International Journal of Earth Science and Geology

ISSN: 2642-1569

4th International Earth Science, Geology, Oil and Gas Conference

December 2-3, 2019, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Keynote Session Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2642-1569.a2.005

Projected Future Climate over Southeast Asia under the Unmitigated and Partially Mitigated Climate Change Scenarios

Fredolin Tangang

The National University of Malaysia, Malaysia

This presentation provides an overview of projected future climate over Southeast Asia based on the multi-model and highresolution simulations of the CORDEX Southeast Asia. The ensemble mean shows appropriate reproduction of the SEA mean spatial precipitation pattern. For future changes of the 21st century, we consider early century (2011-2040), mid-century (2041-2070) and late century (2071-2100). Wetter conditions are projected throughout the century over Indochina and eastern Philippines during December-January-February (DJF) while over the Maritime Continent a drying tendency prevails. Over Myanmar, northern Thailand and Laos, rainfall increases as much as 20% are projected, while 5-10% increases are projected over northern Vietnam and eastern Philippines. For June-July-August (JJA), the projected condition is predominantly drier, particularly over the Indonesian region with rainfall decreases up to 20% in most regions (> 20% in Java). Analysis based on extreme precipitation indices indicated that significant and robust changes in extreme rainfall intensity, duration and frequency in most areas. Over Indonesian region, especially Kalimantan and Sumatra, the dryness and drought are projected to increase to a level similar to that of dryness induced by the El Nino in the current climate for the period of June to October. This implies that in future periods of unmitigated or partially mitigated climate change, especially during mid and end of 21st century, drought is projected to occur annually over Indonesia instead of inter-annually following the El Nino periodicity in the current climate. However, in years where El Nino occurs, a much severe drought is expected.

Fredolin Tangang is a professor of climatology and currently, he is a Chairman of the Center of Earth Sciences and Environment at The National University of Malaysia. Prof. Tangang is a Fellow of the Academy of Sciences Malaysia. Prof Tangang holds a PhD from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. He has published more than 70 scientific articles in high-impact international journals. He was the IPCC WG1 Vice-Chair during AR5 cycle, also serves as SSC member of MAIRS-FE and CORDEX SAT member. He is the founding leader and currently leads the CORDEX Southeast Asia Project.

Contemporary Strategic Contours of Global Oil & Gas Value Chain

Pramod Paliwal

Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, India

Starting from E & P and progressing through storage & transportation, refining and further distribution of petroleum products to end-consumers, the international oil & gas industry value chain is witnessing a fundamental strategic shift in the recent times. Some of the major factors that are causing this shift include the automobile industryʼs inching towards a slow but gradual Electric Vehicle future coupled with extraordinary consumer behavior exhibited by millennial and post-millennial consumers-where apart from being carbon-footprint sensitive, they move from ownership of assets (including cars) to sharing economy.

Moreover US-China trade wars are significantly impacting the growth of crude oil consumption with International Energy Agency (IEA) has forecast lowest growth for crude oil demand in last decade plus. This is further aggravated by lowering of growth in crude oil demand by major non-OECD markets. Crude oil price stability itself remains a major concern with non-OPEC producers slated to add to supply of crude oil in even larger volumes.

In all this, international energy geo-politics, especially arising out of renewed tensions between USA and Iran are overarching as ever. Aggravated US-Iran tensions has taken a new dimension in the recent times where Iran has attempted to disrupt crude oil supply chains-and US harsh response to this can only heighten the problems. Certain patterns emerging from some refining hubs are however an indicator of an initial response to the challenges faced by international crude oil industry especially in the light of lowering of demand from the conventional consumers. Refineries are gearing up to redesign their product-mix to tackle this. This could be viewed as an attempt to ensure a systematic sustainable future for the international oil & gas value chain.

Dr. Pramod Paliwal has over 28 years of corporate and academic experience. An MBA and PhD in Management, he is a Fellow of The Chartered Institute of Marketing, U.K. Given his academic, professional and research interest in Natural Gas industry, he has been invited for research based presentations, deliberations, conducting workshops at international forums in Natural Gas Distribution business spanning India, Europe, Middle East, North Africa, South East Asia and the USA. He has published on Marketing, Energy Sector issues and Natural Gas Distribution Business in refereed international journals of Management in India, USA and the UK. He has published two books: 1) Buisness Cases with McGrawHill International and 2) ‘Natural Gas Transmission & Distribution Businessʼ with CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, USA.

Optimal Planning of Unconventional Gas Field Development

Dominic C Y Foo

University of Nottingham Malaysia, Malaysia

In recent years, the oil and gas industry has been moving to develop unconventional gas fields, which include those contaminated with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content. Typically, the CO2 has to be separated from the “sour” natural gas (NG) in offshore processing facilities (in situ) before the NG can be sent for processing at the gas plant onshore. To date, commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage (CCS) has proven to be viable, mainly for CO2 that is separated from NG and subsequently injected at or near the gas field itself for permanent storage (CO2 sequestration), or utilized for the purpose of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). In the case of multiple adjacent reservoirs exhibiting variations in NG quality and CO2 content, it may be necessary to have insitu CO2 removal using NG sweetening processes (e.g. membrane or amine absorption) to achieve a quality level such that the pooled NG streams meets the specification required for further processing at the onshore facility for sales. Some recent works based on process integration approaches, including graphical, algebraic and optimization techniques have been developed to aid the integrated planning of such field development projects. The main purpose of the work is to rationalize the development of the sour CO2 gas fields together with conventional “sweet” gas fields (i.e. low CO2) in meeting the required CO2 content in sales gas specifications. Case studies are used to illustrate how insight-based policies can be drawn for the use in sour gas field development projects.

Dr. Dominic Foo is a Professor of Process Design and Integration at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus and is the Founding Director for the Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies. He is the Vice President for the Asia Pacific Confederation of Chemical Engineering (APCChE). Professor Foo is an active author, with five books and more than 140 journal papers. Professor Foo is the Editor-in-Chief for Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability (Springer Nature), Subject Editor for Process Safety & Environmental Protection, Elsevier), among others. He is the Innovator of the Year 2009 of IChemE, as well as the SCEJ Award for Outstanding Asian Researcher and Engineer 2013 and Top Research Scientist Malaysia 2016.

From Arsenic Trioxide to Silver Nanoparticle and Chromium: My Environmental Toxicology Journey during the Past 15 Years

Ying-Jan Wang*, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Hui-Wen Chiu and Rong-Jane Chen

National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

Autophagy is a mechanism of cellular self-consumption for recycling of intracellular “cargo” such as damaged proteins and organelles. Basal autophagy helps maintain homeostasis, while additional autophagy is induced in response to many different forms of stress including nutrient, oxygen and growth factor deprivation and chemo/radio therapeutics. Autophagic defects have been implicated in various diseases and health states, including neurodegeneration, aging, infection and cancer. However, the role of autophagy in cancer and environmental toxicology is quite complicated and controversial. Thus, I am enthusiastic in exploring whether autophagy acts as a pro-survival or pro-death player in toxic response of environmental toxicants or cancer therapy. My colleagues and I recently discovered several regulatory modes and functions of autophagy. Firstly, we found that a combination of irradiation and arsenic trioxide (ATO) could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of malignant cancers through the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis. Secondly, we uncovered that autophagy activation is a key player in the cellular response against nano-toxicity, in which endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by misfolded protein aggregation was involved in regulating the autophagic process. Currently, I am focusing to explore the roles of ER stress triggered autophagy in contributing to the enhanced immune response of nanoparticles in an Cr+6 triggered allergic contact dermatitis animal model. By revealing the regulation pathways of autophagy in skin hypersensitivity, our research may help to the development of novel and effective preventive strategy to combat allergic contact dermatitis.

Ying-Jan Wang, Ph.D., graduated from Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Currently he is working as a distinguished professor in Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. The major research focus of his laboratory is to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for environmental toxicants-triggered toxicity, chromium hypersensitivity and carcinogenesis/cancer therapy. He is specially interested in elucidating the role of autophagy in regulating diverse biological processes, such as proliferation, programmed cell death, inflammation, thereby contribute to cytotoxicity, dermatitis and/or cancer therapy.

The Role of Academia in Capacity Building for Sustainable Energy Development: The Case of Universiti Tenaga Nasional

Kamal Nasharuddin Mustapha

Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia

Petroleum has played a prominent role in the world economy and will continue to accelerate into the future as the world population grows. In recent years, there have been significant changes in the oil and gas sector around the world, notably deregulation and industry restructuring, which enhance competitiveness that translates to sustainability and better quality of services to consumers. With the current trend in the world economy moving towards liberalized market, it is pertinent for Malaysia to understand the challenges of this sector and position ourselves with the change and the need of the country. Here, the role of academic is essential to support and engage with government and industry players to provide insights to make government policy better. Based on that, the right institutional framework and commitment to academic excellence is important to the provision of informed, evidence-based and world class energy research for the country. In this keynote address, we explain to what extent and in what form Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) has contributed to the countryʼs energy developments by corresponding to the educational, research and innovation needs that shapes a sustainable future. For instance, with the intent to support the decision-making process by government and industry in Malaysia, UNITEN has established 5 Research Institutes at UNITEN namely Institute of Power Engineering (IPE), Institute Energy Policy and Research (IEPRe), Institute of Sustainable Energy (ISE), Institute of Energy Infrastructure (IEI) and Institute of Informatics and Computing in Energy (IICE) to collaborate with the government and relevant energy industries to spear head research and consultancy activities on energy. Furthermore, to strengthen the research institute capability, the Chair in Energy Economics and the Chair in Renewable Energy have been established to provide the leadership and strategic directions to strengthen the capacity and capability towards achieving research excellence in Energy Economics and Renewable Energy, respectively. These Chairs are entrusted to support the Government and Malaysia Electricity Supply Industry in realizing the policies and initiatives in increasing the contribution of biofuel energy particularly biogas, biomass and biodiesel for the national energy mix agenda. In term of academic development, UNITEN has designed a Bachelor of Economics (Energy) and Bachelor of Business Economics degree programmes and introduced a postgraduate programme, Master of Energy Management to raise human capital competitiveness to thrive in a global energy economy. UNITEN has also developed a number of partnerships and research collaboration around the globe, among others, with the Institute of Energy Economics of Japan (IEEJ), Energy Research Institute Network (ERIN) based in Japan, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) based in Jakarta and Advanced Development of Electrical Power Technology (ADEPT) based in Shangai, China. Also, UNITEN has developed a very close energy partnership with the renowned Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES) and established OIES-UNITEN Fellowship Programme in Malaysian Energy Studies with specific focus on electricity market and gas market studies. These collaborations is expected to enable UNITEN researchers to participate in joint publications, joint workshops and research exchanges towards innovative, interdisciplinary and industry-relevant research products in the field of energy.

Professor Datoʼ Ir Dr Kamal Nasharuddin Mustapha completed his secondary education at Mara Junior Science College, Kota Bharu. Later, he continued his ‘Aʼ Level study at Kelsterton College of Technology, Wales. After earning his Bachelor in Civil and Structural Engineering (Honours) from University of Sheffield, UK in 1984, he pursued his studies at Heriot-Watt University, Scotland and obtained a Masterʼs Degree in 1986 in the field of Structural Engineering. In 1994, he obtained his PhD from University of Aston, UK in Structural-Fire Engineering. Professor Kamal has also completed his Postgraduate Diploma in Syariah at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and ASEAN Senior Management Development Program under Harvard Business School. He held several prominent management positions at UNITEN for over 13 years. Upon his appointment as Vice-Chancellor to steer UNITENʼs direction, He is responsible for the conception of the new transformation wave for UNITEN, which is better known as BOLD2025 (Building Opportunities, Living Dreams). Under this dynamic initiative, UNITEN is embarked to accelerate its transformation journey in becoming a globally competitive, energy focused university.

A Precision Air Pollution Control Approach for Mitigation of Regional and Urban Severe Haze Pollution

Shaocai Yu1,2*, Pengfei Li1, Liqiang Wang1, Yujie Wu1 and Si Wang1

1Zhejiang University, China
2Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, USA

Severe and persistent haze pollution involving fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations reaching unprecedentedly high levels across many cities in China poses a serious threat to human health. Although mandatory temporary cessation of most urban and surrounding emission sources is an effective, but costly, short-term measure to abate air pollution, development of long-term crisis response measures remains a challenge, especially for curbing severe urban haze events on a regular basis. Here we introduce and evaluate a novel precision air pollution control approach (PAPCA) to mitigate severe urban haze events. The approach involves combining predictions of high PM2.5 concentrations, with a hybrid trajectory-receptor model and a comprehensive 3-D atmospheric model, to pinpoint the origins of emissions leading to such events and to optimize emission controls. Results of the PAPCA application to five severe haze episodes in major urban areas in China suggest that this strategy has the potential to significantly mitigate severe urban haze by decreasing PM2.5 peak concentrations by more than 60% from above 300 µg m-3 to below 100 µg m-3, while requiring ~30% to 70% less emission controls as compared to complete emission reductions. The PAPCA strategy has the potential to tackle effectively severe urban haze pollution events with economic efficiency.

Dr. Shaocai Yu is "1000 talent plan" Chair Professor in College of Environment and Natural Resources at Zhejiang University, a visiting professor at California Institute of Technology and Adjunct Professor at North Carolina State University (NCSU). He received his Ph.D. degree from NCSU and a B.S. degree from Peking University. His research interests include air pollution chemistry modeling and assessment and interactions among chemistry, cloud microphysics and climate. He has published more than 80 peer-reviewed journal publications, with papers published in Nature, Science, PNAS and New England of Medicine, etc. He was awarded a few prestigious research awards including Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society (UK) (elected, 2011), winner of silver medal for superior service of 2011 U.S. EPA National honor awards, winner of the U.S. EPAʼs 2011 Level II Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards.

TBT Pollution from Wrecked Ship in Kuwait Marine Environment

Amal Jaafer Alkandari

Ministry of Health, Kuwait

The State of Kuwait is located in the northwest of the Arabian Gulf. The length of the coast is about 500 Km and the maximum depth of territorial waters are 30 m. Shipwreck boats are among the biggest sources of marine pollution. After the war of Iraq and Iran that extend 8 years and the Iraq invasion on Kuwait, a lot of wrecked ships remain either in the rivers (Euphrates, Tigris and Karun) or in the northern part of Arabian Gulf. The movement of currents in the northern part Arabian Gulf area may carry pollution toward Kuwait desalination plants, were 70-90% of the people get their fresh water from it. The UNEP found that oil is the worst problem related to the sunken ships. Much of the oil spills found in the northern part of Kuwait is leaching from oil sunken boat since 1991. In addition, TBT that contains carbon to tin bond (Sn−C) that is used as antifouling substance for a long time and it had been increased in use, between 1950ʼs was found in north part of Kuwait. Sediments represent the sinks for the TBT, which potentially toxic to marine organisms notably benthic. Regulations of TBT on global scale were banned to be used as an anti-fouling paint since 2008. Regulations have to submit for removing these sunken boats from the marine environment and to insure the sustainability to the environment.

Dr. Amal Alkandari did her bachelor degree from Little Rock Arkansas, USA. She got her Masterʼs degree in Environmental Science from University of Kuwait and got her Ph.D in Natural Resource and Environment from Kingdom of Bahrain. She worked in Environmental Health Unit from 1999–2005, food handlers department from 2005-2009 and currently working in department of communicable diseases at Ministry of Health, Kuwait from 2009. Dr. Amal Alkandari published two papers: Trace metals and total organic carbon concentration at intertidal area in Sulibikhat Bay and Assessment of Organotin Compounds in Coastal Sediments of Kuwait.

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