilliumitalicum, known as the green and blue molds, respectively. The most commonly applied fungicides are sodium orthophenylphenate and thiabendazole. Most frequently recommended storage conditions are temperatures of 5–9°C for oranges, 7–12°C for lemons, 9–12°C for grapefruit, 3–9°C for tangerines and mandarins, and 9–12°C for limes, high relative humidity and adequate aeration.

Dr. Akash Sharma is working as Assistant Professor in the Advanced Centre for Horticulture Research of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu (SKUAST-J). His ground-breaking work on the fruit culture has led to new insights. Further, he significantly advanced the knowledge of fruits by the way of Teaching, Research and Extension. Dr. Sharma holds Ph.D. degree in Fruit Science (Horticulture) from SKUAST-Jammu. His research finding have appeared in several national and international peer-reviewed journals and conferences and have sixty four publications, guided five M.Sc. students, released sucking type of mango variety and has delivered more than fifty lectures in different training programme to orchardists and departmental functionaries. He already has a substantial body of work, which promises an outstanding career. His theoretical brilliance and creativity, fierce intellectual courage will inspire the upcoming generations of students. He has emerged as one of our best new researchers and thinkers in the area of Fruit Science. His major area of research includes Fruit production technology under changing climate; he is Principal Investigator of one externally funded project on High density orcharding of mango and guava in Jammu sub-tropics and Co-PI of two projects. Dr. Sharma is associated with several professional societies in the area of Horticulture.

Influence of Wax Coating and Packaging of Citrus Fruits and Products

Akash Sharma, Satish Sharma and Shilpi Sharma

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India

Citrus fruits are the juiciest among all other fruits. Wax Coating on citrus fruit prevents the loss of moisture, which keeps citrus fruits juicy and fresh for long period. Waxing Coating process on Citrus fruit is adopted widely in world. Waxing Coating on Citrus prevents weight loss and maintains freshness & shine. The beneficial effects of waxing or coatings are directly related to gas and water vapor exchange between the fruit and its environment. Currently, there are several coating substances available for commercial use for postharvest pre-storage treatment of fresh fruits. They generally contain shellac, natural waxes or sucrose esters of edible fatty acids as active components incorporated with other materials as well as various polysaccharide-based coatings. Coatings made with shellac and wood resins give little protection against shrinkage. Wax coatings give a low shrinkage rate but also low gloss. In many of these cases, waxed fruit had less spoilage and a lower respiration rate than uncoated samples. The barrier hindered O2 and CO2 diffusion, thus reducing the respiration rate. Another benefit of waxing is retention of firmness. The reduction in spoilage is of such significance that waxing is considered a cost-effective substitute where refrigerated storage is unaffordable. Citrus fruits are packed in sacks, bags, bamboo baskets and wooden boxes for sending to local markets. For urban markets, citrus fruits are packed in telescopic cardboard boxes. Corrugated trays are equally effective as packaging material while transporting the fruits. Use of such trays is cost effective due to its reusability. Proper packaging of a product can reduce not only bruising and crushing, but can also improve marketing of produce, reduce moisture loss, prevent contamination of the product with spoilage organisms, reduce pilferage, maintain a sanitary environment during marketing. The ultimate goal of packaging must lead to easier handling of the produce, a better quality and better marketable product.

Dr. Akash Sharma is working as Assistant Professor in the Advanced Centre for Horticulture Research of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu (SKUAST-J). His ground-breaking work on the fruit culture has led to new insights. Further, he significantly advanced the knowledge of fruits by the way of Teaching, Research and Extension. Dr. Sharma holds Ph.D. degree in Fruit Science (Horticulture) from SKUAST-Jammu. His research finding have appeared in several national and international peer-reviewed journals and conferences and have sixty four publications, guided five MSc students, released sucking type of mango variety and has delivered more than fifty lectures in different training program to orchardists and departmental functionaries. He already has a substantial body of work, which promises an outstanding career. His theoretical brilliance and creativity, fierce intellectual courage will inspire the upcoming generations of students. He has emerged as one of our best new researchers and thinkers in the area of Fruit Science. His major area of research includes Fruit production technology under changing climate; he is Principal Investigator of one externally funded project on High density orcharding of mango and guava in Jammu sub-tropics and Co-PI of two projects. Dr. Sharma is associated with several professional societies in the area of Horticulture.

Studies on Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Citrus Fruit Crops

Akash Sharma, Satish Sharma and Shilpi Sharma

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India

Citrus, the largest genus in the family Rutaceae is widely consumed around the world and has become an inseparable part of human diet. Recent developments in horticultural through improved analytical technology have helped to establish the biochemical parameters analysis of citrus fruit chemical constituents. Characterized by their distinctive flavor, citrus fruitsare good source of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, many vitamins, minerals, and biologically active phytochemicals such as carotenoids and flavonoid, pro-vitamin ‘Aʼ activity and purported antioxidant benefits, respectively. Such nutrient density, the low-fat, low-sodium profiles and associations between citrus fruit intake and prevention of chronic diseases make promotion of citrus consumption important in improved human health. Citrus contains no fat, sodium or cholesterol. Citrus plants synthesize and accumulate in their cells a great variety of phytochemicals including low molecular phenolic hydroxy benzoic and hydroxyl cinnamic acids, acetophenones, terpenoids, flavonoids, stilbenes and condensed tannins. There are about 40 limonoids in citrus with limonin and nomilin being the principal ones. Limonoids possess the ability to inhibit tumor formation by stimulating the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST). Flavonoids are another phytochemicals present in citrus fruits which havestrong inherent ability to modify the bodyʼs reaction to allergens, viruses and carcinogens. They show anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity. Citrus is the main source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), an essential water-soluble vitamin, plays a key role in the formation of collagen, a primary component of much of the connective tissue in the body. It is required for connective metabolism especially the scar tissue, bones and teeth and act as a protector against cold, chills and damp. It is necessary as an anti-stress and Vitamin C prevents muscle fatigue and scurvy that is characterized by skin hemorrhages, bleeding gums, fragile bones, anemia and pains in joints and defects in skeletal calcification. Ascorbic acid also accounts for its requirement for normal wound healing which acts as antioxidants in the skin by scavenging and quenching free radical generated by ultra violet radiation stabilization.

Dr. Akash Sharma is working as Assistant Professor in the Advanced Centre for Horticulture Research of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu (SKUAST-J). His ground-breaking work on the fruit culture has led to new insights. Further, he significantly advanced the knowledge of fruits by the way of Teaching, Research and Extension. Dr. Sharma holds Ph.D. degree in Fruit Science (Horticulture) from SKUAST-Jammu. His research finding have appeared in several national and international peer-reviewed journals and conferences and have sixty four publications, guided five M.Sc. students, released sucking type of mango variety and has delivered more than fifty lectures in different training programme to orchardists and departmental functionaries. He already has a substantial body of work, which promises an outstanding career. His theoretical brilliance and creativity, fierce intellectual courage will inspire the upcoming generations of students. He has emerged as one of our best new researchers and thinkers in the area of Fruit Science. His major area of research includes Fruit production technology under changing climate; he is Principal Investigator of one externally funded project on High density orcharding of mango and guava in Jammu sub-tropics and Co-PI of two projects. Dr. Sharma is associated with several professional societies in the area of Horticulture.

Some Chemical Characteristics of Olive Oil of the Nabali Cultivar Grown In Jordan

Ali Alsaed, Khalid Al-Ismail and Duaa Al-Rawashdeh

The University of Jordan, Jordan

Some of the chemical properties of olive oil of the Nabali olive cultivar grown in Jordan were studied during the season 2015/2016. Thirty olive samples (50 kg each) were taken from the north (14 sample), middle (8 samples) and south (8 samples) districts of Jordan of during the period of 15/10/-15/11/206 of the harvesting stage. The oil from these samples was cold extracted and analyzed for free fatty acids (FFA %), peroxide value (PV), Fatty acid composition, phenolic compounds and sterols. The major fatty acids content pamitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic were around 13%, 66%, 13% and 0.75% respectively. The major sterols content of campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitostero, Δ -5-Avenasterol, Clerosterol and Δ -7-stigmastenol were around 3.3%, 1%, 87%, 4.7%, 1.0%, and 0.17%, respectively. No significant effect of the district on theses parameters. The total phenolic content was in the range of 162-217 mg/kg oil and significant effect was found for the geographical region on this parameter. The major phenolic compound were enolic acid, oleoropin aglycone d, deacetoxyoleuropin aglycon, oleuropin aglycon a, and oleuropin aglycon c. The free fatty acid content indicated that the obtained oils were of extra virgin.

Ali K. Yousif Alsaed is an emeritus university professor in Food Sci. & Technology, has diverse and wide expertise in the field of food processing. Dr. Alsaed has over 40 years of experience in food processing. He worked as a scientific researcher for 14 years in the Iraqi and Saudi Date Palm Research Centers. He has been a member staff in the Nutrition and Food Technology Department in the University of Jordan since 1991 to 2016. Dr. Alsaed had been involved with many applied research topics related to food processing i.e. processing of dates, olive oil, grapes and carob; drying and concentration of whey and its utilization in bread making, food additives, food quality control as well as processing of foods on house-hold scale. Dr Alsaed has about 80 publications in food processing. He has been awarded many prizes in the last 30 years. He holds a Ph.D in food science and technology, University of London.

ORGANIC RICE: Organic Rice: Future Conviction for Food, Environmental and Nutritional Security in Global Perspective

A Ghosh

ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India

Global agriculture, as of today, advances from traditional wisdom to the future conviction of food, nutritional and environmental security. However, alarming proximity of pesticides in particular and agro-chemicals in general emerges as a great concern posing severe threats to the agriculture today. Since recent past, the prospect of organic rice farming has got momentum in cognizance with its considerable demand globally, that constitutes organic food market more than worth $37 billion. The United States emerges as the largest importer of organic foods, followed by the European Union. Hence, a paradigm shift in rice cultivation from conventional farming to organic farming needs to be ascertained for the great cause of humanity and environment too.

Research & Results: The organic rice production technology can primarily constitute efficient crop, bio resource and biocide / botanical management in a cropping system mode. Improved HYV namely Ketakijoha, CR Sugandhadhan 907, etc., while grown under organic nutrient management using green manure, FYM, biofertilizer, and botanical pesticides for plant protection produce comparable grain yield of 3.5 – 4.5 t ha-1. In addition, grain quality parameters would be improved showing higher antioxidant capacity (40.2-98.9%) and higher essential phytochemical namely Falvonoids (4.53 CEt/g) and γ - Oryzanol (0.81 mg/g) compared those of 33.7-98.5%, 3.00 CEt/g and 0.71 mg/g respectively in normally grown rice. The crop productivity could be sustainable while grown in sequence with ground nut in a cropping system mode ensuring environmental and soil health resilience.

Conclusion: There are some inherent constraints inhibiting desirable expansion of organic rice cultivation globally. It includes researches in right perspective and formulation as well as proper execution of government discrete policy. Development of varieties responsive to low input management, organic nutrient management with naturally available bio-resources, formulation of high efficacy low volume botanicals / bio-cides, etc. are some important researchable issues. Locally procurement of organic rice with premium prices, ease of certification of the organic rice, value added organic rice products, organized disposal / sale counter / market are some of the policy issues.

Therefore, in cognizance with the growing demand for organic rice in global market, scientist, policy makers and stakeholders need to congregate for working hand in hand to resolve those problems.

Amal Ghosh has the expertise on organic agriculture with special emphasis on organically grown rice by virtue of his intensive research on rice agronomy under natural resource management since last more than 20 years. In his study, he developed the agro- technology for organic rice production system that could serve the burgeoning need of organic rice globally. However, juxtaposition of researcher and policy maker is essential to promote farmers for adequate production and procurement as per demand.

Stunting and Associated Factors among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Lasta Woreda, North East Ethiopia. A Community Based Cross Sectional Study Design

Atenafu A

University of Gondar, Ethiopia

Background: Stunting refers to low height-for-age as a result of chronic malnutrition. Globally, 165 million under five yearʼs children were stunted annually, which was associated with 10.6 million deaths. Although stunting is increasingly being recognized as a widespread problem, precise data on the magnitude and associated factors of stunting was not available at the study area which was highly influenced by the local geo-cultural factor, custom and context.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and factors associated stunting among children aged 6-59 months in Lasta Woreda, North East Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted from March-April, 2015. A multistage sampling strategy with simple random sampling approach was used with total sample size units of 825. Data were collected Using validated questionnaire through interviewing parents or caregivers and Anthropometric measurement. EPI INFO version 7 software was used for data entry. For Analysis SPSS version 20 statistical software was used. Principal component analysis was applied to compute wealth index. Z-Score of the children were calculated using SMART software (ENA2011). To identify the association and significant predictors, binary logistic regression was employed.

Results: A total of 759 study participants were included in the study giving response rate of 92%. The overall prevalence stunting was 49.7% (95% CI: 46.1-53.3). Among this 57.7%; (95% CI: 50.9-60.4) were male and 42.3% (95% CI: 36.8-47.6) were female. The proportion of moderate and sever stunting among study population was 31.7% and 18.0% respectively. Being male AOR= 1.90; (95% CI; 1.29-2.82), increasing age (AOR = 8.38; (95% CI: 3.78-15.6)), large family size (AOR=1.78; (95% CI; 1.19-2.65)), poor wealth status (AOR = 2.64; (95% CI; 1.58-4.41)), illiterate mother (AOR = 4.02; (95% CI: 2.3-7.04)), leftover food (AOR=1.94; (95% CI: 1.30-2.90)), living in rural area (AOR = 2.08; (95% CI: 1.10-4.19)) and less frequency of feeding (AOR = 2.13; (95% CI: 1.18-3.82)) were significantly associated with stunting.

Conclusion: This study shows that, the prevalence of stunting among children aged 6-59 months in Lasta Woreda is higher as compared to the national figures (MEDHS,2014). Being male, increasing age, large family size, giving leftover food, poor wealth status, and illiterate parents were factors associated with stunting. Urgent, therapeutic and targeted supplementary feeding programs need to be considered for chronically malnourished children in Lasta Woreda to reduce stunting. Factors associated to stunting as identified with this study need to be considered for the intervention plan.

Azeb Atenafu has completed her Bachelorʼs degree in Public Health and Sociology and Masterʼs degree in Public Health Nutrition and Sociology from University of Gondar, Ethiopia. She is a Public Health Nutritionist and a Sociologist. She has published ten papers in reputed journals and has more than six years of work experience. She is an Assistant Professor in Public Health Nutrition in University of Gondar Human Nutrition Department and has been actively involved in teaching, research and community services besides serving the department as the Head and participating in numerous affairs of the university at large.

A Study of Food Labelling Strategies to Allay and Tackle the Paranoia Concerning Food Additives, Sugar and Fat

Delia Ojinnaka

London South Bank University, United Kingdom

The essence of a food label is provision of useful and essential information. The label must comply with the legislative requirements; it must not be false and misleading. In the United Kingdom (UK), the Food Information Regulations 2014 implementing Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, contain provisions to inform and protect the consumers from false and misleading information and ultimately fraud. The general requirements for food safety including labelling are laid down by Food Safety Act 1990 as amended and Regulation (EC) No 178 / 2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council. In addition to safety, there are concerns about adverse impactof certain food additives, fats and sugars on health. Hence, the consumersʼ food preferences are additive-free, fat-free and sugar-free products. Food safety and health are very mediacentric and sensitive. The mediacentricityhas been exploited and used as a weapon by certain groups to further their own agenda. In the UK, there is hardly a week without a headline on foods, often scare mongering and contradicting, with additives, fats and sugars as the main targets. The extreme and relentless campaigns against these ingredients by consumers, consumer advocacy groups and governmental agencies and departments, have led to the development of food labelling strategies to dispel the fears and appeal to the consumers. The strategies include exclusion of the E-numbers, food additives categoriesand use of descriptors such as fat-free and sugar-free on food labels. Such strategies raise several questions; to what extent are the descriptors misleading, what impact will the apparent absence of additives have on product sale and finally how does it influence the consumer choice. Thus, this paper through a rigorous examination of food labels, assessment of sales and consumer survey, will attempt to answer these questions and show how such labelling practice could mislead the consumer and influence their food choice. It will also highlight a new trend and opens up the debate for consumer education on food labelling and protection from psychological manipulation. It is expected with respect to food choice, that the descriptors and absence of additives will have a significant positive impact, as the fear and paranoia are dispelled.

Keywords: Consumer choice, fats, food additives, food labelling regulations, food labelling strategies, sugars.

Dr. Delia Ojinnaka is the Course Director MSc Food Safety and Control, Applied Science, London South Bank University, London, England, UK (1994-date).
Delia Ojinnaka is a graduate of Kingʼs College, University of London (BSc; Biology), Leeds University (MSc; Food Science) and Cranfield University (PhD). Whilst at London South Bank University, I gained further qualifications; PGCHE in teaching and learning and PgCert(CPE) in legal studies. he is a fellow (FIFST) of the Institute of Food Science and Technology, UK, a fellow (FHEA) of the higher education academy and a chartered scientist (CSci), member of the IFST accreditation panel and mentoring scheme. He has taught food science and related subjects at HNC to PhD levels for over twenty five years. He gives international lectures on food sustainability, security, labelling and bioterrorism and has done so annually at Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain since 2014.

Application Chemometric for Authentication Honey

Ehsan Akbari, Adel Baikbabaei and Mostafa Shahidi

Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST), Iran

The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the physicochemical characterization in the authenticity of honey unifloral. Honey is the natural food made by honeybees from the nectar or from the secretions of living areas of plants or from the excretions of plant-sucking insects on the living areas of plants. Classification unifloral honeys by single routine parameters not possible. Honey is a sugar supersaturated solution that fructose and glucose are the main ingredient in it. Honey also contains minerals, proteins, amino acids, enzymes and vitamins. And studies have shown that these compounds depend on vegetable origin Honey is a very nutritious and energy-rich product with anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and peribiotoxic properties, which in addition to direct consumption in the daily diet as sweetener and preservative is widely used in food industry However, by chemo metric for example principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and cluster analysis (CA) on different honey quality parameters (electrical conductivity, sugars, acidity, optical rotation, nitrogen content, proline) a great classification of unifloral honeys can be performed.

Keywords: honey, principal component analysis, physicochemical, classification.

Household Food Insecurity and its Association with under Five Children Nutritional Status in Sekela District, Western Ethiopia; A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

Ermiyas Mulu1 and Bezatu Mengistie2

1Ambo University, Ethiopia
2Haramaya University, Ethiopia

Background: Child malnutrition and food insecurity remain main problems in Ethiopia. Studies across different parts of the world revealed mixture of evidences about the relationship between household food insecurity and child nutritional status. Therefore; this study was conducted to compare children under nutrition in food secure and insecure households in Sekela District, Western Ethiopia.

Method: Five hundred seventy six mothers/caregivers living in Sekela District were interviewed using structured questionnaire during February of 2014. Household food insecurity was measured using household food insecurity access scale. The height and weight of children were taken; anthropometry indices were calculated & interpreted according WHO 2006 cutoff point. After checked for completeness and consistency data was entered onto Epi. Data 3.2. and exported to SPSS 21.0 for further analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to assess the association of independent and outcome variables.

Result: A total of 555 households with children aged 6-59 months participated in the study. The children mean age was 31.39+ 13.64 months and sex ratio was one. The mean household food insecurity score was 8.16+6.01 and the prevalence of food access insecurity measured by household food insecurity access scale was 74.1%. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting was 36.9%, 19.8% and 11.5% respectively. Household food insecurity had association with only underweight (AOR=2.25; 95% CI=1.29, 3.94). Sex of child, age of child, colostrum feeding, upper respiratory infection, feeding frequency and maternal education were factors associated with chronic under nutrition. Child experience of upper respiratory infection was associated with underweight and child experience of fever had association with wasting.

Conclusion: In the main, household food insecurity and children under nutrition were critical problems in the study setting. Only underweight associated with household food insecurity. Socio demographic factors, child caring practices and infection lead to high prevalence of children under nutrition in the study setting. Thus, there should be multisectorial community based nutrition interventions and initiation of income generating livelihood to the community to curtail under nutrition and household food insecurity in the locality.

Keywords: Household Food insecurity, under five children, stunting, underweight, wasting, Ethiopia

Ermiyas Mulu is currently an Assistance Professor at Ambo University, Ethiopia. He had obtained his MPH in nutrition and B.Sc. in Public Health from Haramaya University and Hawassa University, respectively. He has published two original articles scientific journals, contributed a lecture note and learning modules and participated in many national nutrition and related events.

Bio-Potency of a 21 Kda Kunitz-Type Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarindus Indica Seeds on the Developmental Physiology of H. Armigera

Farrukh Jamal, Prabhash K. Pandey and Sangram Singh

Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, India

The development of resistance to inhibitors in insects in the near future has necessitated the search for newer and more effective biological means of controlling insects. Inhibitors from diverse sources are being explored for understanding their inhibitory potential. Among several alternatives, protease inhibitors represent an attractive class of biopesticides with several important features. Such protease inhibitors are environmentally friendly and can work as defence molecules against plant pests and pathogens.

A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against trypsin-like Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin was ~2.10 μg/ml and 1.68 μg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae.

In conclusion, the action of TTI on the development of H. armigera larvae shows that TTI influences larval various developmental and nutritional parameters of H. armigera larvae, suggesting that this protein with toxic potential has substantial prospect as bioinsecticidal agent in insect pest management.

Dr. Farrukh Jamal has Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad in collaboration with Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow India. He has experience in the area of reproductive biochemistry, plant proteins & enzymes in waste water treatment & insect pest management of agriculturally important food crops. Presently his focus is on addressing the growing public concern over the toxicity and carcinogenicity of synthetic and recalcitrant dyes. He has contributed some interesting findings on novel defense proteins/ proteinacious protease inhibitors present in plants and their effectiveness on insect pests for applications in integrated pest management. He has several projects, publications in impacted journals and books. Besides this he is engaged in various academic and administrative activities of the university.

Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis in and Around Nekemte Areas, East Wollega Zone, Ethiopia

Feyera Gemeda Dima

Jimma University, Ethiopia

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis and to identify the prevailing species of trypanosomes in cattle present in and around Nekemte. Blood sample were collected from ear vein of 400 cattle and then examined using thin and thick smear method followed by Buffy coat examination. Anemic status was determined by Packed Cell Volume (PCV). Out of 400 samples were examined, 36 (9%) were positive, out of which 26 (0.065%) had Trypanosoma vivax and 10 (0.025%) had T. congolense. The mean PCV of the infected animal is 19.36 and that of non-infected animal is 27.54, which indicates a significant difference between these animals. Trypanosomosis is a fatal and economically devastating disease and the major constraint to production by causing loss of the livestock. Therefore, the better strategies to prevent this disease includes: avoidance of animals from tsetse-infested areas, tsetse fly control by using different scientific methods (such as, sterile insect technique, use of accaricides), prophylactic use of trypanocidal drugs, keeping of trypanoresistant breeds and good husbandry practice for the prevention of the disease.

Keywords: Prevalence, Trypanosomosis, Bovine, East Wollega Zone, Nekemte Town, T. vivax, T. congolense

Subject Areas: Food Science & Technology, Public Health

Feyera Gemeda Dima is working as a Lecturer for Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary, medicine with main duty of teaching, researching and providing community service with, five years of work experience. He is a Lecturer of Food Hygiene and Science, Veterinary Anatomy, Veterinary Preventative Medicine (Major), Physiology, and Small Animal Medicine in Jimma University. Most importantly, he is working in cooperation with seven research channel or organizations which pivotal for our countryʼs development issues., member of international research in central and eastern Africa (OCHEA) in one health.

Green Pod Yield, Total Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Soilless and Open Field Soil Grown Common Bean

Ghazi N. Al-Karaki

University of Science & Technology, Jordan

There is increasing pressure to reduce water use and environmental impact associated with open field conventional agriculture in arid and semiarid regions (e.g., Middle East) due to severe shortage of water resources and soil problems. The trend in recent years has been towards conversion of conventional agriculture to soilless agriculture (mainly closed system) which is considered to be a more efficient in utilizing all the resources efficiently (e.g., efficient water use and fertilizer management) for maximizing yield of crops. Secondary phenolic metabolites play an important role in plant defense mechanisms, and increasing evidence indicates that many are important in human health. To date, few studies have investigated the impact of various cultivation methods (soilless system vs. open field) on levels of secondary plant metabolites. The aim of this study was to compare green pod yield, total phenolic and flavonoids content, and antioxidant activity in green pods of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under soilless culture with those grown under open field soil conditions. After determination of green pod yields, a part of bean pods were cleaned, air-dried and analyzed for total phenolic and flavonoids content, and antioxidant activity using standard methods of analysis. Results showed an increase of about 442% in the green pod yield, when grown in soilless system compared to that grown in the soil. The results showed also that the plants grown in the soilless system had a comparable phenolic, flavonoids contents, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. This study validated the potential of soilless culture as a developed method to enhance the vegetables yield and the nutritional properties of plants.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phaseolus vulgaris, phenols, phytochemicals,

Ghazi N. Al-Karaki is a Professor of Plant Physiology, Jordan University of Science & Technology, Irbid, Jordan done his PhD from University of Nebraska /USA 1991 and Fulbright scholar 2017. Recent research interests: Hydroponic production of food and medicinal crops, Plant secondary metabolites and Chemical composition of agricultural products. Published more than 100 journal article, book chapters and conference proceedings. Google scholar: H-index 24 with 2529 citations (April 2017).

The Effect of Roasting and Frying on Fatty Acids Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Almonds, Pine, Cashew and Pistachio in Jordan

Hadeel Ghazzawi and Khalid AL-Ismail

The University of Jordan, Jordan

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frying and roasting on the fatty acids profile and antioxidant activity of selected nuts (almonds, pine, cashew and pistachio) in Jordan. Raw and roasted nuts were purchased from 2 major local stores in Amman Jordan. Sample of raw nuts were fried according to the Jordanian homemade way. The three forms of nuts had been analyzed for fatty acids profile and antioxidant capacity. The results showed that frying almonds decreased significantly oleic acid (OL) and oxidative stability presented by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) values as compared to raw and roasted almonds (p<0.05). Saturate fatty acid content (SFA) of fried and roasted almonds significantly increased as compared to raw almonds (p<0.05). Frying and roasting pine lead to a significant increase on the total phenolic compounds and SFA as compared to raw pine. Roasting decreased significantly the linoleic acid (LA) and α-linoleic acid (ALA) (essential fatty acids) contents of pine (p<0.05). Roasting cashew decreased the DPPH and LA significantly and increased the SFA significantly (p<0.05). Frying cashew decreased DPPH, LA and OL significantly as compared to raw cashew. Flavonoid content of roasted pistachio increased significantly as compared to raw and fried pistachio (p<0.05). In conclusion, the responses of selected nuts to roasting and frying process according to the Jordanian cuisine were varied. Frying enhances a fatty acids profile. Roasting stimulates antioxidant capacity on nuts type.

Hadeel Ghazzawi is an Assistant Professor, at University of Jordan; Amman, Jordan (March. 2016 - present):

  • Member of Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Full-Time Lecturer, The University of Jordan; Amman, Jordan (Sep. 2013 -Feb 2016 Department o f Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Full Time Lecturer, at Al
  • Kala Moon University; Daratiah Damascus, Syria (Dec. 2006 - Sep. 2008)
  • Department o f Nutrition and Food Science. Health Sciences College Dietician and Nutritional Consultant, Nutrition and Diet Centre; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Aug. 2005 - Nov. 2006) Nutritional Lecturer and Educator, Abbott; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Jan. 2001 -Jul. 2001)
  • Providing training and educational materials and sessions for hospitals and health clinics in topics in babies, lactating and pregnant women food. Education Doctoral, Nutritional Science, University of Vienne; Austria (2008 - 2011).

The Significance of Identified Bacteria in Fresh Fish from Gubi Dam, Bauchi. Bauchi State

Usman S. Haruna1, F. Tahir2, A.F.Umar2 and E.B. Agbo2

1Federal polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Nigeria

Potential spoilage organisms capable of growing and causing sufficient changes in fish to warrant it being described as spoiled have their varying origins and habitat. Fresh Fish caught from the dam are assumed to be hygienic. Fresh fish samples were obtained from Gubi dam. The fish samples were weighed and halved from the head to the tail to get an even fillet distribution. The samples were blended with diluents to obtain a homogenous suspension. The diluent was used for serial dilution before cultivation and isolation. Well separated colonies were sub cultured on fresh culture and subsequently characterized. Smear was made by emulsifying small quantity of the bacteria colony in a drop of distilled water on glass slides. Gram staining was carried out and the stained slide was then examined. Biochemical tests were also carried out the bacteria implicated were; Micrococcus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter. The organisms are of the pathogenic and Enterobacteriacae origin. And the presence of pathogenic species is independent on a number of factors including the sources of nutrients used in the fish rearing, the extent of feeding, the population density, method used to harvest.

Keywords: Gubi Dam, Fresh fish, Spoilage.

Vegetarian diets: Theory and Application

Hassan Barakat

Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Recently, a renewed interest in vegetarian diets is expressively considered. Vegetarian diets are comprising a wide range of dietary sources for numerous and individual dietary requirements. Basically, the vegetarian diets were classified into lacto-ovo-vegetarians, lacto-vegetarians, ovo-vegetarians and vegan which have further restrictions imposed and exclude animal origin foods. Additionally, vegetarians tend to have lower overall cancer rates, lower body mass index, adjustable blood pressure, have higher levels of dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals. Increasing public awareness about vegetarian diets has propelled the consumption of these foods to unprecedented levels, particularly in countries where the population is aging and health care costs are rising. Many topics should be focused to valorize this concept such as vegetarian functional foods, nutraceuticals and phytochemicals, health-promoting components, development of vegetarian diets, vegetarian diets and disease prevention, challenges and deficiency, regulations and health claim as well as effect of food processing on their bioactive compounds.

Margareta Gluten-Free Muffins

Ioan Gontariu

University of Suceava, Romania

“Margareta” muffins have fluffy texture, sweet lemon skin like and ground walnut like taste. They are made without adding preservatives and sugar, no saturated fats as well, being possible for this product to be included in various diets, for people suffering from cardiovascular diseases, diabetics or those suffering from celiac disease. Due to the lack of gluten and the ingredients used, the product provides consumers with a satiety feeling, beingsuitable to losing weight diets.

The combination of ingredients enhancing the beneficial influence of food –the strong element resides in the power of a food toprovide synergy and action - this product is a functional food product which helps in:

- Balancing blood sugar percentage, having a low glycemic index, by using flours called anti diabetic super foods.

- Reducing the risk of microinflamationin order to protect the heart and blood vessels by eliminating products containing saturated fats and choosing materials containing good fats (polyunsaturated) and some antioxidant flavonoids in fruits such as blackcurrant and goji.

- Control of blood pressure toavoid its raise.

- weight control by choosing gluten-free flours, choice that reduces appetite and provides long-term satiety

- Well-being and good cheer - the proposed flours high in good fats (Omega 3), intake of vitamin E from nuts, cereals and vitamin B, and use of some 100% natural sweeteners that reduce glycemic index, without affecting taste or harming the body.

The Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Sakei on Pathogenic Bacteria during Meat Fermentation

Irena Macioniene, Dovile Jonkuvienė and Joana Salomskienė

Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania

The aim of the study was to determine the antagonistic activity of starter culture Lactobacillus sakei against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli during meat fermentation. S. typhimurium and E. coli cultures were grown on PCA slants at 37 °C for 24 h. L. sakei was grown on MRS slants at 30 °C for 48 h anaerobically. Minced pork (fat content 30 %) salted by 2 % of NaCl was inoculated with suspensions of bacteria (108 CFU/ml) and the following samples were prepared: with L. sakei; L. sakei + S. typhimurium; L. sakei + E. coli; E. coli; S. typhimurium. Samples were thoroughly mixed, tucked into proteins hells and fermented at 22°C, 48 h, then at 20°C, 48 h. The number of lactobacilli, S. typhimurium and E. coli, as well as the pH, was determined at the begining of the fermentation process and during the process after 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h.

L. sakei had an antagonistic effect against the growth of E. coli and S. typhimurium. During the fermentation process, in samples with L. sakei the number of E. coli and S. typhimurium decreased by 100 and 35 times, respectively. L. sakei showed the stronger antagonistic activity against E. coli than against S. typhimurium. During the fermentation, pH of meat decreased from 5.7 to 4.9-5.0. The antagonistic activity of lactobacilli could occur in meat due to the decrease of pH and production of antimicrobial substances inhibiting the growth of S. typhimurium and E. coli.

Keywords: Lactobacillus sakei, pathogens, meat fermentation.


  • Irena Mačionienė is working from 2005 to until now in Kaunas University of Technology, Food institute, laboratory of microbiology science, senior researcher associate. Main research area: food microorganisms – investigation of activities, developing and improving of their determining methods.
  • 2002-2005 Kaunas University of Technology, Food institute, laboratory of microbiology, research assistant. Main research area: food microorganisms – investigation of activities, developing and improving of their determining methods.
  • 2002-2009 Kauno Kolegija, University of Applied Sciences, Department of catering, associated professor. Lectures, practical work with students.
  • 1997-2001 Lithuanian Food Institute/ Kaunas University of Technology, PhD student. Microbiological research of food products, recording, collation, checking of all scientific data, planning of experiments, preparation of scientific publications.
  • 1985-1997 Food institute of Kaunas University of Technology (former Lithuanian Branch of All Union Research Institute for Butter and Cheese), laboratory of microbiology, engineer. Microbiological research of milk and milk products.
  • 1984-1985 „Vilnius dairy factory“, master. Organization of cream and sour cream production, quality control.

Safe Feed Additives in Livestock Diets

M.S. Ayyat and A.A. Al-Sagheer

Zagazig University, Egypt

Feed Safety implies high level of assurance that the feed will not cause harm to the farm animals when prepared or consumed according to the intended use, or to the final consumer. The use of feed additives or drugs in food animals is regulated in nearly all countries. Safe animal feed products are necessary for healthy livestock. It is important to stay informed to ensure that livestock are receiving safe and healthy food. Products that improve feed efficiency are particularly important since feed costs are a major expense in animal production. Proper use of these products can improve beef cattle profits. Use of antibiotics in aviculture is considered as a risk factor to human health as their residues may be found in tissues and as they may cause cross-resistance for pathogenic bacteria in humans. Growth promoters including hormonal substances are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. The addition of probiotics to farm animal diets has been found to improve growth performance, feed conversion and modulates the immune system to fight against various pathogens. The microbial safety of foods continues to be a major concern to consumers, regulatory agencies and food industries throughout the world. Many food preservation strategies have been used traditionally for the control of microbial spoilage in foods but the contamination of food and spoilage by microorganisms is a problem yet to be controlled adequately.

Stress Tolerant Rice for Food and Nutritional Security in Eastern India

Manzoor H. Dar

International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), India

With a present population of about 1.3 billion, India is likely to be the most populous country on this planet by 2030. It currently accounts for more than 17% of the global population with 500 million poor or 41.6% living on less than $1.25 a day. Eastern India serves the home for major portion of these unprivileged people where they depend on rice economically, socially and environmentally. The need is to enhance rice productivity by exploiting untapped potential of eastern India to ensure food and nutritional security of the region in a sustainable manner. Eastern India and its adjacent areas occupy one of the largest stress-prone areas in the world. Drought, submergence and the sequential events (drought followed by submergence and vice-versa) are the major constraints for rice production in these areas. The development, dissemination and adoption of stress (drought and submergence) tolerant rice varieties can serve as the most coherent approach that can help the communities to become more resilient to existing and growing stress risks. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) through STRASA (Salt Tolerant Rice for Africa and South Asia) project along with national research partners has developed stress tolerant rice varieties (STRVs) possessing high yield along with desirable grain quality. STRASA has ensured the intentional and strategic partnerships among different stake holders for enhancing the dissemination of these varieties to farmers in appropriate stress prone ecologies. These involve public and private sectors, community groups, multilateral agencies, philanthropic foundations as well as collaborations among nations. The varieties like Swarna-Sub1 and BINA Dhan11 (flooding tolerant), SahbhagiDhan, DRR 42 and DRR 44 (drought tolerant) have been released and have huge potential under rain-fed agriculture. Farmers reported relatively more grain yield, better quality and yield of straw, high tiller number, low irrigation requirement, less incidence of diseases and pests, and good grain quality of STRVs. Thus, STRVs can serve as the most promising and deliverable technology for ensuring food and nutritional security in the communities dependent on rainfed rice.

Dr. Manzoor H. Dar is a development specialist in agricultural research at IRRI-India with many years of experience working in South Asia. He has been actively involved in seed upscaling and dissemination of stress-tolerant rice varieties through the development of strategic partnerships in South Asia. He is well recognized for his extensive networking with national partners in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. With the M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Plant Protection from Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Dr. Manzoor is involved in leading innovative research and development activities to facilitate the delivery of technologies to end users and to accelerate the impact of stress-tolerant rice varieties in South Asia.

Homestead Agroforestry – A Way of Sustainable Food Production and Income Generation for the Smallholders in Bangladesh

Md Abiar Rahman1 and Masakazu Tani2

1Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh
2Kyushu University, Japan

Homestead is a low-cost production system that benefits family nutrition, increase household income, provides a buffer to food insecurity during lean season, provides habitat protection and soil conservation. In Bangladesh, homestead occupies about 0.27 million hectares of total land. In present context of Bangladesh, homestead is more appropriate for resource poor farmers. The Teknaf peninsula is situated at the southeast corner of Bangladesh, which is a food shortage area. The aim of this study was to investigate the homestead production system for sustainable food supply and its contribution to annual income of the smallholders. The study was conducted in Teknaf in September 2016. A total 100 households were selected randomly and were investigated coving four major ethnic communities namely Bengali, Rakhaine, Chakma and Rohingya. A structured interview schedule was used for data collection. We found various components in homesteads including timber, fruit, vegetables, poultry, and livestock. The horizontal and vertical arrangements showed that homesteads were diversified with various plant species including seasonal and annual vegetables and fruits. On an average about 60%, 47% and 40% requirements of vegetables, fruits and animal products of a household were contributed from the homestead. It was observed few householders sold their extra products to the local market for income generation. Moreover, homesteads also provided a large amount of egg, meat, milk and fish. Incomes generated from homesteads were higher for Chakma households, followed by those of households within the Bengali, Rakhaine and Rohingya communities. In most of the cases household members managed the homestead production system that is why it is a low-cost and sustainable production system. Homestead contributed more than 25% to the annual income and there is still scope to improve homesteads for income generation. Therefore, a well-designed homestead could ensure food supply, food security and high income generation for the householders.

Md. Abiar Rahman is a Professor, Department of Agroforestry and Environment at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) where he has been a faculty member since 2001. Abiar completed his PhD at Kyushu University, Japan in 2008. His research interests lie in the area of Agroforestry and Environment with a focus on sustainable crop production and food security. In recent years, he has focused on homestead for sustainable food production. Abiar has published 31papers and supervised 14 MS students. He has presented his works in 19 conferences. He offers three courses at graduate and undergraduate levels of BSMRAU.

Low-Cost Forage Preservation and Evaluation in Relation to Nutrient Intake, Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Indigenous Cross Bred Cattle

Md. Abdullah Al Mamun1, Khaleduzzaman A.B.M2, Kabir M.A3, Bilkis T4 and Hazary M.E.H5

1Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh
2A.B.M, Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Bangladesh
3Livestock Research Institute (LRI), Bangladesh
4Chittagong Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Bangladesh
5Government Poultry Farm, Bangladesh

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics of maize (Zea mays) and napier (Pennisetum purpureum) silages preserved in Bamboo-mat Fenced Chamber (BFC) in comparison with fresh napier fodder. Three cannulated indigenous cross-bred animals with similar live weight (170±5 kg) and age (5-6 years old) were assigned into 3×3 Latin Square Design (LSD) in 3 consecutive studies. Each study period was continued for 21 days in which 14 days were considered as adjustment period followed by 7 days for collection and measurement period. Maize and napier fodder were ensiled with 2% molasses (on DM basis) in Bamboo-mat Fenced Chamber (BFC) for 30 days. Napier fodder diet (T0) contained 35% DM from napier fodder while diets of maize silage (T1) and napier silage (T2) contained 35% DM from maize and napier silage respectively. In addition to 30% DM from rice straw and 35% DM from concentrates in all diets. The higher non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) presence in maize silage than napier fodder and napier silage. Overall ruminal pH of napier fodder, maize and napier silages preserved in BFC were around normal physiological range (6.4-7.0). Post feeding, NH3-N concentration of napier silage was significantly (P<0.05) higher than maize silage and napier grass. At 1, 2, 3 and 4 hrs after feeding, average NH3-N concentrations obtained in this present experiment above 50 mg/l were thought to be optimum value for microbial protein synthesis and ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA)concentrations (mM/l) was not significantly (P>0.05) changed. Results of nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics of maize and napier silage in comparison with napier fodder proved that the forages can be preserved in BFC without any harmful effects of nutritional and rumen fermentation characteristics.

Md. Abdullah Al Mamun is an Assistant Professor, Dept. of Food Technology and Nutrition Science (FTNS), Noakhali Science and Technology University (NSTU), 3814 Noakhali (Bangladesh) Responsibilities includes as an Assistant Professor taking courses on Assessment of Nutritional status, Community Nutrition, Nutrition Problem, Development Nutrition and Data Management Analysis, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Food Chemistry and Biochemistry. Moreover, I am a member of Academic Council. Being a member of Research cell of Food Technology and Nutrition Science Department, my task is to conduct seminar on recent issues.

Caffeine Consumption Levels and Knowledge among Adults in the United Arab Emirates: Insights from a Nationwide Survey

Mohammad Bakri Alaa1, Yazan Ghazi Al Shaikh1, Anas Mohammad Hashem1, Obaida M. Mukhles Adi1, Ihab Aal-yaseen1, Ziad Mahmoud El Menawy1 and Adel B. Elmoselhi2

1College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE
2Michigan State University, USA

Introduction: Caffeine is widely used as a cognitive, physical & psychomotor booster. Recent studies have suggested worrying trends of overconsumption of caffeine, accompanied by higher risk for multiple diseases including diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of this study is to assess caffeine consumption levels among the United Arab Emirates (UAE) adult population, as well as the population general knowledge and attitude regarding its health implications.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 on 403 randomly chosen people from 5 emirates in the UAE. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through a non-probability sampling method. The number of participants selected from each emirate was proportionate to the population size of each city.

Results: The mean total caffeine consumed per day was 316.7 mg. More than 98.5% of the study participants were caffeine consumers, with 31% reported being addicted to caffeine. The mean level of knowledge about caffeine was less than 33%, indicating poor knowledge background regarding caffeine effects on health and well-being. Younger participants (P=0.008) and those who work in healthcare & education (P<0.001) were significantly more knowledgeable.

Conclusion: Caffeine consumption is very prevalent among UAE population which ranks high among other countries. There is a lack of accurate knowledge regarding the effects of caffeine on health and well-being. Healthy consumption behaviours need to be promoted through a better awareness and transparent environment. Labelling caffeinated products with fact sheets and enhancing educational programs through social media and others may improve safe caffeine consumption behaviours.

Keywords: Caffeine consumption, Knowledge, Public health.

Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Option for Food Security in an Area Affected by Insurgency in Borno State, Nigeria

Muhammad Lawan Ngamdu

Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Nigeria

Available data suggest that almost 1,434,149 Internal Displaced People (IDPs) camped in Borno state due to devastating effect of insurgency. However, with recent tremendous improvements in security situation which made most of the IDPs to return back to their homes, although the major key issues are poverty and hunger. This study outlines the nature and extent of food security problems in Borno state, explores the policy options available to the state in addressing these problems, and indicates what Federal Government and other international institutions such as the United Nation can and should assist in redeeming the food security problems. Finally, the study suggested some policies that will help in achieving the target goal.

Keywords: Food, Insurgency, Security, Borno State and IDPs.

Effects of Ingredients, Fermentation Time and Pasteurization on Quality and Shelf Stability of Tella

Neela Satheesh, Shilimat Tolossa and Yetenayet Bekele

Jimma University, Ethiopia

Tella is one of the Ethiopian traditional fermented beverages, brewed from local hops (Rhamnus prinioid), malts of barley, maize, wheat, sorghum, finger millet and teff usually having very less shelf-life. Tella being the most consumed indigenous beverage in Ethiopia but a least investigated beverage in terms of effects of ingredients and shelf stability. A three factors factorial experiment each with three levels in three replication laid out in RCBD design to determine the malt combination, adjunct and fermentation duration on physicochemical properties of tella. In a further study, a time-temperature study was carried out by two pasteurization temperatures, 15.86 PU at 60°C and 7.79 PU at 65°C to determine the effect of pasteurization on the physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of pasteurized tella. Data were subjected to analysis of variance SAS (version 9.2), multiple comparisons among treatment means were done using Tukey method at p<0.05. The physicochemical properties of tella were significantly (p <0.05) affected by malt, adjunct combination and fermentation time. The changes in pH, TSS, TA, alcohol content of pasteurized tella samples were much slower during the storage period as compared to control unpasteurized product. There was no significant difference between unpasteurized and pasteurized samples at 60°C in terms flavor, aroma, mouth feel and overall acceptability, whereas, samples pasteurized at 65°C scored lowest for flavor, taste, color, mouth feel and over all acceptability. Pasteurization had a significant (p <0.05) effect on microbial load. Unpasteurized samples had the highest microbial growth during the storage period, while pasteurized at 60°C and 65°C had maintained a very low microbial growth during the storage period. Finally, pasteurization extended shelf stability of tella for 45 days without a significant change in terms of physicochemical and microbial changes.

Dr. Neela Satheesh is working as an Assistant Professor in Department of Postharvest Management, College of Agriculture and Veterinary medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia. Dr. Neela acquired Doctorate Degree in Food technology From Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Andhra Pradesh, India. He published more than 15 international publications in different peer reviewed journals and presented various research works related to Food Technology in different national and international conferences held at India and Ethiopia. He is one of the young and active academic staff and researchers with research interests of Food product development, Human nutrition, Traditional foods and beverages of Ethiopia and preservation of perishables. Dr. Neela has been actively handling different external and internal sponsored projects in Jimma University.

Valorization of Fish Processing Wastes through Recovery of Collagen and Collagen Peptides

R. Jeya Shakila, C. Jeevithan, L. Vinothkumar and G. Jeyasekaran

Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, India

Majority of the global fish catch is utilized for human consumption, besides a considerable portion (20%) being discarded as post harvest losses. Fish going for human consumption are generally processed as fillets or minced meat depending on the convenience. Post processing of fish leads to generation of 50-60% of processing wastes in the form of skins, bones, fins, scales and even swimbladder, which are valuable sources of collagen.

Our study mainly focuses on the utilization of the processing wastes, mainly fish skin that constitutes 30% of the total weight of a puffer fish (Odonus niger) was used for the extraction of collagen using different organic acids along with proteolytic enzymes. Acetic acid with pepsin gave 11% yield. Collagen derived from skin was Type I collagen with typical (α1)2α2 chains having a denaturation temperature (Td) of 27-28°C. Collagen films were formed using different chemical and biological crosslinking agents and their mechanical and functional properties were examined. Tensile strength (6.40 MPa) and stiffness (325MPa) were high in collagen-transglutaminase (TG) films, where elongation (18%) and swelling rate (9.6%) were high in collagen-sorbitol films. Water solubility was low in collagen –glutaraldehyde film (6.4%). FTIR spectra clearly showed the interaction of collagen with crosslinking agents through shifts of amide peaks. SEM analysis indicated the formation of smooth and compact surfaces using TG and rough surfaces using k-carrageneen (KG). In-vitro degradation was minimal in collagen-TG films and hence, was considered the best collagen films for biomedical applications.

Recently, our studies are focussed on the extraction of collagen peptides directly from the fish skins by utilizing exogenous enzymes viz. trypsin, papain and alcalase. Collagen hydrolysates were first prepared using 1% enzyme at optimal conditions specific for the respective enzymes, and peptides of required molecular weight cut off (MWCO) were prepared using Tangenital Flow Filtration (TFF). Anti-oxidative, anti-hypertensive and anti-microbial properties of the collagen peptides were examined. Collagen peptides derived using alcalase and having MWCO > 30Kda only possessed anti-bacterial effect against pathogen, Escherichia coli. Anti-oxidative activities such as DPPH radical scavenging activity (92%), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (95%), metal chelating ability (76%) were high in 1 Kda collagen peptides. The in-vitro bio-accessibility and bio-functional properties of collagen peptides hydrolyzed at different temperatures were examined through gastrointestinal simulated digestion studies. Results showed that bio-accessibility of collagen peptides hydrolyzed at 50°C was higher (54%) after gastric and pancreatic digestion, while those hydrolysed at 5°C exhibited good anti-oxidative property (90%). FTIR spectra showed major shifts in amide A, I and II peaks confirming the difference. To use collagen peptides as functional ingredients, peptides were microencapsulated with suitable stabilizers and their functional characteristics were examined. Mannitol at 20% yielded good microencapsulated spray dried collagen peptide powder than trehalose and maltodextrin. Cytotoxicity effect of collagen peptide powder was examined through mice experiments conducted following oral administration for 7 days. Histopathological examination showed no cytotoxicity was observed in intestinal villi, intestinal crypts, tunica serosa and sub-mucosal glands of small and large intestinal enterocytes. Our studies are continued further to examine the anti-osteoporetic properties of collagen peptides as a cure for osteoporosis.

R. Jeya Shakila is Professor and Chair (04.01.2016 onwards) School of Harvest and Post Harvest Technology Fisheries College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, Professor (26.06.2013 to 03.01.2016) Dept. of Fish Quality Assurance and Management Fisheries College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Fisheries University Tamilnadu, India, Associate Professor (26.06.2007 to 25.06.2013) Department of Fish Processing Technology Fisheries College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Veterinary & Animal Science University.

Multimodal Dietary Treatment in Tourettes Syndrome

Rajesh Kumari

College of Saint Elizabeth, USA

Touretteʼs syndrome (TS) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and is characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Current evidence has shown that these behaviors are influenced by the brain neurotransmitters. Although dietary treatments are generally not used in the treatment of TS, the current study was undertaken to determine if specific dietary interventions that may alter the level of brain neurotransmitters might improve tics. A multimodal dietary approach of a whole food diet with dietary supplements (neurotransmitters precursors) along with a 3-week detoxification program was assessed on the severity of tics for a period of 8 weeks. The subject was a 15-year old girl who had developed motor tics at age 9. At baseline her YGTSS tic severity scale (TTS) score was 14 and the total score was 34, indicating multiple discrete tics (>5). After 8 weeks of the intervention, her scores had lowered by 36% for TTS and total score of YGTSS by 44% (TTS=9, total score=19) indicating a marked improvement in motor tic intensity rating (75% improvement) and interference rating (66 % improvement) comparison to baseline. The subject also reported a substantial feeling of increased energy and mental sharpness during the study. Thus, the results of this study showed improvement in tic severity, as assessed by clinical rating scales, attention and focusing. Furthermore, the interventions were well tolerated and could be properly followed by sufficiently motivated subjects and families. This result is encouraging evidence that less psychotic medications could be used in these TS children to control motor and vocal tics. Further study on this multimodal dietary approach using decreased levels of antipsychotic medications for TS is warranted.

Lateral Flow Assay Nano-Aptasensors for Mycotoxins Detection

Ranganathan Velu and Maria C. DeRosa

Carleton University, Canada

Aptamers are short, single-stranded oligonucleotides that have high affinity, and specificity toward their targets. [1] Aptamers often undergo significant conformational changes upon target binding, and many sensing strategies have been proposed to detect targets based on these conformational changes. Aptamers have been proposed as alternatives to antibodies in many different applications. Aptamer based biosensors have received considerable interest from numerous scientific communities. Mycotoxins are a class of contaminants that require regulation in foods and feeds to maintain good quality, and to reduce negative impacts on human health. The development of biosensors for various mycotoxins has been an expanding field of research in recent years. A wide range of devices have been developed and reported in scientific literature. [2] In this study, we used BioT-aptamer functionalized nanonanomaterials (aptamer-assembled nanoparticle (NP) aggregates) which show target (mycotoxin) - induced disassembly of the aggregates, resulting in a change of optical properties (colour and the SPR) [3]. Lateral flow assays were developed and their performance was tested with various mycotoxins spiked into real samples. The approach is rapid, simple, inexpensive, and time efficient and could be applied to the construction of efficient biosensor devices.

Achievable to Safely Limit Fumonisin and Aflatoxin Contamination in Maize without Rigorous Chemical Treatment of Insecticides and Fungicides in Tanzania

Richard Madege1, Kris Audenaert2, Martin Kimanya3, Bentantuka Tiisekwa4, Boris Bakaert5, Bruno De Meulenaer6 and Geert Haesaert7

1Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
2University of Ghent, Belgium
3The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, Tanzania
4University of Ghent, Belgium

Representing low altitude areas of Tanzania, the experimental farm of Sokoine University of Agriculture was used to implement a four times replicated three factor experiment, in a randomized complete block design. The experiment aimed to associate varietal class of maturity, planting and harvesting times with infestation of maize stalk borer (Busseola fusca, Fuller), Fusarium ear and kernel rot, colonization of mycotoxin producing Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus in maize and contamination of Fumonisins and aflatoxins in maize. Respectively, real time PCR and HPLC techniques were used to quantify fungal biomass and mycotoxins content in maize grains. Recorded stalk and kernel injuries were significantly lower in early than late maturing maize varieties. Insect injuries in stalk, cobs and kernels were lowest in maize planted early in March and harvested as soon as the kernels attained physiological maturity in June. Class of maturity and planting time had no influence on DNA biomass of F verticillioides but shown significant influence on F. graminearum. Neither A flavus nor A. parasiticus were detected. Lowest fumonisin B1 and B2 content was realized from combined effects of early maturity, early planting and harvesting. Fumonisin content increased notably with delayed harvesting after maturity. No detectable levels of Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were realized. This study has demonstrated that, in low altitude areas of Tanzania, planting an early maturing variety, early sowing date and harvesting at can be a useful strategy to limit fumonisin concentration below maximum admissible levels without rigorous chemical treatment. Confirming the previous findings that developing crops are normally very resistant to infection by Aspergillus species and aflatoxin contamination unless the environment favours fungal growth and crop susceptibility, this study has demonstrated that growing maize free from moisture stress, it is achievable to limit preharvest aflatoxin contamination to near undetectable levels.

Richard Madege is an agronomist and lecturer for Sokoine University of Agriculture in Tanzania. During his tenure Richard demonstrated competence in proposing and winning competitive local and international research grants. Richard worked as an expert and team leader in sub-program, Agriculture and food security under CAMCO clean energy, a consulting firm for USAID PREPARED project in East Africa. Collaboratively Richard has published several articles on plant propagation, climate change and Mycotoxins. Currently Richard is final year PhD candidate for University of Ghent researching to find out effective pre harvest strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination in maize based complementary food in Tanzania.

Emergencies in Institutional Food Services

Saniye Bilici

Ankara University, Turkey

During emergencies experienced in institutional food services, in compliance with the requirements of producing safe food, making the decision to continue the production and having enough knowledge to take the necessary measures are important. Interms of foodsafety management systems in institutional food services, making the current situation assessment, establishment of emergency procedures and related action plan, implementation of employee exercise were among the main activities to be done. In institutional food services, emergencies that cause health related threat sare limiting access to safe water, electricity outages, waste water contamination, natural disasters and food poisoning. In recent years, to take part in the emergency action plans in case of intentional contamination of food and the necessity of taking measures for food defense has been reported. In this review, the most frequently experience demergencies in institutional food services, condition saffecting the decision to continue or stop the production and the place of food defense in emergency action plan has been evaluated.

Estimating the Crop Losses Caused by Fusarium wilt of Chili and Its Control by Targeting Mitochondrial Respiratory System with Novel Inhibitors using Computer Aided Drug Designing

Sehrish Iftikhar, Ahmad Ali Shahid and Kiran Nawaz

University of the Punjab, Pakistan

Wilt is an economically important disease of chili crop causing considerable reduction in yield. In the present study, four areas in Punjab, Pakistan were surveyed and disease samples were collected. The incidence of disease was 25, 35, 42 and 53% in Kasur, Lahore, Sialkot, and Gujranwala. The pathogenic fungus was isolated from the infected plant parts and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based on the morphological and cultural features. Many fungicides used in agriculture inhibit respiration. The mitochondrial respiratory system (complex II) is one of the most common targets for antimicrobial agents. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) interfere with succinate dehydrogenase enzyme and disrupt the respiratory chain by binding to ubiquinone site, thus blocking the energy production as well as synthesis of the biosynthetic precursors. The present research work is focused on finding the compounds with high intrinsic activity against F. oxysporum causing wilt of chili. Fungicidal activity of twelve novel SDHI compounds was evaluated using mycelial growth and spore germination assay. Compounds C6 and C10 were highly active against F. oxysporum in mycelial growth assay with 89.5% and 88.6% inhibition while compound C11 was least potent with 64.5% inhibition. Compounds C1 and C6 were most effective in inhibiting the spore germination. The results of present study showed that compound C1, C6 and C10 were the most potent in reducing mycelial growth and spore germination of F. oxysporum. The shortlisted three compounds (C1, C6, and C10) have potential to control Fusarium wilt of chili.

Index Terms: Complex II, SDH, fungicide, Fusarium wilt, chili crop.

S. Iftikhar is a doctoral student with about eight years of research experience at the university level. She did B.Sc. (Hons.), and M.Sc. (Hons.) in Agriculture, with specialization in phytopathology from Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Sehrish is currently focused on designing fungicides against potato diseases. She has published several original papers in reputed international peered review journals covering plant pathology, virology, plant-pathogen interactions and plant disease control.”.

Nutritional Quality of Grains, Vegetables, Pulses, Oilseeds, Spices and Fruit as Affected by Synthetic Fertilizers and Pesticides use in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

Subhendu Bikash Goswami and Rajib Karmakar

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, India

In the lower Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India, agricultural food production reached its zenith taking the advantages of fertile alluvial soil and ample underground water reserve along with sufficient rainfall of above 1500 mm. Socio-economically, this region is economically not sound as population reached to above 1000 head km-2 and more than 50% of population depends on agriculture. Cropping intensity in this region crossed 250% with irrigation facility of about 90%, the intensive fertilizer use of 265 NPK kgha-1 and pesticide use by 720 gha-1 or sometimes above. In this perspective, nutritional quality of foods produced from field and horticultural crops were very much affected by excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. Nutritional quality of grains, vegetables, pulses, oilseeds, spices and fruits was seriously deteriorated by excess application of major nutrients like NPK. On the contrary, micronutrients like Zn and Mn were deficient in food items like rice, wheat due to exhaustive cropping pattern in sandy loam soils. Vegetables grown with high levels of NPK fertilizers showed lower amount antioxidants. Effects of pesticides like organochlorine, organophosphate, synthetic pyrethoids and herbicides on vegetables like brinjal, bitter gourds, chilli and okra, cabbage, cauliflower and coriander leaves, were analysed and in 2.6% of samples pesticide residue were found exceeding the maximum residual limits (MRL). Nutritional quality of fruits like mango, banana and litchi were also affected by chemical fertilizers and pesticide use. Problems of unregulated synthetic fertilizers and pesticide use and their health hazards have been dealt with. Efforts have been made to highlight the “Green Food” production strategies with little pollution of environment and greater safety of consumersʼ health.

Subhendu Bikash Goswami is a Senior Professor in the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (State Agricultural University). He obtained his M.Sc and Ph.D degrees from the same university in 1988 and 1992. His main teaching and research activities focus on the water and nutrient effects on crops considering productivity, sustainability and product quality. He has guided 3 Ph.D and 15 M.Sc students. He has published 84 research papers. Dr. Goswami was invited in the International Rice Congress at Hanoi, Vietnam and Water Quality at Dhaka, Bangladesh. He serves as a referee for scientific journals and research funds.
Rajib Karmakar is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Faculty of Agriculture at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (State Agricultural University). He obtained his M.Sc.(Ag.) in 2001 from G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. He completed his doctoral programme from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi in 2006. He was awarded with IARI Gold Medal.

Inhibitory Properties of Cashew Nut and Fluted-Pumpkin Protein Hydrolysates and their Membrane Fractions against Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) and Free Radicals

Sunday A. Malomo1, Ifeanyi D. Nwachukwu2, Abraham T. Girgih3, Idowu, A.O4, Rotimi E. Aluko4 and Tayo N. Fagbemi4

1University of Manitoba, Canada
2Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
3Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria
4Mountain Top University, Nigeria

This study aimed to discover and prepare novel antioxidant and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitory peptides from flutedpumpkin and cashew nut proteins (FPP and CNP). Both FPP and CNP were isolated and hydrolyzed using alcalase and pepsin to obtain hydrolysates (a-FPPH, p-FPPH, a-CNPH and p-CNPH, respectively). The resulting hydrolysates were sequentially passed through ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of different pore sizes to obtain<1, 1–3, 3–5, and 5–10 kDa peptide sizes. The in vitro bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates and their membrane fractions were accessed through OH-scavenging, DPPḢ-scavenging, metal chelation, FRAP, renin and ACE-inhibitory activities as well as their amino acid (AA) composition analysis and degrees of hydrolysis (DH). The results showed that the AA composition of the hydrolysates and their fractions are mainly composed of arginine and several hydrophobic AA. The CNPH has higher DH (>50%) than FPPH (48%). Meanwhile, both hydrolysates and their fractions had about >90% OH-, DPPH-, and FRAP-scavenging activities. Contrarily, the metal chelation activities of FPPH and CNPH are >90 and 20%, respectively. The in vitro ACE-inhibitory results of 4%-a-FPPH, 2%-p-FPPH, 3%-p-CNPH, 2%-a-CNPH, <1 kDaa-FPPH and 1–3 kDa-p-CNPH are 92, 78, 88, 82%, 88 and 92%, respectively. Besides, the p-CNPH and its 1–3 kDa fractions had higher renin inhibitory activities (>95%) than the a-FPPH (78%). These results suggest that both fluted-pumpkin and cashew nut proteins have potential as an antioxidant and antihypertensive agents, thus serving as functional food ingredients in both human nutrition and health applications.

Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids among Autistic Children in Jordan

Taha M. Rababah and Sondos Flayyeh

Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan

Background: This study was intended to assess the effect of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on autism among Jordanians children and adolescents.

Methods: A total of 37 autistic children aged between 3-18 years (mean = 9.46±3.9 years) were enrolled in this study and were asked to fill a questionnaire. Foods contained the highest amounts from omega-3 and omega-6 were also evaluated and studied their relationship with autism. Data were analyzed using least significant difference and Chi-square test.

Results: Omega-3 and -6 intake was 0.31±0.29 and 5.15±2.91 g/day, respectively. Foods high in omega-3 (g/100g) were walnut (9.2), soybean oil (6.4), flaxseed (5.5), tuna (0.92), and sardine (0.9). Foods high in omega- 6 (g/100g) were sunflower oil (63.3), corn oil (56.0), soybean oil (53.0), walnut (37.1), and sunflower seed (20.0). There were no correlations among omega-3 and -6intake from number of meals, number of snacks, and body mass index (BMI). There was a strongcorrelation between omega-3 and omega-6 intake and age among autistic children. Omega-3 intake was lower than the daily recommended value, which was associated with poor responses to questionnaires assessing mental and behavioral development in children. Regarding omega-6, there was a significant effect on some autism rating scale items with it. The result indicated that the ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 is greater than their normalratio that must be 2:1.

Conclusion: All participants presented omega-3 deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to develop an effective national intervention programs to promote consumption of essential fatty acids.

Keywords: autism, omega-3, omega-6, fatty acids.

In-Vitro Antihypertensive and Antioxidative Properties of Alcalase-Derived Moringa Oleifera Seed Globulin Hydrolysate and its Membrane Fractions

Aderinola T.A1, Fagbemi T.N2, Enujiugha V.N3, Alashi A.M4 and Aluko R.E5

1The Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
2University of Manitoba, Canada

Moringa oleifera seed globulin was obtained through the process of dialysis from the defatted seed flour, hydrolyzed with alcalase and subsequently fractionated into different molecular weight peptides sizes (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa) by membrane ultrafiltration in an amicon stirred ultrafiltration cell. The samples were tested for antioxidant properties through free radical scavenging abilities (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays), inhibition of metal iron (FRAP and metal chelation tests) and in-vitro antihypertensive properties through angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin inhibition tests. The result revealed low level of hydrolysis (4.40%) by alcalase. Compared to the hydrolysates, membrane fractionation led to improved antioxidative properties of 67.77% (<1 kDa), 44.15% (5-10 kDa), 150% (5-10 kDa) and 12% (3-5 kDa) increase for DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging assays, FRAP and metal chelation ability respectively. While there was 31.85% increase in inhibition against the ACE (5-10 kDa), a reduction of 29.81% inhibition against the renin enzyme (5-10 kDa) was obtained after membrane fractionation. There was no particular correlation between the peptide sizes and the antioxidative or in-vitro antihypertensive properties. However, the antioxidative properties increased with increasing concentration except for hydroxyl radical scavenging and metal chelation tests. With the results obtained in this study, we concluded that alcalase globulin hydrolysate and its membrane fractions possessed potent bioactive peptides which can be utilized in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera seed, globulin, hydrolysate, membrane fractions, ACE, renin.

Micro-Waves Drying Influence on Nopal Cladode Micro-Structure

Teodoro Espinosa-Solares1, Leidy Laura Cruz-de la Cruz2, Miguel Ángel Aguilar-Méndez3, Diana Guerra-Ramírez4 and Guadalupe Hernández-Eugenio5

1Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico
2Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Mexico

Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) has the ability to grow in dry climatic conditions that are adverse for most conventional crops. Nopal cladode was dried using two micro-waves oven powers 75 and 158 kW kgd.b.-1. Drying kinetics was determined for both processes; additionally, temperature was registered as a function of time. Micro-structure was evaluated by electron microscopy. The power treatment had an influence on cellular structure, while low power showed open and porous structure, the high level of power implied structural damage. These changes were explained base on the transport phenomena involved in the processes. Additional information on isotherms was obtained; Peleg model explained well the sigmoid type III isotherm. A relatively low net isostericheat was observed for high food moisture level, indicating a low interaction between the matrix food and the water.

Effects of Fat Taxes on Demand for Nutrient and Environmental Cleanliness

Wisdom Dogbe and Jose Maria Gil

ParcMediterrani de la Tecnologia, Spain

Obesity and overweight are the consequences of unhealthy diets. Unhealthy dietary combinations causes increased individual healthcare costs and government expenditure on the treatment of obesity and related diseases. Individuals do not consider the social cost of their actions. Hence, fiscal policies have been show to be effective in changing consumer behaviour and compensating government expenses. We impose pigouvian fat tax on EASI demand elasticities based on saturated fat thresholds to reduce lipid intakes. We estimated the effects of the taxes on over 40 macro- and micro-nutrients intake, GHGe and household welfare. The results show that the taxes are regressive on all nutrient, very effective on reducingGHGe and low impact on welfare when revenue neutrality is assumed.

Wisdom Dogbe is Ghanaian and 27 years old. He graduated from University of Ghana with a Bachelor degree in Agricultural Science (Major in Agricultural Economics) in 2013. He had an Erasmus Scholarship in 2014 to pursue a Masterʼs degree in Agricultural, Food and Environmental Policy Analysis in Germany (University of Bonn) and Spain (University Polytechnic of Catalonia). He is currently pursuing a PhD in Sustainability in the University Polytechnic of Catalonia, Spain.

Association of Food with Blood and Food Lead Levels among Pregnant Women of Sindh, Pakistan

Shahla Naeem, Ayesha Zahid Khan, Ambreen Sahito, Abdul Ghani, Ghazala Rafique, Fujio Kayama and Zafar Fatmi

Shahla Naeem, Pakisthan

Introduction: Lead is one of the most hazardous chemical for health of the population. With increasing control of lead in gasoline, food has emerged as one of the main contributor for lead exposure worldwide. Therefore, we assessed all food items which elevate blood lead levels among pregnant women of Sindh, Pakistan. We also assessed food items which contribute more in elevating food lead levels which is taken by those women and children.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted between November 2014 to March 2016, in Karachi (urban) and Gambat (rural), Khairpur district in Sindh. A total of 103 venous blood samples (63 from Karachi and 40 from Gambat) of pregnant women were measured for lead levels at the time of delivery. After one month of delivery, a modified structured validated food frequency questionnaire was administered using food groups and food items. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to identify food items which correlated with blood lead levels and food lead levels of mothers, separately.

Results: With 90% confidence interval, bread (β=0.199, p-value=0.003), boiled rice(β=0.354, p<0.001), cooked root vegetables (β= 0.158, p<0.0!), fried savory items (β=0.148, p-value=0.03), sweet snacks (β=0.129, p-value=0.079) were positively associated with elevated mother blood lead levels. While lassi (β= -0.308, p<0.01), market milk desserts (β=-0.219, p=0.002), fish (β= -0.161, p=0.016), soft drinks (β= -0.191, p=0.005) and supari/gutka (β=-.131, p-value= .063) were negatively associated with elevated mother blood levels. Tetra pak market juices(β= .295, p-value=0.004 and cooked root vegetables (β=0.192, p-value= 0.051) werewere positively associated with mother food lead levels at 90% CI. Multivariate models were also adjusted for residence. Objective assessment of food items with mother blood lead level showed that paratha (β=0.338, p-value=0.001) and vegetables cooked without potato (β=0.132, p-value=0.093) were positively associated with blood lead level at 90% CI.

Conclusion: Bread, boiled rice, fried savory items, sweet snacks and cooked root vegetables are contributing in elevated blood lead levels of motherʼs in Pakistan. These food items may be contaminated with lead during processing, packaging and storage. Supari/ gutka and soft drinks may be decreasing overall absorption of lead through gut including food nutrients so they are contributing in decreasing blood lead level. Objective analysis of food items are warranted for further intervention.

Keywords: Mother blood lead levels, Mother food lead levels, food frequency, food duplicates, Pakistan.

Validation of Food Frequency Questionnaire with 24 Hour Dietary Recall for Assessing Caloric Intake among Pregnant Women (15-49 Years) of Karachi, Pakistan

Shahla Naeem and Zafar Fatmi

Shahla Naeem, Pakisthan

Introduction: Demand for nutritious food and caloric intake naturally increases during pregnancy. Low birth weight (LBW) occurs because of poor maternal health and nutrition. About 18 million low birth-weight babies are born every year, accounting to 14 per cent of all live births. During pregnancy, diet is a relevant predictor of maternal and fetal outcomes and also child development later in life. Recommended caloric intake of women with normal body mass index (BMI) is 2000 calories per day. When a woman conceives, her caloric requirements increase to 2500 calories per day. Calorie intake among pregnant women has not been assessed robustly in Pakistan. One of the reasons for this dearth of information is that there is no validated tool available for this assessment. In Pakistan, there are very few studies regarding validation of food frequency questionnaire. The aim of this study was to validate food frequency questionnaire with 24-hour dietary recall among pregnant women (15-49 years of age) of Bin Qasim Town, Karachi.

Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at four sites in Bin Qasim Town, Karachi: Cattle Colony, Ali Akber Shah, Ibrahim Hyderi, Ibrahim Hyderi Extension. Data was collected from May 2015 to Jan 2016. A total of 300 pregnant women of 15-49 years were selected using purposive sampling from ongoing surveillance of pregnant women organized by pediatric department of Aga Khan University, Karachi in Bin Qasim town. All pregnant women were eligible for the study except those with co morbid conditions of hypertension, diabetes and asthma and also women with multiple pregnancies were excluded. Socio-demographic questionnaire and a structured validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were administered on the first day to the pregnant women. 24-hours dietary recall questionnaire were administered twice with fifteen days apart for validating the food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight of pregnant women was taken to determine their BMI. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was done between mean of two days 24-hours dietary recall and socio-demographic variables. Pearsonʼs correlation was done between FFQ and 24-hour dietary recall for validation of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).

Results: Being Sindhi speaking or other minorities were taking less calories compared to Urdu speaking community [β=-0.14 (95%CI: -0.30 to -0.03)]. Low income households (less than 10,000PKR) were taking less calories [β=-0.13 (95% CI: -0.33 to -0.03)] compared to those having income greater than 10,000PKR. Women with unwanted pregnancy had lower caloric intake [β=-0.17 (95% CI: -0.40 to -0.09)]. Pearsonʼs correlation coefficient (r) between two 24-hour dietary recall was 0.54 and between total calories of FFQ and mean of two days 24-hr dietary recall was 0.57, at p value<0.05.

Conclusion: The Food Frequency Questionnaire is a useful tool to determine the calorie intake among pregnant women of Pakistan, where mother nutrition is a neglected issue. Recognition of the nutrition status may help in raising awareness and mainstreaming the maternal health as a public health concern at the national level.

Keywords: Validation; food frequency questionnaire; maternal nutrition; pregnant women; calorie; Pakistan.

Baseline Sensitivities of Alternaria Solani Isolates from Potato to Penthiopyrad and Novel Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhbitiors

Sehrish Iftikhar, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Kiran Nawaz and Waheed Anwar

University of the Punjab, Pakistan

Abstract—Potato (Solanumtuberosum L.) is the most widely grown solanaceous crop in the world. Early blight is one of the most prevalent foliar diseases of potato caused by Alternariasolani. In present study, we assessed the baseline sensitivities of A. solani isolates to penthiopyrad and novel SDHIs viz., C1-C12. The fungicide concentration that effectively inhibits mycelial growth by 50% relative to the control (EC50) for 25 isolates showed that the majority of the isolates were sensitive to all the new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitions (SDHIs). Analysis of EC50 values for penthiopyrad showed that 19 isolates were sensitive and 6 isolates had reduced sensitivity to penthiopyrad in mycelial growth assay. In contrast, all the isolates were sensitive to newly designed SDHIs. The EC50 values were also established for spore germination assay. Analysis of EC50 values of spore germination assay for penthiopyrad showed that 18 isolates were sensitive and 7 isolates had moderate resistance against penthiopyrad. While all the isolates were sensitive to twelve novel SDHIs in spore germination assay. The discrepancies of sensitivities of A. solani isolates to penthiopyrad and SDHIs propose that their binding confirmation in complex II may differ slightly. The data presented in this study will help the potato growers in regions with prevalent penthiopyrad resistance to avoid fungicides against which resistance is reported and in selecting SDHI candidates that remain efficacious.

IndexTerms—Complex II, fungicide resistance, SDHI, early blight, potato.

Profiling of the Glycemic Index of Underutilized Fruit and Vegetable

Thai Ngoc Ro, Vietnam

Glycaemic Index (GI) is a term used to describe the effect on blood glucose of consuming a carbohydrate rich meal. It is accepted knowledge that the digestion and the absorption of carbohydrate leads to an increase in the levels of blood glucose. The extent and rate of elevation depend on a number of factors. For optimum health, it is essential that blood glucose is maintained between 3.0-5.5mmol per litre. This is achieved by the pancreatic hormones insulin and glucagon that work synergistically to control the levels of circulating glucose. When this system is compromised, for example when the pancreas or insulin receptors are damaged, blood glucose levels cannot be controlled. This leads to the development of type two Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). As nutritionist, we are interested in consuming a diet that provides optimum health. With respect to carbohydrate and GI value, this means avoiding foods that result in a sudden peak in blood glucose (known as high GI foods). The GI value of a food ranges from 0 to 100, with the highest value being for pure glucose. Complex carbohydrates, especially from whole grains, have a lower GI value.

There is anecdotal (and scientific) evidence to suggest that fruits, vegetables and herbs (including under-utilised species) can be used to control T2DM. For example, bitter gourd (Momordicacharantia) contains charantin, momordicin, cucurbutanoids, which are responsible for the hypoglycaemic principle. Bitter gourd extracts was shown anti-hyperglycaemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats (STZ) due to the inhibition of glucose-6-photphatase as well as stimulation the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Lawrence et al., 2009). In addition, an aqueous extract of raw ginger (Zingiberofficinale) was resulted that there was a significantly effect in lowering serum glucose, hypolypidemic potential of STZ-induced diabetic rats compare to control group after 7 weeks (Amin et al., 2006). Moreover, the effect of fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum) ethanolic extract was examined after 2 weeks. The result was significant effect on weight loss in diabetes rats. From that, the serum glucose, cholesterol profile was reduced, whereas insulin level was inclined only in diabetes rats, p<.05 (Akram et al., 2007).

The purpose of this research is to review existing evidence of the role of selected under-utilised species in controlling T2DM. Promising species will be selected for in-vitro studies to determine the effect on the GI value of a rice based diet, thus creating a GI profile for the under-utilised species. The species selected for study are bitter gourd, ginger, fenugreek, turmeric.

Initial studies will induce the development of an in-vivo method to stimulate digestion and absorption. Boiled white will serve as the control. The effect of adding the species under investigation at various concentrations will be studied.

Time and ethics permitting, the second phase of the study will include in-vivo measurement of blood glucose in a range of subjects following consumption of rice and mixed meals containing the species being investigated.

Keywords: glycaemic index, carbohydrate, diabetes, glucose, insulin, nutrient, underutilised, bitter gourd, ginger, fenugreek, Trigonellafoenum-graecum, Zingiberofficinale, Momordicacharantia.

Nutrition as a Weapon Against Neurological Disturbances

Hajera Fatima

Osmania University, India

Today there is an increase in depression, stress, pyshological disorders in women. Many factors contribute to the mental illness which eventually leads to psychological disorders. The various aspects which solve this problem and also the etiologies are included.

Antioxidants: Possible relation of consumption of dietary antioxidants with memory and Alzheimerʼs disease, depression, diabetic neuropathy.

Serotonin: A neurotransmitter and a contributor to the feeling of wellbeing and happiness. How abnormal levels of serotonin cause neurobehavioral disturbances.

Amygdale: Part of brain, involved in decision making and emotional reactions. The involvement of Amygdale in the social networks and its complexity in oneʼs life and the dietary changes for proper functioning.

Nutrition: Vitamin-K, B12, Zinc, Phosphorus are involved in the mental wellness of the mother and fetus. How a deficit of this effects the mental development of the infant and mental stability of mother.

Vitamin –E: A fat soluble vitamin, acts as an antioxidant. How Vitamin E and Vitamin C work synergistically to eliminate a psychological disorder especially Alzheimerʼs disease.

Neurotransmitters: They are chemical messengers that enable neurotransmission. Requirement of Thiamine -Vitamin B1 for the wellbeing of neurotransmitter (which consecutively leads to healthy functioning nervous system).

Toxins: With pollution a woman runs a higher risk of pre term delivery. Such babies would have poor development of brain. The diet for mother which minimizes the effects of pollutants on the baby.

Tryptophan: An amino acid involved in signaling which benefits the brain. Possible psychological changes encountered due to consumption of Tryptophan

Fats: Relation of fat with menopausal irritations, depression, aggressive behavior. How obesity contributes to mental sickness especially depression.

Neuroinflammation: Inflammation of the nervous tissue. How proper nutrition brings significant changes.

Hajera Fatima completed her BSc with internship. Started Research early apt to her interest in making career in Research field. Was awarded best poster presentation in Science fair. Worked as a dietician during my undergraduate days under the supervision of a senior doctor, as keen on starting her career early, where have successfully counseled patients not only regarding diet for diseases also for wellness from pediatric patients to geriatric patients including infants. Participated in 11th International food data conference and various workshops. Volunteered as a speaker in girls schools and colleges to deliver nutritional importance. As a part of business family in education, got a chance since young ages to manage an organization, during which she have made significant changes and doubled the profits. Studying Masters.

A Qualitative Exploration of Food Taboos among Lactating Women and Common Reasons for Adherence in Pastoralist Community of Afar, Eastern Ethiopia

Znabu Hadush Kahsay, Ethiopia

Background: Women are especially prone to food taboos during the various stages of reproductive cycle, such as menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and lactation. In pastoralist communities, which face frequent food insecurity and poor access to health care, restricting food intake of lactating women could pose a considerable risk of malnutrition for both women and newborns due to the high energy demands of milk production. Nonetheless, evidence germane to the issues faced by pastoral communities is scarce. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore food taboos among lactating women and reasons for adherence in the Afar pastoralist community of Ethiopia.

Methods: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted from March 01 to 29, 2016. Four focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews were conducted using semi-structured guides, considering information saturation in determining the number of purposively selected participants. Informed written consent was obtained after assuring confidentiality. Verbatim transcriptions of audio recordings were coded and analyzed inductively using Atlas.ti Version 7. Inter-coder reliability, probe, data triangulation, peer debriefing, and bracketing were applied to assure trustworthiness of the data.

Results: Taboos on cold foods and beverages, solid foods such as locally prepared breads, and foods prepared outside the home were reported, applicable to lactating mothers during the first 45 days after delivery (approximately 6 weeks). According to this study, food taboos are strictly followed in order to prevent gastrointestinal illness (indigestion, bloating, diarrheal disease) for the woman and child. The taboos are cultural, rather than religious, in origin and mainly propagated by female elders.

Conclusions and recommendations: In combination with the disadvantaged status of women and generally poor nutrition in the Afar community, food taboos targeting nutritionally rich and accessible food items may put lactating mothers and their newborn babiesat risk. However, the food taboos described in this study appear to have originated from generations of observing diarrheal disease transmission and are in fact intended to protect the woman and infant. We recommend working with female elders and using context-specific behavior change communication to improve the communityʼs understanding of food sanitation and nutrition, as well as to challenge cultural bases for adherence to food taboos.

Keywords: Food taboo, nutrition, lactating women, child health, pastoralist, Afar, Ethiopia.

Development and Evaluation of Complementary Food from Blends of Maize and Soya Flour Enriched with Moringa Powder

Berhan Fikru1 and Kaleab Baye2

1Food, Medicine and Healthcare Administration and Control Authority, AddisAbaba, Ethiopia
2Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

The objective of the study was to develop complementary food from maize and soybean flours enriched with moringa leaf powder for young children. The sample blends were formulated with different proportion and Faffa corn soya blend was used as a control. Linear programming (LP Nutri-survey software) was used predict blend ratio in order to meet the standards. Analysis were made for different formulated blends and compared with the control and recommended daily allowance (RDA). The four complementary blends (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated based on the protein, energy, mineral (calcium, iron and zinc) and vitamin (vitamin A and C) content of the food crops. Standard procedures were used to determine the nutritional values in formulated blends: moisture, crude protein, total ash, crude fiber, crude fat, carbohydrate and energy; minerals: Ca, Fe and Zn; vitamins: vitamin A and C; chelating agents: phytate and tannin; functional properties and sensory preference were also reported. The overall results indicated that nutrient content of Blend 1(control) was 16.32 % protein, 10.02 % fat, 63.76 % carbohydrate, 422.31 kcal energy, 64.47 mg calcium, 3.8 mg iron, 1.87 mg zinc, 0.19 mg vitamin A and 1.19 mg vitamin C; Blend 2 was 17.16 % protein, 10.04 % fat, 60.57 % carbohydrate, 429.84 kcal energy, 330.40 mg calcium, 6.19 mg iron, 1.62 mg zinc, 6.33 mg vitamin A and 4.05 mg vitamin C; Blend 3 was 20.26 % protein, 10.24 % fat, 57.51 % carbohydrate, 418.79 kcal energy, 417.44 mg calcium, 9.26 mg iron, 2.16 mg zinc, 8.43 mg vitamin A and 4.19 mg vitamin C and Blend 4 was 16.44 % protein, 8.79 % fat, 64.11 % carbohydrate, 417.42 kcal energy, 242.4 mg calcium, 7.09 mg iron, 2.22 mg zinc, 3.69 mg vitamin A and 4.72 mg vitamin C, respectively. The difference was found between all means statically significance (P<0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that the formulated blend 1 and 4 were preferred by semitrained panelists. Blend 4 (corn soya blend plus moringa) had better in terms of its mineral and vitamin content than FAFFA corn soya blend and comparable with WFP proprietary products CSB+, CSB++ and fulfils the WHO recommendation for protein, energy and calcium and vitamin A. The suggested formulation with moringa powder can therefore be used as a complementary food to improve the nutritional status of Ethiopian children and also help solve problem associated with protein energy and micronutrient malnutrition for young children in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia.

Keywords: Corn Soya blend, proximate composition, micronutrient, mineral chelating agents, sensory attributes and complementary foods.

Effects of Storage Duration on Quality and Yolk Lipid Profile of Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Eggs

Uzochukwu Ifeanyi E1, Amaefule Bright C1, Oyeagu Chika2 and Ozoude Lilian A1

1University of Nigeria, Nsukka
2University of Fort Hare, South Africa

A 28 days study was carried out to determine the effect of storage durations on quality and yolk lipid profile of Japanese quail eggs. Two hundred and fiftyeggs collected from 315 laying hens within a day of lay were used for the study. The eggs were randomly divided into five treatment groups comprising different durations of storage (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) in a completely randomized design and were stored at room temperature. Each group was replicated 5 times with 10 eggs per replicate. The external and internal egg quality characteristics were measured throughout the durations of storage. Proximate compositions (Moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins) of the eggs were also determined for each treatment group. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that egg quality parameters of egg weight, egg length, egg diameter, shell surface area, albumen-yolk weight, yolk height, yolk diameter, albumen height and yolk index were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the durations of storage. Egg weight, yolk height, yolk index, and albumen height progressively declined(P<0.05) as the durations of storage increased. Also, moisture, crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, and high density lipoprotein levels progressively decreased (P<0.05) as the eggs were stored for longer durations. The total cholesterol however increased (P<0.05) with increasing storage durations. It was concluded from the study that quail eggs maintained good quality when stored at room temperature up till 14 days.

Uzochukwu, Ifeanyi is an Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Animal Science at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka where he has been a faculty member since 2014. Ifeanyi is currently a Ph.D Student in the area of Animal Reproductive Physiology at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka from where he obtained an M.Sc and B.Agric degrees in 2016 and 2011 respectively. His research interest lie in the area studying the effect of stressors on the reproductive physiology and process of domestic birds. He has several publications and has attended many conferences both locally and internationally.