1University of Delhi, India
2Banaras Hindu University, India
For long-term disposal, high-level nuclear waste is usually immobilized into synthetic Na - Ba borosilicate glass types, however, their performance in the geological repository is uncertain and require calibration against naturally occurring low silica impact basaltic glass (analogue) as a reference standard. For this purpose, comparative experimental and natural alteration studies were performed on synthetic Na - Ba borosilicate and impact basaltic glass. Degree of alteration and formation of altered products when studied with respect to time under similar experimental conditions (100 °C and 250 psi) revealed three fold rapid alteration in case of Na - Ba borosilicate glass types as compared to impact glass. Owing to fast dissolution of Na - Ba borosilicate glass, high amount of Al, Ca, K, Mg, Na and Si ions released into solutions with the formation of secondary silicates as residue. Mineralogy of the neo-formed minerals when compared to naturally derived secondary silicates from impact glass in three geological time windows assessed by 14C AMS method revealed that naturally altered impact basaltic glass show paragenetic order of saponite < calcite < montmorillonite < montmorillonite/chlorite mixed layer < siderite < chabazite < aragonite < analcime. Almost similar mineralogical assemblages were recorded when impact basaltic glass treated under hydrothermal-like conditions. Moreover, saponite formed as a chief post Na - Ba borosilicate alteration product. Thus, Na - Ba borosilicate structure is vulnerable for alteration as compared to the impact basaltic glass. Consequently, later seems to be more reliable as standard for calibration of nuclear wastes.
Keywords: Lonar Impact basaltic glass, Na-Ba borosilicate glass, Alteration, Secondary Silicates, Mineral Paragenesis
Department of Water and Sanitation, South Africa
Itʼs commonly accepted that climate change will be experienced though water, particularly in developing countries. Several studies relating to the impacts of climate change on surface water have been undertaken while very little research exists on the potential impacts on groundwater. However, lately increasingly more research work on groundwater and climate change is emerging. Hence, in this talk the national and international case study examples of assessment methods, pertaining to use of either groundwater and climate models or climate and groundwater indices to assess climate change impacts on groundwater will be dealt with.
Chris Moseki has over 20 years of experience in groundwater development and water resources management. He also served as a research manager at the Water Research Commission responsible for development of tools and systems for adaptation to climate change for about 6 years. Chris is currently a climate change specialist scientist at the Department of Water and Sanitation. His interest includes research in groundwater and climate change as well as seeking solutions to climate and water related problems in the public sector.
1National Institute of Oceanography, India
2Goa University, India
Extraterrestrial dust that bombards the upper atmosphere comprises of diverse type of samples of different planetary objects like asteroids and comets, which accretes to Earth in the form of micrometeorites. Cosmic spherules are melted micrometeorites formed from melting of extraterrestrial grains due to frictional heating with air molecules. Precursors for cosmic spherules have therefore become difficult to determine since they are altered during atmospheric entry process. Relict grains are some of the least altered fragments found in cosmic spherules. Here we report unusual relict grains with association of olivine Fa >10 mol% and pyroxene Fs >10 mol% in three relict bearing cosmic spherules MS-I30-P156, MS-I31-P224, MS-I35-P274. These cosmic spherules have been separated using magnetic separation method, mounted in epoxy and examined in SEM and analyse in EPMA for their chemical composition.
Survival of relict grains with this chemical composition in cosmic spherule is complicated considering the temperature experienced by the cosmic spherules, as they are more susceptible to heat and can readily equilibrate with the melt. Olivine with Fa >10 mol% and pyroxene with Fs >10 mol% are common in chondrules found in equilibrated ordinary chondrites (EOC) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC), but they are much more insignificant in carbonaceous chondrites. Relict grains in cosmic spherules are compared with olivines and pyroxenes with ordinary chondrites for their major and minor elemental distribution to assert the nature of parent bodies that contribute to relict grains in micrometeorites
Dafilgo Fernandes is a 3rd year Ph.D. scholar registered at School of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Goa University. He has a background of M.Sc. in Geology and at present works on Antarctica and deep-sea sediment micrometeorites. Dafilgo has been member of XXXV Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica which was aimed at extracting micrometeorites from blue ice. Since then, he has co-authored several scientific papers in peer-reviewed journals. His research work on micrometeorites primarily focuses on, investigating petrology and chemistry of Antarctica and deep-sea sediment micrometeorites.
1Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Migas Balikpapan, Indonesia
2Sriwijaya University, Indonesia
Tamiang Sub-basin of The North Sumatra Basin is the first area in Indonesia to produce hydrocarbons to the east of the Bukit Barisan Mountains, the northeast coast of Sumatra and the Andaman Sea. Well data used petrophysical analysis to obtain hydrocarbon saturation values and then integrated using bandlimited inversion methods and multi-attribute seismic methods. The bandlimited inversion method is used to calculate the impedance of the next rock layer from the previous layer in the form of physical information on the earth based on the information of the symmetrical record which is controlled by the well data. While multi-attribute seismic methods are use more than one attribute to predict some physical properties of the earth. The prediction carried out is the porosity distribution of seismic volume including porosity in C-26 and E-29 wells, field X which is assumed to have reservoir continuity which accumulates hydrocarbons. To increase the correlation between actual log and predict log, the Probabilistic Neural Network method is used. From the prediction results it is known that the distribution of X field porosity in the target reef zone is in the range of 7.5% - 17.5%.
Iwan Prabowo is a teaching staff at the College of Oil and Gas Technology (STT Migas Balikpapan), Indonesia. He has done his master's program at National Research Tomsk State University, Russia Federation and Universite de Lille 1, France (double degree program). In the master's program he specializes in stratigraphy and paleontology. Before getting a master's degree program, he has finished a bachelor's program at University of Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta, Indonesia. At the time he was active as a lecture assistant in the paleontology laboratory.
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, India
Waste generation and human civilization is the two faces of the same coin. Nowadays, waste generation is one of the biggest problems in big cities of India. Only in urban areas of our country, 62 MT ton annual MSW is generated and dumped at dumping site, which creates numerous problems to environment & human health. Waste recycling is a very effective strategy in managing waste among all 4Rs. Generally, waste materials are originating from households, industries, Agriculture, commercial hubs, etc. in which significant quantity of agriculture and municipality solid waste is reported as well as its recycling is also in general practices.
Industrial waste is still a challenge to recycle and reuse it properly. E-waste and plastic waste is also one of the dangerous categories of waste of the modern era, which has a great potential and scope in recycling. A number of value added products can be developed by using different types of waste materials originating from agriculture, industries, residential colonies, commercial buildings, etc.
In this context, cellulose, cellophane, activated charcoal, pavement blocks, artificial base for plants, compost fertilizers, biogas, wood substitute, panels, composites, baby diapers, automobile perfume gel, wood primer, peelable coatings, furniture, plastic panels, plastic roads, adhesives, car mats, shoe sole, bio-ethanol, fuel briquettes, and many more value added products were developed by our institution during last 2 decades.
Keywords: Waste recycling, product development, plastic waste, primer & paints from plastic.
Cairo University, Egypt
The pollution of water became an international concern. Regardless which purpose water is used, it should not be contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms or harmful heavy metals. Aquaculture is an emerging food producing sector that needs constant research with scientific, technical and innovation developments. Marin in Egypt suffers from poor water quality because water is contaminated with the sewage disposal and agrochemical, in addition to exposure to high environmental factors leading to the outbreak of bacterial infection among fish, besides the wastes discharged from the neighboring villages without treatment. Qaroun Lake and the Marriotiah stream are among the most sensitive areas. The current study was carried out to isolate and identify some of bacteria infecting fish to evaluate the health status of fish and investigate the quality of water and at these two locations. Water and fish samples were taken from each of the locations and examined to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial characteristics. A total number of 30 Oreochromisniloticusfrys fish samples (weighing 3 gm.), 50 artemia shrimp (weighting 1 gm.) and 5 Tilapia zilli were collected from Shakshouk area, Lake Qarun at Fayoum province, Egypt. A total of 5 Oreochromisniloticus (Nile Tilapia) weighing 50g were collected from ElMariotteya stream. All fish samples were examined clinically while necropsy was performed on variable number of freshly dead and moribund fish. Bacteriological examination was done on all samples and gram positive and negative bacteria were isolated. Differentiaon of bacteria were done in all positive examined fish organs samples (gills, liver and kidney) using different selective media, where the isolated bacteria belonging to Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas. Samples collected from Nile tilapia frys in Qarun Lake showed a percentage of: vibrio spp (16.6%), aeromonas spp (66.6%) and pseudomonas spp (16.6%). Samples of artima shrimps showed: vibrio spp (40%), aeromonas spp (20%) and pseudomonas ssp (20%). Tapliazillii showed: vibrio spp (40%), aeromonas spp (40%) and pseudomonas spp (20%).While in Nile taplia samples which were collected from the Mariotteya stream showed: no Vibrio spp retrieved aeromanos spp (80%) and pseudomonas spp (20%). In addition to that the water samples were contaminated with Cu, Cd and P. Finally, it can be concluded that the death of fish happening in those places is multi-factoring.
Keywords: Water Quality; bacterial ; Carbon nanoparticles; Qaroun Lake and the Marriotiah
Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria
2D geoelectric imaging and co-planar loop electromagnetic measurements have been conducted around groundwater seepage zones located withinthe western section of the Adekunle Ajasin University campus, Akungba-Akoko, Southwestern Nigeria. The study was aimed at mapping and identifying subsurface geological structures that could have impacted the seepages and their groundwater feasibility. Apparent ground conductivity measurements at 5 m station intervals were obtained using EM 34-3 equipment with a co-planar loop system along three traverses, while resistivity datasets included three dipole – dipole profiles, with electrode separation of 10 m and n factor of 5 for a maximum dipole length of 70 m, and eight Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings.EM profiles generally revealed two dominant short and long wavelengths of positive peak anomalies. The highs with values greater than 15.0 mS/msuggestednear – vertical disposed linear geological interfaces or pockets of trough-like structures/groundwater conduits. Geoelectric sections revealed three subsurface layers; thin topsoil with resistivity range of 60 - 569 Ωm and thickness range of 0.7 - 3.5 m, weathered/fractured layer with resistivity values that ranged from 35 - 655 Ωm and thickness values of 1.1 - 23.0 m, and the fresh bedrock with resistivity in excess of 1000 Ωm and infinite thickness. 2D resistivity models imaged distinct low resistivity zones, cutting into a continuous and consistently high resistivity basement/basal layer which were typical of near-vertical discontinuities/geological fractured interfaces/weathered basement troughs. The two prominent groundwater seepage points A and B coincided with these zones as corroborated by the EM responses as observed at stations 30 and 95 m along traverse 2. It may, therefore, be concluded that the seepages may have been sourced from the perennial groundwater flow from the foot of the hill to discharge at topographic lows via the interfaces and/or subsurface conduits as groundwater seepages.The continuous/fractured - controlled nature of the discharges, with overburden in excess of 20 m thick, was suggestive of a potential for shallow groundwater development anda measure of arresting continuous flooding of the entire mass land.
Keywords: Seepage, geoelectric, electromagnetic, geological interfaces, groundwater
1University Medical Center Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Department Ljubljana, Slovenia
Background: Substantial defects of the cheek pose a reconstructive challenge due to their incredibly visible site and limited local tissue supply. The cheek is a common location of acquired soft-tissue defects which are frequently caused by skin malignomas.
Objectives: Aim of our study was to better comprehend appropriate reconstructive treatment options for patients with large soft tissue defects of the cheek after surgical excision of skin malignomas with safety margins.
Methods: Characteristics, flap harvest technique, aesthetical subunits, skin lines and parts of the facial anatomy are described in details.
Results: We present three clinical cases of patients with skin carcinomas on the cheek. A cervicofacial flap was used to cover gaps alongthe entire nasolabial fold in the first aesthetical subunit of the cheek, VY to cover large gaps in superomedial part of the first subunit and submental to cover gaps in the second subunit.
Conclusion: Appropriate selection of flap in patient with cheek soft tissue defect is of significant importance in addition tothorough knowledge of surgical anatomy in face unit. One should use local tissuein facial reconstructive surgery whenever possible to provide the best tissue for color and contour restoration. Priority goals ofaesthetic reconstruction of facial defects should adhereof first preserving function and second achieving cosmesis.