International
Journal of Earth Science and Geology

ISSN: 2642-1569

Review Article

The Effect of increase of NOx and CO2 on Grain and Fish Production, Protection of Global Warming and Climate

Shoichiro Ozaki*

The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wokoshi Saitama, Japan

*Corresponding author: Shoichiro Ozaki, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wokoshi Saitama, Japan, Tel: + 81 0467 67 0991, E-mail: ozaki-0991@jcom.zaq.ne.jp

Received: November 15, 2018 Accepted: December 11, 2018 Published: December 20, 2018

Citation: Ozaki S. The Effect of increase of NOx and CO2 on Grain and Fish Production, Protection of Global Warming and Climate. Int J Earth Sci Geol. 2018; 1(1): 41-45. doi: 10.18689/ijeg-1000104

Copyright: © 2018 The Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Abstract

In order to study the reason why global warming is happening, the amounts of CO2 emission, CO2 concentration NOx emission, grain production, fish production, population and CO2 fix from 1900 to 2016 were studied.

Since the industrial revolution, burning of fossil and production of CO2 and NOx increased greatly, increased CO2 and NOx promoted the CO2 assimilation and production of grain and fish increased. About 360 billion tone CO2 is produced by burning of much fossil. About 14.4 billion tone NOx is produced in 2015. Most of emitted CO2 is fixed by CO2 assimilation. But since developed country started NOx elimination and NP elimination at around 1975, half of produced NOx is eliminated. Therefore emitted 360 billion tone CO2 is not fixed completely. Concentration of CO2 increased about 2 ppm. In 2016, 142 billion tone CO2 is remaining to give global warming. 142 billion tone CO2 must be reduced. We must promote CO2 assimilation by complete use of emitting NOx and NP in waste water.

Fossil fuel is burning out soon. We should not spend precious fossil fuel for the elimination of NOx and NP. We must increase CO2 assimilation as much as possible.

Keywords: Global warming; Climate; CO2 emission; Fossil fuel

Introduction

The Earth is warmed by the fossil fuel burning releasing CO2 and heat. The plant is growing by CO2 assimilation absorbing CO2 producing carbohydrate and O2 . If we can compensate the generation of CO2 and heat with the absorption of CO2 and heat by CO2 assimilation, global warming can be protected [1-26].

CO2 react with water and by CO2 assimilation to produce carbohydrate and oxygen. Carbohydrate turns to cellulose, tree, plant and plankton. Tree turns to coal, plankton into oil in many billion years.

Our human being are using these fossil fuels and enjoying civilized life. Animal including fish can live by eating plant and plankton. Animal releases CO2 by respiration. Released CO2 react with water to give carbohydrate. CO2 is cycling in such way shown in figure 1.

CO2 assimilation is accelerated by fertilizers like Nutrient nitrogen and Phosphorous. Nature set up the system to change Nitrogen gas to nutrient nitrogen, nitrogen oxide by the reaction of nitrogen with oxygen. The reaction needs high temperature. High temperature is obtained by burning of something like wood, fossil fuel or by thunder. By burning, CO2 is produced and NOx is also produced. The ratio of CO2/NOx is around 25/1. When 1 tone fossil is burned, 1 × 44/14=3.14 tone CO2 is produced. 3.14 × 1/25=0.125 tone NOx is produced.

When 140 billion tone fossil is burned. And 140 × 44/14=440 billion tone CO2 is produced. And 440 × 1/25=17.6 billion tone NOx is produced. By the increase of CO2 and NOx production, CO2 assimilation is promoted greatly. I wish to describe the relation of global warming, CO2 assimilation, production of grain, fish and showed the best method to protect global warming.

CO2 Assimilation is promoted by Increase of CO2 and NOx

Since plant growth by CO2 assimilation reaction, velocity of CO2 assimilation is carried out in proportion to the concentration of CO2, H2O, Sunshine, Nutrient N, Nutrient P as shown by following equation.

v = A (CO2) (H2O) (sunshine) (N) (P)

Since the industrial revolution, burning of fossil and production of CO2 and NOx increased greatly. CO2 emission, CO2 concentration, NOx emission, Grain production, Fish production, Population, CO2 fix from 1990 to 2016 are shown in table 1.

Weight of vegetation of world increased about 2 times since the industrial revolution, area of tropical rain wood area increased very much since these several 10 years.

Total weight of wood is said to be 800 billion tones. Professor Tadashi Watanabe [27] of Tokyo Science University tells the reason is the increase of CO2. I think the reason is the increase of NOx [1-26].

Zaichun Zou reported the change of global change of leaf area from 1982-2009. Total area of increased green is 18 million km2, double of USA area [28]. The effect s of CO2 and NOx on climate and plant growth are studied by many investigators [29-41].

The increase of CO2 and NOx production increased the CO2 assimilation. The increase of CO2 assimilation increased the production of grain and fish. The production of grain in 1960 was 0.85 billion tone whereas in 2010 was 2.6 billion tone which is 3 times higher [42,43].

The production of grain in India increased 5 times from 1950 to 2010. In 1950-0.5 billion tone, 1960-0.7 billion tone, 1970-1 billion tone, 1980-1.2 billion tone, 1990-1.7 billion tone, 2000-2.2 billion tone, 2010-2.5 billion tone, CO2 emission is now 24 billion tone. NOx emission increased to 1 billion tone. The increase of NOx contributed for the production of 2.5 billion tone grain. Population of India increased 1951-3.8 billion to 2014-12.5 billion. 3.3 times grain production increased 5 times.

Fish production of the world increased. In 1940, 20 million tone, in 1960, 35 million tones, in 1980 45 million tone, in 1990 80 million tone, in 2000 130 million tone, in 2010 130 million tone, in 2016 200 million tone. China increased fish production 57 times from 1960 to 2017. In 1960 1.5 million tone, 1970 2 million tone, 1980-3 million tones, 1990-4 million tone, 1997-16.33 million tons, 2002-16.33 million tons, 2016-78.38 million tone, 2017-85.3 million tone. China produced 106 billion tones CO2 and 4 billion tons NOx. 4 billion tons NOx contributed for the increase of nitrogen concentration of sea, and growth of plankton, increase of fish production [44].

China produced 4 billion tons NOx. This NOx increased nitrogen concentration of sea. East China sea in now top fishing sea. The three big fishing seas were North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, West of South America. These seas were rich in nutrient NP caused by countercurrent of deep sea water NP rich deep sea with NP poor surface sea water.

When CO2 concentration increases, yield of grain increased about 30%. The concentration of CO2 at green house is kept at 1000-1500 ppm. Normal concentration of air is 400 ppm. Therefore the concentration at green house is 2.5-3.75 times higher than normal air CO2. The tree at population dense big city growth much rapidly than normal district.

NOx is very effective promotor of CO2 assimilation. Therefore the production of grain and fish increased proportionally to the increase of CO2 and NOx. In 1900, 20 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 20 billion tone CO2 is fixed. In 1920 30 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 30 billion tone CO2 is fixed. In 1940 50 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 50 billion tone CO2 is fixed. In 1960 100 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 100 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 100 billion tone CO2 is fixed. After 1980, amount of CO2 emission and fix become different. Fix amount become smaller than emission [45,46].

In 1980 200 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 180 billion tone CO2 is fixed. In 1990 220 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 140 billion tone CO2 is fixed. In 2000 250 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 160 billion tone CO2 is fixed. In 2010 300 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 160 billion tone CO2 is fixed. In 2016 360 billion tone CO2 is emitted and 220 billion tone CO2 is fixed. Amount of CO2 fix is 140 billion tones less than emission. This is caused by the elimination of NOx and NP. CO2 assimilation is retarded by NOx, NP elimination.

CO2 Assimilation must be promoted by Stopping of NOx elimination and by Stopping of Waste water Purification [21]

In 2015 fossil 140 billion ton was burned and CO2 360 billion ton and NOx 14.4 billion ton are produced. If we use all NOx for the fixing of CO2, we can fix 14.4 × 25 × 108=360 billion tone CO2. But NOx is hated as pollution gas causing illness. Many governments of developed countries set up very strict law to eliminate NOx in burned gas and forced to eliminate NOx using ammonia. To eliminate NOx, huge amount of ammonia is necessary and huge amount of fossil is burned.

Elimination of NOx is promoting global warming three ways. One is retardation of CO2 fix. Two is increase of CO2 by using much butane. Three is consumption of precious fuel for the production of ammonia.

About 0.5 billion tone phosphorous and 10 billion tone nutrias nitrogen are contained in waste water. By using this phosphorous and nitrogen, 100 billion tone CO2 can be fixed and 37.5 billion ton plankton can be produced and fish 1.5 billion ton can be produced. Animal eat food containing P and exclude excreta containing P. When toilet disposal and drainage are sent to excreta disposal treatment plant P in water was made to water insoluble mass, mixed with cement and made to concrete and buried in soil. Plant cannot use P any more [1]. This process use huge electricity and consume much fossil fuel. Around 10 billion tone fossil and producing 30 billion tone CO2. For the elimination of one phosphorous, about 25 carbon fossil is used and about 25 CO2 is produced. One phosphorous can fix 56 CO2 [10]. The phosphorous and nitrogen elimination process should be avoided. Excreta is best food for plant. Ocean dumping, field dumping and forest dumping of excreta are recommended to increase CO2 assimilation.

I wish to propose plan that NOx elimination should be stopped and waste water purification should be stopped. Then CO2 assimilation is promoted and food production increase and global warming can be stopped.

Heat Balance of Earth [24]

On earth 140 billion tone fossil fuel is burned and CO2 3.6 × 1010 t was produced. And 7.4 × 1015 kcal is produced. When we consider the heat produced by animal respiration, 7.4 × 1015 kcal × 4.6/3.6=9.45 × 1015 kcal is produced.

The earth is also warmed by the heat of atomic energy. Uranium produces 2 × 1015 kcal heat. Electricity generation capacity of the world is 16868 Tetra watt h. Electricity generation by atomic energy is 2086 Tetra watt h. Therefore 7.4 × 1015 × 2986/ 10868=2.02 × 1015 kcal evolved by atomic energy.

The earth is also warmed by the heat evolved by animal. Human being eats 1000 kcal food every day and release heat 1000 kcal every day. Population of the world is 76 billion. Therefore human being is releasing 1000 × 365× 76 × 108=2.8 × 1015 kcal in one year. Animal other than human being, caw, bird, whales, seal are producing heat. We can estimate as same as human being 2.8 × 1015 kcal. Therefore total heat is fossil burning produce 7.4 × 1015 kcal, atomic energy produce 2.02 × 1015 kcal. Human being produces 2.8 × 1015 kcal. Other animal produce 2.8 × 1015 kcal.

Total heat produced is (7.4+2.02+2.8+2.8) × 1015=15.02 × 1015 kcal. We must absorb 15.02 × 1015 kcal by CO2 assimilation.

CO2 assimilation must be promoted by stopping of NOx elimination and by stopping waste water elimination. By stopping NOx elimination.14.4 billion tone NOx can fix 14,4 × 25=360 billion tone CO2 . Amount of N.P in drainage is around 10 billion tone. By using this 10 billion tone N.P, we can fix 10 × 25=250 billion tone CO2. By adding 360+250=610 billion tone CO2 can be fixed. And we can absorb 15 × 1015 kcal. And earth can be cooled down.

Electricity Generation by Solar System

Construction of solar mega system by the sacrifice of wood is not clever way. 1 hector, 1000 m2 wood can absorb heart 3.8 × 106 kcal and can fix 13.7 tone CO2. Heart absorption efficiency of solar system cell is 1/3 of green leaf of tree. Solar system cell cannot fix CO2. For the preparation of solar cell material, much fossil fuel is necessary generating almost same amount of CO2 in compared with the generation of CO2 and electricity by burning of fossil fuel. Therefore construction of solar mega system by the sacrifice of wood is promoting global warming.

1000 m2 cell can generate 114000 kWh and can save 7.5 t CO2 and can absorb 1.3 × 106 kcal. For the production of 1000m2 cell 5 tone CO2 is produced. Electricity generation should be done at no green land. The house located near wood, cooler is unnecessary. But the house located near solar mega system, cooler is necessary at summer.

Fossil Fuel is burned out soon

When fossil is burned out, we need not worry about global warming. We must worry how we can live civilized life. How can we drive car, air plane, and agriculture machine? How can we generate electricity? How can we make plastic. We must save the consumption of fossil. We should not spend precious fossil for the elimination of NOx, NP. We must depend on wood.

Electricity Generation should be done by Coal [18]

IPCC asking electricity generation by oil and natural gas than coal, because coals generate more CO2 than oil. But I think coal is better for the generation of electricity to save the consumption of oil. The difference of CO2 generation by both fuels is not so much different. CO2 increase can be saved by the decrease of CO2 emission by stopping NOx elimination procedure. When we compare buried amount, coal (132 years) is 3 times as much as oil (42 years) and natural gas (60 years). We can manufacture many kind of chemical and plastic from oil. Oil is more convenient as transportation fuels. Therefore oil and natural gas are 3 times more precious than coal. Price of coal is 1/3 of oil. Therefore we can generate electricity by coal at low price. The price of electricity is very important for the competition of productive industry. The year of oil scare is coming in 50 years. Then we must do liquefaction of coal to get liquid fuel for transportation. In this process, about half energy of coal is lost. We can enjoy our civilized life longer by saving the consumption of oil and natural gas.

Summary

Global warming and fossil fuel burn out can be protected by the promotion of CO2 assimilation by supply of nutrient N and P by following 8 items.

  • Elimination process of NOx in power station, chemical station and iron work station should be stopped.
  • Elimination process of nutrient N and P in drainage should be stopped. Ocean dumping, field dumping and forest dumping of excreta are recommended.
  • Agitate deep sea water (rich in nutrient N and P) with shallow sea water (poor in nutrient N and P).
  • Promotion of food and wood production at as wider area as possible as we can.
  • Stop the unproductive uses of fossil fuel. Like war, auto race, leisure cruising, leisure trip.
  • Stop the unnecessary economic stimulus measures such as renewal of building and car and construction of unnecessary building, road and rail way.
  • Restriction rule of NOxemission of car should be loosed.
  • Stop the construction of solar cell system by the sacrifice of wood.

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