The problem of earthquake prediction has multidisciplinary character and includes the stages of:
1) Determination of precursors
2) Calculation of earthquake parameters:
Elastic Rebound Theory (ERT) declared the whole process as a response to an ongoing rise of tension between tectonic blocks. It assumed that tectonic forces should reach maximum levels just before the strike. However, an increase of forces between tectonic blocks prior to strong earthquakes was never measured. As a result, the speed of the “tension accumulation process” was not determined. The revealed “precursors” show a different morphology and time appearance prior to each new event. This makes them impossible to use for prediction.
ERT theory assumed that the number of precursors should increase just before the strike. Earthquakes are assumed to be an anomaly impulse event. Precursors are also expected to be in the form of an anomaly or to have a tendency to be more evident close to the main event. However, a search for those anomalies did not succeed. Steinʼs laboratory experiments declared earthquakes as Self Organized Critical (SOC) processes and are considered unpredictable by many scientists.
The newly discovered geochemical precursors during the study of the Spitak event are called geochemical quiescence and show that the final stage of earthquake preparation takes a relatively short time period of several years and has several stages. Changes in the statistical characteristics of measured data during the monitoring period proved to be a more reliable precursor. The constant character of newly discovered precursors makes them possible to use in the early determination of the TLM of an upcoming strong event.
The study of hydro-geochemical precursors of the Spitak earthquake and other strong events in the region leads to the determination of the character of the earthquake preparation process in general. We were able to see that this process has different stages and is well reflected in the statistical characteristics of measured parameters. The determination of different preparation stages will help in precursor search in other studies.
Dr. Armen Kazarian is a senior geologist at MDVIA. He is Founder of Geosurper which is an international research company. Geosurper is specialized in the field of geochemical monitoring and geochemical data statistical analysis. Geosurper has intensive background in geological consultations.
1Deutsches Geo Forschungs Zentrum – GFZ, Germany
2An-Najah National University, Palestine
3Karlsruhe Institute of Technology – KIT, Germany
The Dead Sea Transform (DST) has accommodated left-lateral transform motion of 105 km between the African and Arabian plates since early Miocene. The DST strikes in a north-northeast direction and extends over some 1000 km from the active spreading center of the Red Sea, to the continental collision zone in the Taurus-Zagross mountain belt.
The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk.
A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region.
The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches Geo Forschungs Zentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.
Kuwait National Petroleum Company, Kuwait
The paper speaks about the challenges that we faced during commissioning clean fuel project. Contractor failed to submit the Utilities units to KNPC as full provision of turnover of a portion which means a complete unit that is ready for startup as per plan. The consequences on that was a delay on commissioning and our commitment with the consumers got affected. We came into a decision on how to start the Units Partially while maintaining all safety standards. In addition to the need for continuing pre commissioning activities like pipe rack steam blowing activities and compensate the contractorʼs delay.
AbdulAziz AlYosef has joined Kuwait National Petroleum Company, KNPC in 2005 in Operations Department. He specialized in H-Oil Units, Hydorocraker Units, Hydrotreaters Units, Sulfur Recovery Units and Utilities Units. Currently he is a Commissioning Team Leader and responsible for Utilities and SRU units in clean Fuel Project. This project is a mega project in Kuwait that covers local and international requirements from various oil products and maintains the highest standards for both environmental performance and safety. This paper speaks about How to overcome commissioning mega project challenges safely in the Refinery.
Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait
Kuwait Oil Company stated parts of production to achieve strategic one (1) billion SCFD of non-associated gas production from North Kuwait Jurassic Fields by 2022/23. The company completed the construction of two JPFʼs in Rawdhtain (East and West). Each Jurassic Production Facility categorized into two phases. The oil and gas section (Phase-I) for both plants were commissioned Mid-2018, while the sulfur recovery units (phase-II) are still under construction. The standard practice is that the Acid Gas stream flows to the Acid Gas Incinerator for complete combustion until the Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) commissioned or when the SRU is offline.
The initial plan was to commission the SRU after the facility starts production (to expedite the strategic goal of light oil production). While the SRU was under construction, the incinerator was out of service and the acid gas was directed to the flare stack. The flare stack was designed to meet the emissions requirements of Kuwait Environment Public Authority, except for the SO2 emissions. This unusual practice in the flaring caused high emissions of SO2 (0-12 ppm) and has created many hazardous areas depending on the wind direction which also effects the construction activities in the SRU (phase-II) and any remaining construction/maintenance works.
Four employees were injured in the last six months with some near fatal incidents in both plants. Immediate safety measures were taken to ensure successful construction with zero incidents considering working under high toxic gas and the winds directions coming from 3 different flares in both plants. This includes assigning two master points in opposite directions and providing fixed multi-gas detectors upper specific modules in the location. This paper could help in better understanding and prevention of future toxic or hazardous atmosphere accidents including more than 70 evacuations and 27 days of suspension of work. This paper indicates the full plan followed by the construction team to avoid any accidents until the commissioning of the sulfur recovery unit (May 2019) while the higher management was refusing the recommendations of a temporary shutdown of the oil and gas sections.
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Saudi Arabia
Drilling deep and high pressure-high temperature wells have many challenges and problems. One of the most severe, costly and time-consuming problem in the drilling operation is the loss of circulation. Loss of circulation or loss of return is known as the partially or completely loss of the drilling into the formation instead of returning back to the annulus. The drilling fluid accounts for 25-40% of the total cost of the drilling operation. Any loss of the drilling fluid will increase the total cost of the drilling operation. Uncontrolled lost circulation of the drilling fluid can result in dangerous well control problem and in some cases the loss of the well. Lost circulation is divided into four types based on its severity: seepage, partial, severe and total. It can occur in different formations such as natural fracture, induced fracture, unconsolidated zones, cavernous formations and high permeability formation.
It is very difficult to cure losses, especially in workover operations. Using conventional lost circulation material (LCM) is not successful in all cases of lost circulation due to some limitation and disadvantages. In order to avoid loss circulation, many methods were introduced to identify the zones of losses. However, some of these methods are difficult to be applied due to financial issues and lack of technology and the other methods are not accurate in the prediction of the thief zones. The objective of this paper is to provide deep literature reviews that contain the types, zones, effects and migration of circulation loss. Then, this paper will predict the lost circulation zones using five different Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques namely Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Radial Basis Function (RBF), Fuzzy Logic (FL), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Functional Networks (FN). Moreover, the results obtained from all AI methods will be compared with each other to get the most accurate model based on the highest correlation coefficient (R), the lowest average absolute percentage error (RMSE) and the confusion matrix.
The obtained results showed that the five models of artificial intelligence were able to predict the zones of circulation loss with high accuracy in terms of R, RMSE and confusion matrix. Artificial neural network (ANN) was the most accurate AI model to predict the losses zones with a correlation coefficient more than 0.99 and root mean squared error less than 0.05. Moreover, all the AI models were able to predict the losses zones in two another wells that were used as a validation for the ability of the AI models with a correlation coefficient of 0.946 and root mean squared error of 0.165 for the first well and an accuracy of R = 0.952 and RMSE = 0.155 for the second well.
Abdulmalek Ahmed obtained his Bachelor and Master degree in Petroleum Engineering from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM). Currently, he is working as a Research Assistant and pursuing his PhD degree in Petroleum Engineering at KFUPM. His research interests include drilling and Artificial Intelligence. He has published more than 11 conference and journal papers.
Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma Kachchh University, India
The present study attempts to describe the Neotectonics/tectonogeomorphic studies in the Eastern segment of Wagad Uplift which is located in the eastern part of Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB). To delineate tectonic geomorphology in the study area to know the interplay between tectonic and surface processes that shapes the landscape of eastern Kachchh which falls in regions of active deformation. The South Wagad Fault (SWF) defines the southern margin of the Wagad uplift with a series of small domes and anticlines forming a low hill range, called the South Wagad Hills, The SWF zone is divisible into two main geomorphic domains: the South Wagad Hill Range to the north of SWF and the south sloping plain to the south of it. The Easternmost part of the South Wagad Fault also covers rugged topography which comprises Mesozoic to Neogene rocks and is practically uninvestigated as far as their geomorphic and neotectonic activity along the SWF is concerned. Whereas, in the western segment of SWF zone not much but little work has been done which incriminates the active nature of the SWF in western part of the southern margin of Wagad Uplift. The present study delineates neotectonic and geomorphic features along the eastern part of the SWF zone of the Wagad Uplift.
The present study deals with the eastern extremity of South Wagad Fault, the geomorphic expression of the fault in the eastern segment consisted of Gagodar, Kanmer, Gui and Mardak domes and anticlines respectively. They are exposed as a series of linear mounts projected amidst the Little Rann of Kachchh and surrounded by the alluvial sediments of eastern rivers as well as the rann sediments. In the westernmost part of the eastern extremity consist of Gagodar and Kanmer anticline which shows neotectonic features like transverse fault, upwarping surfaces, Contact between Mesozoic and Neogene rocks and fault controlled valley, etc. The camel back ridges are steep to the south and gentle to the north forming small cuesta ridges. In the easternmost extremity, Gui dome is separated laterally in en-echelon pattern, while the Mardak dome groups are mostly in linear fashion. The stream systems associated with the northern flanks are comparatively bigger while those associated with the southern flanks are short lived. Most of the drainages show dendritic pattern, however there are a few aligned drainages. The South Wagad Fault is not exposed anywhere along both of the domes but its geomorphic expression like fault scarps, reactivated strike slip transverse faults, gulley erosions can be observed. As we move further to the east, the magnitude of the geomorphic expressions of the fault are lesser and eventually cannot be traced any further.
Keywords: Tectono-Geomorphic, South Wagad Fault, Gui Dome, Stress Accumulation
Abhishek R. Lakhote is a research scholar in the Department of Earth & Environmental science in KSKV Kachchh University and he is registered as a PhD Scholar at K.S.K.V. Kachchh University "Active Fault Mapping and Paleoseismic investigation along South Wagad Fault Zone of Kachchh Basin: An approach to seismic hazard assessment in western continental margin of India". He worked in organization committee in XXX Gujarat Science Congress-2016 on “Challenges for Science and Technology Education during coming Decades: Preparing for a Sustainable Gujarat” on 6th and 7th February 2016 at KSKV Kachchh University, Bhuj.
1Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, India
2Andhra University, India
3Center for Marine Living Resource and Ecosystem (CMLRE), India
Arabian Sea (AS) is known to have seasonal phytoplankton blooms during winter and summer driven by distinctive physical forcing mechanisms and associated nutrient dynamics. A 1-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model based on North Pacific Ecosystem Model for Understanding Regional Oceanography (NEMURO) with nitrogen and silicon cycles is adapted for Arabian Sea environment. The model is implemented to investigate the role of nitrate versus silicate limitation on plankton biomass. The seasonal cycle of plankton biomass is well simulated by the model along bio-Argo and ship cruise tracks during the period from 2009 to 2016. Further, three sensitivity simulations are conducted by suppressing (1) nitrate availability (representing new production), (2) ammonium availability (representing regenerated production) and (3) silicate availability (for diatom production). The new production represents 80% of the total primary production in the AS and implicitly controls 70% of total zooplankton production annually. The regenerated production augments small phytoplankton (by ~50%; e.g., flagellates) and small zooplankton (by ~20%; e.g., ciliates) growth with negligible effects on large phytoplankton (e.g., diatom) and predatory zooplankton (e.g., copepods). The diatom production remains within the observed range due to silicate limitation which is fundamental in the model for realistic simulation of chlorophyll. Silicate is the primary limiting nutrient in diatom bloom in the subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCM) with maximum limitation occurring during the winter season, due to the deeper silicicline as compared to shallower nitracline. At the surface, both nitrate and silicate co-limit the total production; however, nitrate is a strong limiter than silicate from March to May. The study highlights the relative role of silicate versus total nitrogen (nitrate+ ammonium) in primary production in the AS.
Anju Mallissery currently works at the Department of Ocean Model Development and Data Assimilation, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology. Anju Mallissery research focuses on Marine Biology.
China University of Petroleum, China
The most common problem in the production and transportation of crude oil in pipelines is wax deposition which is largely caused by temperature drop. Continuous accumulation of wax may cause reduction in pipeline effective cross-sectional area which leads to increased pressure demand, or pipelines clogging and eventually abandonment. Several mathematical models and experimental laboratory loops have been used to predict wax deposition in pipelines, but most of the models neglected the effects of shear which resulted into over estimation of wax deposition. On the other hand, the loops are limited to frictional pressure drop and lacked direct measurement during experiment which is time consuming. The strength of molecular dynamic in predicting wax at atomic level offers a powerful application in wax deposition study. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of crystal planes on the Fe2O3 pipeline surface to wax deposition using adsorption locator model. The C20H42, C22H46 and C24H50 hydrocarbons and the (001), (111) crystal planes were used in this study. The distribution of energy for each adsorbate component and energy released or required for adsorbate relaxation on the surface were computed. The results show that there is no energy different for different crystal planes of the same hydrocarbon; also different hydrocarbons have shown different energy values for the same crystal plane. The results have revealed that wax deposition is independent of crystal surface orientation but is dependent on carbon number. Higher hydrocarbons show low adsorption energy and thus favors wax deposition.
Ballo. M. Lonje is a Doctoral degree candidate at China University of Petroleum (East China) since September 2017 under supervision and mentorship of Professor Liu Gang. His research direction is Modeling wax deposition in pipelines. He graduated Master of Science in Renewable Energy (Hydropower) from the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania (2015). He possess teaching experience of over twelve years of Lecturing and supervising studentsʼ projects in Mechanical and Energy and production at Mbeya University of Science and Technology, Tanzania.
University of Indonesia, Indonesia
Cipamingkis River is a part of the Jatiluhur Formation in the northern part of the Bogor Basin which is often made equal, as according to Reksalegora et al (1996) and Martodjojo (2003) with the Upper Cibulakan Formation for reservoir rock analogy. This study will complement the results of previous studies that only use methods based on measurable cross-section data. The data used in this study included cross-sectional stratigraphic data with five samples taken for thin section used as a petrographic analysis and for aminifera analysis. The use of petrographic analysis methods to determine and analyze lithology in more detail and foraminifera analysis to determine the depositional environment and the age of the two formations. The results of this study indicate differences in lithological characteristics and depositional environment between these two formations. Given the differences in characteristics between the two formations, the use of the Jatiluhur Formation and the Upper Cibulakan Formation should be used separately in the naming of the lithostratigraphic unit in West Java.
Disa Kurnia Dewi is an assistant lecturer in the field of micropaleontology and 7th-semester student, majoring in Geology at the University of Indonesia. She is interested in the fields of stratigraphy and sedimentology. She actively participated in organizational activities and community empowerment volunteer activities. She participated in the Student Exchange at Petronas Technology University, Malaysia. She was also an assistant lecturer in the field of micropaleontology and had been a third winner and best presenter for the 2018 Scientific Writing Competition of National Scientific Days (NASA) in Palembang.
1Department of Petroleum Engineering, Texas A&M University, Qatar
2Laboratory of Petroleum Equipmentʼs Reliability and Materials, Hydrocarbons and Chemistry, Algeria
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, Qatar
4Total Research Center-Qatar (TRCQ)QSTP Al Gharrafa, Qatar
In the present work, effect of drilling fluid velocity on the hole cleaning efficiency (cuttings volume fraction in the elliptical annular space) and pressure drop gradient of circulating fluid through elliptical annulus for different inner pipe rotation speeds (from 0 rpm to 150), eccentricities (from 0% to 75%) and major and minor axis ratios of the elliptical annulus (from 1 to 1.3). The finite volume method was utilized for discretization and solving of flow equations using the software ANSYS-Fluent 18.2 where these flow equations are integrated over each control volume. For pressure-velocity coupling and momentum equations, Phase Coupled SIMPLE and First Order Upwind discretization are used, respectively. Moreover, the number of hexahedral elements of the domain flow is selected to ensure that the obtained results are independent of the mesh adopted as well as keeping the number of elements as low as possible to save time of simulation runs. Each simulation run is stopped when the volume fraction of each simulation tends to be stable with respect to the time.
Rotation of the inner pipe has a positive effect on cuttings transportation from the bottom hole of elliptical annulus, especially for low fluid velocities, however, this effect disappears when the fluid velocity reaches a certain value 1.5 m/s. Moreover, increase of the inner pipe rotation causes an increment of pressure drop gradient till the fluid velocity reaches 1.5 m/s where the inner pipe rotation has a negligible effect. Results show that cuttings concentration diminishes with fluid velocity where eccentricity has a beneficial effect on hole cleaning of the elliptical annulus for low velocities. On the other hand, eccentricity has a positive effect by decreasing pressure drop gradient in the elliptical annulus for low velocities; however, it has a slight influence on pressure drop gradient when a velocity of 1.5 m/s is reached. It is concluded that the higher the major and minor axis ratio, the better cuttings transportation and hence efficient hole cleaning. However, it induces an increase of pressure drop.
Hicham Ferroudji is currently a PhD student and research assistant in petroleum department at Texas A&M University. He holds a BSc and MSc degrees in Mechanical Engineering of petrochemical plants from the same faculty. His research study includes CFD and experiment modelling of multiphase flow in annular section in which the drill string makes orbital and whirling motion, including cuttings transport and drilling engineering. He has published few papers and participated in international conferences in the same research area.
Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, Egypt
Producing undesirable phases like water and free gas in oil wells is a challenging problem in the oil industry. The main major reason for that problem is water coning. Coning is a rate-sensitive phenomenon generally associated with high producing rates. Strictly, a near-wellbore phenomenon, it only develops once the pressure forces drawing fluids toward the wellbore overcome the natural buoyancy forces that segregate gas and water from oil. This study implementing Nexus simulation to build different mechanistic model with different parameters known in literature that affecting water coning formation in oil reservoirs. Simulating water coning is a very challenging problem due to the instabilities of solvers due to severe saturation change around wellbore unless small time steps and small grid sizes were used. Local Grid Refinement “LGR” is used to accurate follow-up water conning formation and minimize solver convergent error appears. The enormous numbers of simulation runs were used to quantify the effect of every parameter on the progress of water to form conning around wellbore. Neural Network was built using the input and output parameters from the simulation runs to have a simple approach of calculation critical rate of production and how the uncertainty in every parameter would affect the recovery and coning formation.
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
The quality and assessment of a reservoir can be documented in details by the application of seismo radial grain velocity. This research aims to calculate fractal dimension from the relationship among seismo radial grain velocity, maximum seismo radial grain velocity and wetting phase saturation and to approve it by the fractal dimension derived from the relationship among capillary pressure and wetting phase saturation. Two equations for calculating the fractal dimensions have been employed. The first one describes the functional relationship between wetting phase saturation, seismo radial grain velocity, maximum seismo radial grain velocity and fractal dimension. The second equation implies to the wetting phase saturation as a function of capillary pressure and the fractal dimension. Two procedures for obtaining the fractal dimension have been utilized. The first procedure was done by plotting the logarithm of the ratio between seismo radial grain velocityand maximum seismo radial grain velocity versus logarithm wetting phase saturation. The slope of the first procedure = 3- Df (fractal dimension). The second procedure for obtaining the fractal dimension was determined by plotting the logarithm of capillary pressure versus the logarithm of wetting phase saturation. The slope of the second procedure = Df -3. On the basis of the obtained results of the fabricated stratigraphic column and the attained values of the fractal dimension, the sandstones of the Shajara reservoirs of the Shajara Formation were divided here into three units.
Khalid Elyas Mohamed Elameen AlKhidir is professor at King Saud University. He did his postdoctoral research at King Saud University, College of Engineering, Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Al-Amoudi Research Chair in Petroleum, Enhanced Oil Recovery. He published papers in sandstone reservoirs characterization, tight carbonate reservoirs characterization and in an enhanced oil recovery.
University of Johannesburg, South Africa
It should be any companyʼs objective to grow or to at least sustain itself in a very competitive technological driven market. With the rapid technological advances and associated complexity of challenges associated with keeping pace with the 4th Industrial revolution, more attention is being focused on efficient and effective management of R&D projects. Time is always important and delays in getting new products to the market can result in not only financial loss but loss of market share. Many of the leading manufacturing and development organizations in the world today apply project management in their research and development projects as part of the innovative approach of introducing the latest technology into their designs. However, some companies still refrain from implementing project management processes because of the cultural changes required (Geng, 2004). In the very competitive technological driven automotive industry, strategic planning and decisions on process and product upgrades and smart technology enhancements, require rapid feasibility studies to determine if these are economically viable and worth developing. These studies must be fast-tracked and can be managed as projects to investigate if the proposed process, product or upgrade will be practical and feasible in terms of meeting the customerʼs expectations, reduced maintenance, increased efficiency, a lower carbon footprint with an associated reduction in the life cycle costs and an enhanced Return on Investment (ROI). These factors are geared to place the organization ahead of its competitors. Once the feasibility project is completed and implementation approval is given, the R&D process can be accelerated applying Project Management processes to keep research and development on schedule and budget targets. This paper focuses on the above arguments and shows that R&D processes in the automotive industry can be significantly enhanced by using project management processes.
Deon Kruger has worked as an engineer for a major South African construction company prior to joining the academic staff of the Rand Afrikaans University which later merged with the Technikon Witwatersrand to from the University of Johannesburg. He is registered as a professional engineer by ECSA, the professional body for engineers in South Africa. Deon started the research group for polymers in concrete at RAU and apart from publishing numerous papers on this subject in accredited journals and international conference proceedings, he organized a series of four international workshops and conferences attracting delegates from all over the globe. Deon has achieved significant national and international acknowledgement of his input in the teaching of engineering as well as his research and contribution to the science of the use of polymers in concrete. He was elected as Fellow of the South African Institute of Civil Engineers, he was awarded the Concrete Achiever of the Year award by the Concrete Society of South Africa and he was elected as Vice-President of the influential International Congress on Polymers in Concrete (ICPIC) during the 14th ICPIC Congress in Shanghai.
University of Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
An earthquake is a geological event that results from the movement of the tectonic plates. During the event after the main earthquake (mainshock) will be followed by aftershock in a certain period of time. This study will discuss the analysis of aftershock earthquakes that occur in the 2018 Lombok Earthquake using micro-earthquake data (microsesimicity). This research is interesting because it is necessary to have an active fault map in the Mataram City, using micro-earthquake data (microsesimicity) so that it can help provide information on subsurface structures that indicate active structures. The research method uses data from 919 aftershock earthquakes from 5 August to 5 September 2018 with a magnitude of 1 to 4 on the Richter Scale, then using the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and regional geological maps of the Lombok. Spatial analysis was carried out on areas of morphology whose structure was clearly visible and applied to Mataram City that have cover by loose sediments. Based on the results of data analysis it was found that there was an intensive concentration of earthquake points, this indicates that there is an active structure that controls it, which occurs in the northern part of Mount Rinjani and in Mataram City. The results of the lineament pattern that is made show that the active thrust fault directed NNW-SSE and the decstral shear fault with E-W direction.
Keywords: Aftershock, Lombok, Fault, Microsesimicity.
Leonardo Manurung was born on July 12, 1998 in Pekanbaru. In 2015 he has earned the medals of win 3rd place in Geology Olympiad in Riau, Indonesia. After graduating in 2016 from Pekanbaru 8 High School, he immediately went to Yogyakarta, studied at Gadjah Mada University with a Geology Engineering major and until now he is still a 6th semester student. Now he is an assistant of laboratory Geophysics exploration and Petrology, his research focuses on Environmental Geology, Geothermal and Petrogenesis of Rock.
1Shenzhen Center of Occupational Diseases Control and Treatment, China
2Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Objective: To explore the relationship between the main air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO) and the hospitalization of public with respiratory diseases in Shenzhen, China.
Methods: The data used include daily inpatient data of respiratory diseases in 98 hospitals, daily air pollutant concentration and meteorological and wind direction data of in Shenzhen, China from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. The relationship between the concentration of atmospheric pollutants and the number of hospitalized patients with respiratory diseases was analyzed using a time series generalized additive model (GAM).
Results: In the study of Shenzhen, the generalized additive model including single pollutants showed that there were lag and cumulative effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 on the number of hospitalizations of respiratory diseases. Among them, the moving average value of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, PM10 and PM2.5 with lag accumulation of 8 days (Lay07) had the largest ER value associated with the number of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases and ozone had the largest ER value at 5 days (Lay04). The generalized additive model including multiple pollutants showed that both PM10 and PM2.5 had significant effects on the hospitalization of respiratory diseases, while the effects of SO2, NO2, O3 and CO were not significant.
Conclusion: PM2.5 and PM10 are the primary pollutants affecting the hospitalization of public with respiratory diseases in Shenzhen.
Keywords: generalized additive model; time series analysis; atmospheric pollutants; respiratory diseases.
China University of Petroleum, China
Seismic sedimentology has become a powerful approach for the interpretation of seismic data in any geological setting. It has resulted from its application of 3D seismic data in delineating and characterizing thin-bedded reservoirs, which are often below seismic resolution. The strength of the common traditional methods is limited to thick succession strata and offers a limited application for thin beds analysis. The objective of the study is to apply seismic sedimentology in predicting and understanding the lateral distribution of thin-bedded sandstone reservoirs deposited in the semi-deep lacustrine environment in the Dongying depression. The Formation interval is characterized by thickness variation and complex geology in which the stratal slicing offers the best interpretation approach for the study. A global optimization seismic interpretation approach that allows interpretation of a full dimension large number of horizons was adopted to facilitate and enhance the interpretation. These horizons were used to produce a high-resolution 3D relative time geological Model (RGT). The geomodel and the seismic volume served as the main inputs during the extraction of stratal slices. The results of this work have provided opportunities for improvement in reservoir understanding, distribution and development. Interpretation of seismic amplitude dispersal pattern displayed in a horizontal view provided an improved understanding of the spatial distribution of thinly sandstone reservoirs in the formation interval and the possible controlling factors for their distribution. The results reveal that the sandstone reservoirs are well developed with the prevalent spatial distribution with the faults appear to be important factors for reservoir distribution.
Marco Shaban Lutome is a PhD research student in the School of Geosciences at China University of Petroleum (East China). His interests are Seismic Sedimentology and Reservoir characterization. His current project is focused on seismic sedimentology and depositional systems of deep lacustrine delta-fed turbidites in the Dongying depression (Eastern China).
Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait
Objective / Scope: Black powder contamination in gas stream has been a matter of great nuisance. Its occurrence causes operational, maintenance, HSE, reliability & integrity issues and various undesirable consequences like product contamination, production loss, economic loss and sustainability concerns (e.g. due to flaring), for both the operators and the downstream customers. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the success of immediate / short-term measures taken to minimize its occurrence and subsequently its removal.
Methods, Procedures, Process: Several technical reports and research works are found in the literature pertaining to black powder, still, need of more awareness has been felt by researchers / industry. In order to contribute for such cause, the present paper attempts to review the problem of occurrence of black powder and various strategies that are adopted to handle the associated issues, in general and shares experience of minimizing the occurrence of black powder by revisiting the chemical injection dosages, frequent pigging operations and other methods at one of the oilfield areas in Kuwait, in particular classified as short-term / immediate measures.
Results, Observations, Conclusions: Pipelines and connected systems are designed considering solid / liquid contaminations expected in the gas stream; but such provisions can become insufficient if occurrence of black powder starts, later, during operation. In view of involved complexity, problematic feature & uncertainties, operating companies may implement a black powder management system incorporating prevention, mitigation and removal strategies. Accordingly, when occurrence of black powder, along with liquid carry-over, in sour gas streams at one of the oilfield areas in Kuwait was observed, various short-term strategies in hand were reviewed such as adjusting chemical injection dosages, frequent pigging operations. This results in remarkable reduction in the occurrence of black powder and accelerating its removal from gas lines. On the basis of the results it is observed / concluded that the immediate short-term methods are effective in minimizing the occurrence of black powder in gas lines and its removal.
Novel / Additive Information: The paper is expected to create awareness and enrich knowledge base regarding the occurrence of black powder in the middle-east region and its immediate / short-term handling solutions. This shall facilitate the Oil & Gas industry to address such problem of gas contamination and, in turn, handling its associated problems, like gas flaring, by attaining enhanced solutions based on such information.
ITB - Bandung Institute Technology, Indonesia
Oil & Gas Company have been facing uncertainty on its price commodity due to several key aspects. Most of key aspects are not predictable. Besides new area development with focusing on low-cost strategy, the remaining fact is the efficiency & effectiveness. This factor shall become the main theme to sustain and for growth. Typical O&G Company has developed/used certain tools / methodologies for ensuring the establishment and maintaining sustainability. The typical tools are mainly Reliability tools that apply for operations in general. However, the dedicated Quality tools are not used or adopted widely. Very few O&G users, from management and employee typically are skeptical on the Quality tools utilization in Oil & Gas business on the applicability, the benefit to the business and the overall add-value.
The latest adoption is Lean Six Sigma which a merged methodology from Lean Production and Six Sigma. This methodology which is adopted from manufacturing and automobile industry, then followed for other industries / sectors as well as the Oil & Gas. Its need dedicated involvements from all organization layers for ensuring ownership and becoming one of tools in daily business. Lean Six Sigma implementation for all business aspects: production, maintenance, reliability, drilling & completion, petroleum engineering, logistic, human resources etc. Itʼs works in the primary, secondary & tertiary recovery. One of super major Oil & Gas company, where the author had been adopting this methodology, has implemented Lean Six Sigma which has created add-value on production increase, cost reduction and cost avoidance with total value more than US $22 Billion. This methodology has shifted the mindset and ensuring competitiveness in the unpredictable world to come.
Sadono Tirta is an Independent Consultant. His Current projects are LSS deployment revitalization, Chemical EOR. He worked in Chevron (25 years), Baker Hughes (2 years). He is a Former Lean Six Sigma Deployment Leader for Chevron Indo Asia. He had an Experience in Project Management, Production Operations, Reliability & Maintenance, Safety, Operations Engineering, Continual Improvement, Operation Readiness & Assurance, Project Interface Management, Environmental Remediation, Land management, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary recovery. He also led various task-force of business improvement in Supply Chain Management, Security, Transportation (land, air, sea), Land Management, Government Relations, Human Resources, Building & Real estate sectors. He has done his Mastering Continual Improvement using Lean Six Sigma, Master Black Belt.
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia
For long time, the most weighting material in drilling oil and gas wells is barite. It can raise the density up to 20 ppg or greater. However, it is less expensive, but the world supply nowadays geographically limited, with high transportation costs. Also, it will settle down which known as barite sagging. To overcome these limitations an alternative weighting material is introduced as manganese tetroxide or “Micromax”. Micromax is higher specific gravity and cost than barite, but it can replace the conventional barite to save the drilling operations. The objective of this work is to develop a new drilling fluid that contains a mixture of barite/Micromax to prevent the sag issue. The second objective is to evaluate the effect of adding the Micromax with a different percentage on the drilling fluid rheology and filtration properties.
In this work, different concentration of Micromax/barite were evaluated at the following ratio: 100% barite, 15/75% Micromax/barite, 30/70% Micromax/barite and 45/55% Micromax/ barite. The main goal of this work is to optimize the percentage of Micromax that can be used to prevent barite sagging under different conditions, vertical and 45° in the static sag test case at 350 °F and under dynamic conditions at 120 °F. Then, investigate the rheological properties which are plastic viscosity, yield point and gel strength at 350 °F. After that, oscillation amplitude and frequency will be conducted to confirm the elasticity of the mud. Finally, high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) filter press will be conducted at 500 psi and 350 °F to evaluate the sealing effect and the filter cake properties. The obtained results showed that 30% of Micromax was able to prevent the settling of barite particles in the OBM at 350 °F. The sag factor has reduced from 0.57 to 0.51 and from 0.59 to 0.52 in vertical and 45° decline respectively. The viscometer sag shoe (VSST) reduced from 1.6 to 0.5 at 120 °F. Yield point to plastic viscosity improved from 0.56 to 1.74 which will increase the carrying capacity of the drilling fluid. Also, 10 sec, 10 min and 30 min are consistent with time to guaranty no pumping pressure increased. The viscoelastic measurements showed an increase the storage module (G') to confirm the sag results. HPHT filter press has given no difference when adding 30% Micromax, where the filter cake thickness was 0.12 in.
Salem Basfar is a PhD candidate from Department of Petroleum engineering at KFUPM. Salem Basfar completed Masters in petroleum engineering at KFUPM 2018 and BS in petroleum engineering at Hadhramout University in 2012.
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
In oil wells where viscosity of the crude is very high (heavy oil), steam is injected to increase the fluidity and mobility of the oil. This steam injection requires large quantities of water, generally transported from nearby fields. In some oilfields in the Gulf region and around the world, the water-bearing sandstone is highly fragmented. Sand screens made of carbon-steel do not provide reliable sand control, as they quickly undergo quite serious corrosion. Some oilfields have started to try out non-metallic materials (such as strengthened polymers) because of their non-corroding nature. Based on a hit-and-trial approach, around 15% wells have reported failure due to screen collapse. In collaboration with a regional petroleum development company, an experimental testing facility was designed and developed at Sultan Qaboos University for integrity assessment of large-diameter hard polymeric pipes. This included design and construction of the test setup and jigs and fixtures, together with a compatible testing scheme. Following procedures set forth by international standards, polymer pipes had to go through a 2-3 month ageing process before mechanical testing, in brine solution matching the salinity of the water field. For testing under compressive loads, a fixture was developed for the pipes to be tested on a heavy duty universal testing machine, using several sets of strain gages to record dynamic behavior in axial and hoop directions. A full-scale test facility was designed and constructed to determine collapse strengths of polymer pipes of around 6-m length, using steel pipes of 16-in diameter as outer casings. Apart from the scientific contribution, findings from this work can serve as prequalification of polymer pipes for appropriate fields and result in major savings in cost and time.
Dr. Zahid Qamar, Sayyad is currently associated with the Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), Muscat, Oman. He has over 25 years of academic and research experience in different international universities. He has also worked as a professional mechanical engineer in the field for over 6 years in the heavy engineering and fabrication industry. He has also been actively involved in research and accreditation work related to engineering education. His research areas are applied materials and manufacturing; applied mechanics and design; Reliability engineering; and engineering education. As part of the Applied Mechanics and Advanced Materials Research group (AM2R) at SQU, he has been involved in different applied research funded projects in excess of 4 million dollars. He has over 200 research/technical publications to his credit (2 research monographs/books, 2 edited book volumes, 6 book chapters, 160 publications in refereed international journals and conferences and 36 technical reports). He is currently editing one volume (Renewability of Synthetic Materials) for the Elsevier Encyclopedia of Renewable and Sustainable Materials. He has served as Associate editor, Guest editor and Member editorial board for different research journals (including Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Journal of Elastomers and Plastics, the Journal of Engineering Research, etc).
Quest Global, India
Quest Global, an engineering services company address the challenges of the global industry with technological solutions that drive process, project, production and operations. With the rise in crude oil demand, oil and gas companies are required to boost their production without compromising the safety & integrity. The "Well Integrity Management System (WIMS)" at Quest contributes to the industry by providing a uniform and structured approach for maintaining well integrity parameters, ensuring safe well operations during the lifetime of a well without the sacrifice of safety and environment. This paper reviews WIMS in Quest. WIMS is structured to include wellhead (surface) equipment, down hole equipment & monitoring MAASP (evaluation of casing and tubing integrity). The objective of developing Well Integrity Management System (WIMS) is to provide standard guidelines to ensure that technical integrity of all the wells is maintained throughout their life cycle, they operate under safe condition and are capable to function continuously to achieve the targeted production/injection requirements. Well integrity is based on the establishment and maintenance of confinement barriers in the particular well. As per WIMS standards, a well is considered integral if at least two separate and sound confinement barriers across each flow path between the potential reservoir and surface are available all the time.
There are different definitions of what is Well Integrity. The most widely accepted definition is given by NORSOK D-010: “Application of technical, operational and organizational solutions to reduce risk of uncontrolled release of formation fluids throughout the life cycle of a well”. Other accepted definition is given by ISO TS 16530-2 Containment and the prevention of the escape of fluids (i.e. liquids or gases) to subterranean formations or surface. WIMS is one of the vital element in the successful, economic and safe operation of all assets. Started in Dec, Quest WIMS team focusses solely on onshore oil and gas affiliates. By providing daily test reports for SCSSV & X-mas Tree valves, Well Integrity QA / QC report & a consolidated report of Problem Well in Well View, WIMS objective is to:
1. Reduce risk of uncontrolled release of formation fluids throughout the life cycle of a well
2. Analyze pressure test results that were captured during leak test
3. Track whether all wells are being tested timely and comply with Exxon Mobil standards
4. Evaluate annulus pressures trends and highlight anomalies to the affiliate
5. Monitor integrity of wells that have been previously abandoned and tracked in SAP.
Different tools used by Quest Team to come up with the report deliverable are :
1. Business Focus: WIMS Data Analytics tool, able to analyze the pressure & leak rate trends
2. SAP: Validate data feeding into Business Focus, extract bad actor pressure data to provide previous test results
3. Well View: Provides well schematic, tubing string components to calculate allowable leak rate based on tubing size, well history, and well type (producer / injector / disposal & lift method)
4. XHQ: QAQC WIMS test data using real-time trend data.
Andhra University, India
Narayanaposi iron is a part of the well known Jamda-Koira valley. The host rock for Iron ore bearing formation is shale and BHJ/BHQ other litho units are latertic soil, Laterite, lateritic ore, SLO (soft laminated ore), HLO (Hard Laminated Ore), HMO (Hard Massive Ore), Friable ore, Blue dust, Goethitic and Limonite.
The rocks within area belongs to Iron ore series and the major litho units are Shale, BHQ/BHJ, Laterite and Banded Iron formation at some places the litho units are covered by soil and laterite.
In these area iron ore dividing two types based on geological and mining point of view. Geological point of view the different types of ore occurred lateriticore, hematite, goethite, limonite, blue dust, friable ore and float ore. On the basis of mining point of view the different types of ore occurred in the area Hard Massive ore, Hard Laminated Ore, Soft Laminate Ore, Friable ore and Blue dust.
In the study area presents on close view of the grade of different types ore varies from hard massive ore 61-66%, hard laminated ore 60-65%, Soft laminated ore 58-65%, Blue dust 61-67%, lateritic ore 45-58%, limonitic ore 45-56%, goethite ore 52-58% and Shale15-35%.
The Major, trace and REE data provide information about genetic evolution of different type of ores and their possible precursor components.The major element contents and their correlation matrixes of different types of iron ores and shales of Koira area. Trace and Rare Earth Elements with their correlation matrixes and ratios have been presented in forty representative iron ore samples Koira deposits.
Keywords: Different type of iron ores, microscope studies, major elements and REE
Ramesh Vadde is pursuing Doctor of Philosophy, with the Specialization of Geology Ore mineralogy, Geo-chemistry and Genesis on Iron Ores at Andhra University, Visakhapatnam and he Completed Post Graduate Degree M.Sc. (Tech) Applied Geology at Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. He has experience in producing reports on Geology, Mapping, Mineral Exploration, Sampling and Ore reserves estimation, Ore Mineralogical analysis, Bulk density, recovery percentage of any ores (like metals, base metals and non metals). He has published more than 10 papers nationally and internationally.
Qatar University, Qatar
Petroleum products can change through weathering processes accentuated in arid climate, such as in Gulf area. This would guide to select the suitable strategy of bioremediation of the corresponding pollutants. Our approach combines chemometry, environmental microbiology and microbial systems, which is original. By using highly advanced analytical platform, a chemometry approach was set to identify the origin and the history of oil pollution in any site. Relatively un-weathered oil was found inside heavily weathered oil and thus prevented further degradation of the interior oil. This was extended to demonstrate the origin of difficulties of bioremediation. An appropriate isolation and screening strategy allowed to construct a local collection of highly resistant hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from weathered oil in Qatar. They were identified and differentiated through molecular techniques showing obvious diversity in the metabolic activities. Our findings demonstrated the adaptation routes employed by each isolate to survive and overcome the high oil-weathering. Each site polluted with oil components should be bioremediated by the intrinsic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Interactions between soil/pollutants/bacterium were investigated and bioaugmentation-biostimulation strategies were optimized in Qatar. Intermediates of metabolic pathways can play the role of substrates or inhibitors for other bacteria. Some bacteria were inhibited through their respective activities. Here, one can conclude that bacteria may not be able to mutually benefit from their metabolisms for growth but rather inhibited. Bioaugmentation/stimulation of weathered oil contaminated soils was applied using biopiling technology at harsh condition and shown feasible if suitably selected indigenous bacteria are used.
Nabil Zouari is a Full-Professor of Biology and Environmental Microbiology at Qatar University. He received his PhD degree from the University of Technology of Compiegne (UTC, France).He has 36 years experience in Teaching and Research & Development in the fields of Environmental Technology, Enzyme Engineering, Industrial Microbiology and transfer of technology in France, Tunisia and Qatar. He published more than 78 papers in international indexed journals, covering all his fields of specialization. He developed 6 industrial applications in biotechnology. He created five start-ups in the field of biotechnology. He served as LPI in competitive projects, supervised dozens of graduate students, besides many administrative positions.
1Department of Mining Engineering, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia
Volumetric method is one method of calculating oil and gas reserves in reservoirs that have been used in the oil industry to date. Data sources which become the main requirements in using this method are basic data such as log data, core rocks or side terraces, area estimates, Rf and fluid properties. This method is used to obtain a forecast of the remaining reserves of Well X for future use. Based on the data limitations in Well X there is only Logging (thickness) data whose range is between 650 m and 700 m, the recovery factor is assumed to be 100% and the area of distribution of wells in one block is 13 km2. From the results of calculations using the volumetric method, the remaining reserves in well X are 320,853.63 STB and the remaining natural gas is 1,801,539.11 SCF.
Keywords: Logging, Oil and Gas, Remaining Reserves, Recovery Factor, Volumetric Method
Eddy Ibrahim is a professor from the Department of Mining Engineering at University of Sriwijaya.