1Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait
Large heavy-oil reserves are located in the Middle East, both in sandstone and limestone reservoirs. The exploitation of these reserves requires advanced EOR technology. This paper describes the reservoir simulation work performed to evaluate different flooding scenarios in a typical Middle Eastern carbonate reservoir. The reservoir has an average permeability of 100 mD, a temperature of 45 °C, a reservoir pressure of 1275 psia at a reference depth of 2487 ft. Oil viscosity at reservoir pressure is 620 mPa.s. The simulation study used the data set obtained by a laboratory study presented in another paper.
The reservoir model is divided in five layers, two main productive zones and three impermeable layers. Heavy oil reserves are located in the upper part of the reservoir. After evaluation of the performance and conditions of vertical and horizontal wells present in this reservoir, it was decided to continue the study with a pattern composed of three parallel horizontal wells; one central injector and two lateral producers. Sensitivity analysis was carried to determine the impact of well length, well spacing, injection rate and injected pore volumes for different recovery methods, namely water flood, polymer flood and VES (viscoelastic surfactant)-polymer flood. Data sets to simulate polymer and VES-Polymer blend were obtained from lab core flood study (IPV, adsorption, Mobility Reduction, Permeability Reduction and desaturation). The simulations exercises were performed for a period of 30 years.
The main results can be listed as follows:
1. Wellʼs horizontal length has an important effect on production. Horizontal wells 2000 meters long were used during the study.
2. A well spacing of 100 meters was found to be the best configuration for a flooding recovery process.
3. Oil incremental recovery by water flood was improved. Mobility Ratio is highly unfavorable and channeling occurs very early.
4. Polymer flood shows better results compared to water flood in terms of incremental oil production. Mobility Ratio is improved, displacement front is better controlled and sweep efficiency increased.
5. VES-Polymer blend flood further increases the oil production compared to polymer flood. The effect of IFT reduction and increase of mobility reduction induced by the blend solution improves the sweep efficiency and mobilizes additional oil reserves.
Based on these outcomes, both polymer flood and VES-Polymer flood can be considered as valuable EOR options in Tayaratheavy-oil reservoir. Results prove the feasibility of chemical EOR techniques in reservoir conditions which have not been considered so far. The injection designs can be used for a field pilot implementation.
German Omonte is working as Reservoir Engineer at POWELTEC, France. He is also a Vice Technical Manager at SUTEC import & Trading S.R.L.
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Acidizing job has been considered a vital process to treat and stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs since damages or permeability reduction, where it is located around wellbore of hydrocarbon zone, can be occurred using drilling mud.
In this paper, there have been done several experiments which contain different factors to influence in the acidizing job such as acid injection in fractured with 45 degree and unfractured cores, damaged and undamaged cores and oil flow after acidizing job under 50 °C. Berea sandstone and n-decane represent the reservoir formation and oleic phase respectively. 5% ammonium chloride is utilized as pre-flush and post-flush stages and drilling mud is injected inside core to initiate damage. The main acid is composed of 15% acetic acid and 2% HF acid and this mixture can be less corrosion rather than mineral acid. In conclusion, the porosities of all cores after acidizing job are enhancement due to removing the solid materials from cores. In addition, the permeabilities of unfractured cores are improvement, on the other hand, the permeability reduction in fractured core since it is observed that acid bypasses drilling mud in the injection face and it flows through the fracture.
Ali AlNetaifi is an Assistant Professor at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
1China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Company Ltd, Iraq
2TÜV Rheinland DMCC, UAE
Despite companies systematically introducing management systems to improve performance and reduce major incident risks. Gaps still remain that are linked to common challenges relating to resourcing, competency and leadership shortfalls that, when properly assessed and implemented have a significant impact on reducing incident rates in high hazard industries. The Oil & Gas Producers framework provides ten elements that form the structure and define the company purpose behind each element into a cohesive, structured system to manage risk reduction. It is the proper implementation of these elements that provides measurable risk reduction and continuous improvement. This abstract examines the relationship between the elements using safety studies to link to Process Safety Management and Physical Asset Integrity Management to effectively manage operational risks. The program called “Safety Net” physically segregates company facilities into individually managed areas or grids. The risk profile is assessed for each grid introducing safety and consequence studies to visually represent the “at risk” locations supported by technical safety studies. The benefits by overlaying contours and process boundaries as typical examples results in a simplified model allowing area owners to recognise the risks, controls and mitigations to introduce suitable risk reduction measures for safe operations.
João has completed 20 years experience in Risk consulting projects in the oil and gas, petrochemical and mining industries since 1999. His experience has largely been centered on the risk assessment of refineries, onshore process plants and offshore facilities in South America, Middle East and North Sea.
International Scientific Research Institute of Cosmoplanetary Anthropoecology named after academician V. P. Kaznacheev, Novosibirsk, Russia and Ltd «DozorInvest» Omsk, Russia
We believe, that there is a sequence of heliophysical events in decreasing the magnetosphereʼs induction which plays important role for the Climate Changes. According to the data produced by geophysicists [V. Kuznetsov, 1999, M. Mandea et al., 2000, E. Guskova et al., 2007, A. Dmitriev, 2015], from the end of the XX-th century the full vector of the geomagnetic field is gradually weakening. The buffering properties of the Earth magnetosphere, which protects our biosystems from the excess of the solar proton-electron beams are decreasing. Using modeled weakening of the geomagnetic field with the assistance of a special device made from permalloyʼs steel called «Cosmobiotron» we attempted to answer the question: what are the possible biotropic consequences of heliophysical pressing for further human development? Our main aim was the development at these conditions of preventive non-medicinal technologies and new methods of helio-climato-monitoring on the base of new hypothesis of interactions human consciousness and environment. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between volunteers in the experimental and control groups on the dynamics of electric, psychophysiological and other parameters, coupled with the appropriate genetic markers (genes D4, B1, TNF) and intensity of heliophysical factors at different stages of ontogeny of the examinees and their parents were showed.
The phenomenon of "heliophysical expression of genes", manifested at modeling of the short-term prolonged geomagnetic deprivation was opened. It has been shown that our new technological means, like informational holograms and drinking water, induce helioprotective properties. The latter contribute significantly inducing a positive inversion of the human functional systems facing successfully the heliogeophysical impacts and the increasing geomagnetic deprivation. The necessity for the creation of a global system of geoecological human life support in conditions of spreading heliogeophysical and climatic changes on our planet were shown:
1. With using of «Cosmobiotron» unique device from screenʼs constructions weakening of the geomagnetic field more than 500 times, the phenomenon of "heliophysical gene expression" is revealed: significant associations of the parameters that reflect the functional activity of the brain, the state of psychophysiological, intellectual and creative processes with genetic markers (genes B1 and D4) and heliophysical situation in the pre-and postnatal ontogeny of the examinees.
2. The heliophysical gene expression», manifested at the prolonged short-term industrial geomagnetic deprivation of a man contributes to lowering the threshold of his heliosensitivity associated with the dynamics of electrophysiological parameters and the length of D4 gene alleles.
3. Jerks and secular excurses of the geomagnetic field, accompanied by the weakening of its induction and the increased access to the biosphere of solar-galactic corpuscular flows, increasing the measure of openness of biological systems can have evolutionary consequences for the human.
4. The non-medicinal means on the basis of drinking thermal water, riched by silicon, from SPA= complex «Silicon Therms» (Krasnodar region, Russia) treated in the weakened geomagnetic field, which reduces the excess helio-tropic reactions of human being at climatic changes was developed and successfully tested.
5. The necessity of global geo-ecological life support system on the base special protective thermal water SPA complexes in conditions of changing heliogeophysical environment was scientifically based.
6. Trofimov Scientific Declaration about the Urgency of Global Geoecological Systems for Humanity Survival on the Epoch of Cosmoplanetary and Climate Changes..Int, J. Earth Sci 2016, 1:119.
Alexander Trofimov has received Diploma of Doctor from Novosibirsk State Medical University in 1973 and Doctor of Medical Sciences in 1998. He has served as ISA Professor in 1999, Academician of International Academy Energy-informative Sciences in 2001, Academician of ABI, USA in 2010, General Director and Chief of Scientific Council of International Scientific Research Institute of Cosmoplanetary Anthropoecology (ISRICA) and Chief of Laboratory Helioclimatopathology of Science Center of Clinical and Experimental Medicine of Siberian, Department of Russian Academy of Medical Science. He has also received DSc from Open International University for Complementary Medicine in India in 1998. He wrote more than 300 scientific works, 7 monographs and received 9 patents. His basic research interests are in heliobiology, cosmic anthropoecology, geoecology, geophysics, helioclimatopathology, preventive medicine and investigation of water as a helioprotective mean.
1Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait
Several large heavy-oil reserves in the Middle East, both in sandstone and limestone, require new management and production strategies in order to meet the global market demand for oil. Therefore, for many oil producers, the need to optimize oil production from these resources through advanced Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology is a main strategy to address reservoir management challenges.
In this paper, we describe the laboratory work performed to design a VES (Visco-Elastic-Surfactant)-Polymer formulation in a carbonate reservoir. The reservoir has a permeability of around 100 mD, a temperature of 45 °C, a salinity of 45 g/L TDS and oil viscosity of 800 mPa.s. At the start of the project, we have made an exhaustive selection of polymers and VES that can be applicable in the reservoir. As make-up water, there was a possibility to optimize the formulation on the salinity, having seawater and fresh water available in large quantities. The methodology consisted of starting with the tests with polymers, then performing the tests with VES, using the previously qualified polymers. The laboratory tests for each type of product consisted first of bulk tests, followed by core flood tests with the qualified products. The bulk tests consisted of rheology, filtration, stability and static adsorption experiments. Core flood tests consisted of experiments in reservoir cores at Sw=100, followed by experiments at residual oil saturation, followed by oil displacement experiments for the most appropriate VES-Polymer formulation. The experimental procedure aims at qualifying Polymer and VES-Polymer formulation and delivering core flood data set, which can be used as input data set for the reservoir simulations.
Results show that polyacrylamide of medium molecular weight and betaine is a viable option for this reservoir. The makeup water was fresh water coming from an abundant source. In addition, the optimal concentrations range from 500-750 ppm for the polymer and around 5000 ppm for the VES. The mobility reduction and permeability reduction were around 30 and 10, respectively. It should be noted that there is a clear synergy between polymer and VES, as VES adsorption is considerably reduced by the presence of polymer. Displacement efficiency of the VES-Polymer blend was high, reaching 60% of oil in place. This study shows that VES-Polymer Flood can be an EOR option for heavy-oil carbonate reservoir. The data set issued from the laboratory study has been used for the reservoir simulation study, which will be the subject of a subsequent paper.
German Omonte is working as Reservoir Engineer at POWELTEC, France. He is also a Vice Technical Manager at SUTEC import & Trading S.R.L.
Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, India
Statement of the Problem: Bioturbation is a prominent type of heterogeneity that exists in the reservoir and has an impact on the porosity-permeability distribution and resulting flow behavior. It is a common perception that bioturbation reduces the permeability of the primary sedimentary fabric mainly because biogenic agitating of stratified sediment lowers the sorting of the sediment, inhibiting flow capability. In recent times, most of the producing reservoirs are found to be bioturbated, contrary to the initial belief. Hence when characterizing heterogeneous reservoir, the degree of bioturbation and its effect on reservoir quality are important parameters (porosity and permeability). However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the impact of bioturbation on porosity-permeability distribution in reservoir rocks, especially in Indian context. The Bhuj formation (Guneri), is a variably bioturbated sandstone unit occurring in outcrops in Kachchh basin. The present study is aimed at estimating the impact of bioturbation on the porosity of reservoir rocks of the Bhuj formation (Guneri).
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The Bhuj formation provides a good outcrop correspondent of clastic reservoirs throughout the Kachchh Basin. The Guneri member of the Bhuj formation has various degree of bioturbation (BI-0 to BI5) making this as a suitable candidate for sampling. Thin-sections were prepared to estimate porosity, by vacuum impregnating the epoxy in the clastic rock cut from the outcrop samples. The thin-sections were examined for a pore size and pore space analysis using an integrated petrographic image analysis (PIA) system consisting of high-resolution microscope adapted with a digital camera for image acquisition and open source image analysis software (ImageJ) package for image processing. The methodology developed allows estimation of pore throat and pore size from the thin section image.
Findings: The image analysis software was used to measure fundamental textural properties observed in thin-section. Data sets were generated from the thin section image analysis using point counting variables such as porosity and pore size distribution. The developed methodology successfully estimated porosity, which was validated from routine core analysis.
Conclusion & Significance: Thin-section analysis is essential as reservoir properties can be directly observed and key details regarding reservoir conditions better understood. Ultimately, critical details regarding reservoir quality can aid in the design of better and more efficient oil recovery methods.
Shubham Saraf is pursuing M. Tech in Petroleum Engineering at Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gujarat, India. He has expertise in Image process analysis and Petro-physical parameter identification. His open and contextual identification is based on a pore network model to responsive constructivists creates new pathways for improving oil recovery technique under the guideline of Bhawanisingh G Desai. He acquired a sound overall knowledge of leading edge engineering principles, research and development, with emphasis on designing, modeling and testing of Petroleum geological model development system. He is proficient in the use of various modeling software including current releases of Image J, Petrel, Matlab, etc. He has a Bachelor of Technology degree in Mechanical Engineering from Gujarat Technological University. In that field his expertise is also in designing, modeling and quality analysis system. He interacts productively with people from diverse backgrounds. He has a history of quality work carried to timely completion.
Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company (GUPCO), Egypt
Water flooding modeling of complicated structurally and heterogeneous multilayer Gulf of Suez Nezzazat field is particularly challenging when dealing with multiple cross faults and facies changes across field. In such cases, the modeling approaches usually tend to incorrectly reproduce or to simplify the actual geological situation. The scope of this contribution is to describe classical approach which used as a front–end to reservoir simulation to simplify the geological model and maximize the recovery from such field before embarking on expensive EOR Solution.
One of the key elements to success of water floods in structurally heterogeneous multilayer is well and reservoir management. This paper illustrate the use of daily production data to set up system indicate the health of water flood use advanced classical approach so that they are readily available on demand to know the basis for any hierarchy of production system; Field pattern, groups, individual pattern, pressure modelling etc. The observations and results can then be applied to take proactive measures for preventive management.
To manage water flood in dynamic scenario, reservoir engineers need to watch them closely, analysis them for anomalous trend in a continuous fashion and be able to apply remedial measure as they manifest themselves. This cannot be done through numerical simulation model due to reservoir complexity. This paper is an effort to put many such methodologies in structured format which will enable the engineer to monitor the floods in a systematic and step wise manner to improve the flood efficiency and maximize the recovery from complex field. An added benefit is that these geologic models can then be used as a front-end to comprehensive reservoir simulation Utilized to drill well to support 4000 BOPD incremental gain. Case study illustrates the best surveillance practices are discussed.
Islam Fawaz had worked as a Senior Reservoir Engineer for Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company in Egypt. He has 7 years experience in reservoir engineering and his major studies are reservoir management and numerical model.
Tehran University, Iran
The existence of differences in petro physical properties between layers of a gas reservoir leads to an error in the estimation of reservoir efficiency when interpreting the results of well testing. Well-boring operations are among of that, while being cost-effective, can be achieved with significant design savings in overall cost of operation, therefore, with regard to the limitation of the number and timing of well-drilling operations, the use of models simulated and research on their results is very practical and cost effective. In the last decade, researchers have been researching how to extend the results of a model simulated to the real model of the reservoir by researchers and software companies. This paper attempted to use Eclipse software using the data from one of the Gulf fields in the Persian Gulf and simulate a section of this field and has an improved design for estimating reservoir utilization and eventually by providing realistic results and comparisons with actual conditions, as far as operational conditions allow.
Keywords: Simulation; Well-Test; Multi-Layered Reservoirs; Gas-Condensate Reservoirs
Seyed Sina Kazemi was born on Aug-1989 in Tehran, Iran. He pursued Master of petroleum engineering from Science research branch of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. He is working as Night drilling supervisor at PGFK.Co on offshore drilling rigs. He has experience at “south pars gas field” as a Well-site drilling engineer and well testing and completion engineer. His ultimate research aim is to culminate Gas-Condensate production by minimizing and rectify errors whlie estimation and this paper was published by an international energy journal.