International Journal of Earth Science and Geology

ISSN: 2642-1569

2nd International Earth Science & Global Geology Conference

December 3-4, 2018, Dubai, UAE
Scientific Session Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2642-1569.a1.006

What Forces Move Tectonic Plates?

Tomek Glowacki

Glowacki Consulting, New Zealand

Movement of tectonic plates is a fact already scientifically accepted. However, it is not clear what forces are behind these movements. These days majority of scientists believe that one of the primary forces behind plates movement is thermal convection occurring in the mantle. The other suggestions are gravity, centrifugal forces, or any secondary actions (or rather effects) that may assist in plate movements such as ridge push, slab pull or trench suction, tides and glaciers. None of the above reason is precisely explained and, they leave many questions unanswered. So, these theories remaining mainly unproved. This paper offers a new explanation regarding forces responsible for moving tectonic plates based on fundamental laws of mechanics and physics.

A model of Earth was analyzed and some results are presented. In this model, the Earthʼs lithosphere is not a homogenized body. Therefore, the Earthʼs is not balanced. Our globe for millions of years is trying to balance itself by moving tectonic plates. The biggest question until now was, what create tangent forces to the Earth surface causing these movements. This paper answers this question providing also some clues for climate changes which will be further described in the book to be published soon: “Climate, agents of change – why computer models wonʼt work”.

Tomasz (Tomek) Michal Glowacki - Mechanical Engineer with over 40 yearsʼ experience in various industries such as shipbuilding, smelting, construction and education. Worked in different roles from a designer, project manager to general manager. Project Manager Professional (PMP), holder of Six Sigma Plus Black Belt certificate, Ocean Going Yacht-Master, author. Since 2006 he studies various aspects of the global climate, the Earth and the universe. Now, he is semiretired and working part-time as a lecturer at the Institute of Technology UNITEC in Auckland (NZ). Owner and director of – “Glowacki Consulting”.

The Formation Models Main Traits of Gold Deposits Dynamometamorphic Systems in Russia Eastern Regions

Georgy Yalovik1*, Alexandr Tatarinov2 and Lyubov Yalovik2

1Territorial Foundation of Geological Information on Siberian Federal District, Russia
2Geological Institute SB RAS, Russia

The common traits and signs of dynamometamorphic ore formation were identified on the examples of 10 gold deposits studied by the authors. They characterize the main formation elements of the different ages charriage-thrust tectonotype ore-forming systems in orogenic belts. Ore-forming systems are characterized by a two-three-stage development scenario of ore-forming processes possessing the same mobilization deformation mechanisms and ore matter concentration from different age ore-bearing rock thicknesses of various lithological and petrographic compositions. A necessary formation condition for commercial auriferous bodies of the investigated deposits is the increased geochemical rocks background of the ore-bearing strata.

4 types of ore-controlling thrusters are allocated: single-seam and multi-seam thrusts, tectonic and autoclastic melange zones each of them is characterized by its peculiarities of auriferous mineralization distribution and different productivity, determined by the dynamometamorphic transformations degree of the host mineralization rocks. It is identified that ore-bearing one are dynamometamorphites (granular quartz, mylonites, blastomylonites, cataclasite, tectonobreccia, shaped pseudotachylite) making thrusts seams, cementing the matrix and rims around blocks (pod) in mélange zones. A distinctive feature of the auriferous bodies is the presence of granoblastic texture granular quartz. It was found out that during in the ore deposits formation in the charriage-thrust structures rock mainly different origin such as basite-ultrabasite, gabbro-diorite-granite magmatic series of granite-Greenstone areas, carbon deposits with high gold content served the gold source. An effective method of prospecting and geological prospecting, taking into account the localization structural and material factors industrial gold concentrations in the studied fields, is proposed.

Yalovik, Georgy Ayratovich was born in 1973. In 1995 he graduated from Irkutsk state University with a degree in geological survey, prospecting and exploration of deposits, received a diploma of engineer-geologist. In 2016, defended his thesis “Structural and material features of gold deposits in the latterthrust structures of the Yana-Kolyma and the Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belts, for example Badransk, Carian, Pylnensk deposits” in Tomsk National Research Polytechnic University. He received the degree of geological and mineralogical Sciences candidate At various times, he was engaged in the search, exploration and scientific study of gold deposits in Yakutia, Magadan, Irkutsk regions, the TRANS-Baikal territory, Buryatia. Range of interests: Mineralogy of the gold, the forecasting technique of prospecting and ore deposits exploration, information technologies in Geology. Currently works as Director of FBI “TFGI in Siberian Federal district”.

Land Deformation Monitoring using SAR Interferometry

Nikolaos Liosis* and Prashanth Reddy Marpu

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, UAE

In this work, the past and present ground deformations are investigated in the area of Al Wagan, which is a primarily agricultural area. However, due to the hot desert climate and the sparse precipitation events, the viability of the plantations has traditionally relied on the local aquifer resources. The exploitation of the groundwater reserves has led to significant land subsidence phenomena, which were detected with the use of differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR). The application of DInSAR techniques for the quantification of fast and localised ground displacements was a challenging task using moderate resolution data, mainly due to the low coherent surface background. Despite the sparsity of the SAR acquisitions over the region, the available ENVISAT, ALOS and Sentinel-1A imagery was analysed with conventional DInSAR and the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique in order to provide estimates about the evolution of the deformation patterns in a limited area. During the period 2003-2010 the subsidence rates were estimated to reach 18 cm/year as observed in the SBAS results of data from the ENVISAT and ALOS Satellites. However, the deformation trends appear to have decreased during the recent past (Dec/2016 – March/2018), as observed in the results from Sentinel-1A data, where a maximum localized subsidence in the order of 10 cm was estimated. The comparison of the deformation trends with the groundwater levels implied that the depletion of the local aquifer resources was the most probable cause.

The Upper Ordovician Sequence in the Ghadamis Basin, Libya: Seismic Expressions and Depositional Model

Abdelgader Fathi Mohamed Krnaf

New Oil Generation s.r.o, Czech Republic

The Ghadamis basin is a large intracratonic sag basin which straddles the boundaries between Libya, Algeria and Tunisia. The Area of study is focused on two blocks adjacent to the Algerian side of the basin in Western Libya.

An Upper Ordovician glaciogenic sequence is present throughout the study area with coarser sediment in the south, which then gradually fine northwards. This facies behavior is interpreted from the well correlations of about nineteen wells carefully picked with Upper Ordovician sequence present in all of the nineteen wells and is found to be mainly attributed to the change in the glacially influenced depositional environments of the area.

Discrete Channelized features trending N-S to NNW-SSE were mapped on 2-D and 3-D seismic data. They are interpreted as glacial palaeovalleys in the south, which developed under an ice sheet in a glacio-continental environment, while in the northern part of the studied area, they are interpreted as proglacial channels deposited in front of an ice sheet in a glacio-marine environment. These interpretations are based on a comparison with surface outcrop features with similar scales from the Gargaf outcrops. Seismic characters of the upper Ordovician show dipping reflector geometries and cross cutting relationships with dim and bright amplitudes. The exploration challenge remains in knowing where the good quality sandstone reservoirs are as glaciogenic sedimentary processes are capable of producing good and bad sandstone reservoirs with varying reservoir porosity and permeability.

Multiple phases of sedimentary cut and fill within these channels and palaeovalleys are observed.

Abdelgader Krnaf received his Bsc in Geology from Garyounis University, Libya in 2007. He worked for pioneer Service and Owner Companies such as Schlumberger, Baker Hughes, Total & BP. He also worked as Geoscience visiting lecturer at Benghazi University & University of Kurdistan, Hawler. He was awarded an Msc in Petroleum Geoscience at Royal Holloway, University of London in 2009. In 2015 was appointed by EAGE and AAPG to Chair sessions at Geoscience workshops and was a member of the third Conference on Iraq technical committee in UAE. Now is Director at NEW OIL GENERATION, Libya, Oman and Czech Republic.

Consequences of the Greenhouse Gases in an Earth Atmosphere

R.P Singh

Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, India

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earthʼs atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earthʼs surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F. rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases. Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (around 1750) have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), from 280 ppm in 1750 to 406 ppm in early 2017. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of more than half of the emissions by various natural “sinks” involved in the carbon cycle. The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions (i.e., emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal, oil, and natural gas, with comparatively modest additional contributions coming from deforestation, changes in land use, soil erosion, and agriculture. It 1has been estimated that if greenhouse gas emissions continue at their present rate, Earthʼs surface temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047, with potentially harmful effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and the livelihoods of people worldwide. Recent estimates also suggest that at current emission rates the Earth could pass a threshold of 2 °C global warming, which the United Nationsʼ IPCC designated as the upper limit to avoid “dangerous” global warming, by 2036.

Seed Biology of Acacia gerrardii

M. K. Suleiman

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait

Kuwait ecosystem suffers from large-scale land degradation due to natural and anthropogenic related process, main components being extreme temperatures, scarce and irregular rainfall, frequent dust storm, desertification, uncontrolled grazing, off-road vehicles, poor management of natural resources. These have contributed to extensive vegetation and biodiversity loss. In spite of the harsh climatic conditions and limited water sources, Kuwait has a unique desert ecosystem comprising of eight vegetation communities and Acacia gerrardii, known as the Lonely tree of Kuwait is the only native tree species. Kuwaitʼs native vegetation is of enormous scientific value as it represents a transition between semi-desert and desert vegetation and its adaptation and tolerance to harsh environmental conditions. However, much native vegetation of Kuwait and Arabian Peninsula are threatened, endangered or difficult to propagate. The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) is committed to combating desertification by promoting sustainable use of natural resources, developing sustainable re-vegetation techniques and promoting public awareness regarding the conservation of natural resources in an effort to protect existing biodiversity from further degradation processes and enhance the restoration activities. The success of re-vegetation or restoration of an endangered species lies in the identification of the root cause of its incapability to withstand changing environmental conditions. In recent years various studies providing detailed investigation and guidelines into various measures by which the conservation, regeneration and restoration of Acacia gerrardii could be accomplished. Current presentation details the finding and recommends way to overcome the barriers in the restoration and mass propagation of the Lonely Tree, a part of Kuwaitʼs national heritage.

Dr. Suleiman is a Research Scientist and Program Manager of Desert Agriculture and Ecosystems Program at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. She acquired a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences (Thesis- Restoration Ecology of Acacia pachyceras in the State of Kuwait) from the University of Western Australia. She earned B.Sc. Botany from Kuwait University and is a certified Desert Landscaper. She has led many research projects and authored several research papers in her main areas of research: conservation, restoration, rehabilitation, and standardization of propagation techniques for native plants of Kuwait for their utilization in landscape projects.

Estimating a Freshwater Discharge which Restricts Saltwater Intrusion in Alluvial Rivers: Shatt Al-Arab Estuary, North-West Arabian/Persian Gulf

Qassim Al-Aesawi1*, Brian G. Jones1, Shu-Qing Yang2 and Errol McLean1

1School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Australia
2School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Australia

Shatt Al-Arab channel is the principal freshwater source to the Arabian/Persian Gulf. In the past, researchers have not significantly investigated the salt intrusion distance upstream from the mouth of Shatt Al-Arab estuary. This salt intrusion may constitute a threat to the fresh water supply to Basra city. Mike 21 has been used to examine the hydrodynamic regime and salinity intrusion in the estuary to clarify the minimum freshwater discharge required at the Abu Flus channel measurement station to maintain an acceptable salinity level along the channel. Different modelling scenarios have been employed to evaluate the function of different discharge values on the salt intrusion in the Shatt Al-Arab dynamics. It was not possible to obtain a reliable estimate of the relative contributions of fresh water discharge and tidal impact based on observations from the five stations surveyed by the Marine Science Centre. Measurements of the vertical salinity distributions and flows in 2013, 2014 and 2016 from a moving boat at different stations over the Shatt Al-Arab channel are employed here to simulate the relationship between the discharge and saltwater intrusion. This study provides a new strategy using the seawater interference model to determine how much upstream freshwater discharge is required to manage the saltwater intrusion from downstream. The results confirm a significant relationship connecting the freshwater discharge and seawater intrusion that can provide a useful understanding of seawater distribution over the estuarine channel. This enhances the analytical model as an effective tool to investigate water resources in tidal zones.

Qassim A-Aesawi is a PhD candidate at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong. He concentrates on geology, water resources and oceanography, with his research focusing on simulation of hydrodynamic and water characteristics in estuarine areas, such as the Shatt Al-Arab estuary, north-west Arabian/Persian Gulf.

Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction Risk in Europe

Claudia Meisina1*, Carlo Lai2, Francesca Bozzoni3, Roberta Bonì1 and Daniele Conca3

1Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy
2Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, Italy
3European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering - EUCENTRE, Italy

Among natural hazards, earthquakes claim a large number of casualties and economical losses each year around the globe. Excessive deformations of ground surface caused by earthquakes are of great concern in civil engineering, human lives and the environment. Such ground deformations are often associated with a phenomenon of soil instability called earthquake-induced soil liquefaction. Earthquake induced liquefaction disasters at a continental scale are currently addressed within the European research project LIQUEFACT. The University of Pavia (UNIPV) and the European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE) are currently in charge for the definition of a liquefaction risk map in the European territory (macrozonation). It is worth noting that liquefaction is a local phenomenon, thus the macrozonation of liquefaction risk at a continental scale is a challenge. This paper presents the preliminary deliverables of this activity, i.e. the maps for the European territory of liquefaction risk, computed by convolving soil susceptibility, expected seismic hazard

Claudia Meisina received her PhD in Earth Sciences from the University of Pavia (Italy). Currently is associate professor in Engineering Geology at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences of University of Pavia, where she leads the Laboratory of Engineering Geology. She has been a post-doc at the BRGM in France. She is actually involved in Liquefact Horizon 2020 Project. Research interests concern methodologies for the geological interpretation of satellite radar interferometric data for landslide and subsidence identification and monitoring and the role of land use in shallow landslide triggering. She published 60+ peer-reviewed papers in the field of engineering geology.

Surface Geochemical Exploration in Southern South America: A Decade of Success and Learned Lessons

Héctor A. Ostera1,2*; Grony Garbán1 and Gabriel Malizia1

1DTP Laboratorios SRL, Argentina
2University of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Hydrocarbon seepage as exploration tool has been benefited by the development of new, more accurate and precise techniques for surface exploration in the last decade. The microseepage from hydrocarbon accumulations is common and the hydrocarbonmigration pathways are often vertical or sub vertical as bibliography pointed out many years ago (i.e.: Schumacher & Abrams, 1996). More than 100.000 km2 of oil basins have been evaluated in Argentina and South America through the use of geochemical surface exploration techniques. These techniques include mainly soil gas and microbiological analysis, either by traditional culture techniques or most modern DNA analysis. More than 200.000 samples were analyzed in mature and frontier basins either for oil and gas exploration or oilfield development (Ostera et al., 2018). The results show that the level of success for wells drilled in anomalies is in the order of 90% (productive wells). For wells drilled in background values the prediction was correct in a 100% of cases. The anomaly intensity was also correlated with production (Wainstein et al., 2018). These techniques have permitted the detection of beyond pipe production, in areas where different source rocks and reservoirs are overlapped. The use of surface exploration techniques were not limited neither source rock characteristics nor by the API gravity of oil, that has been considered restrictive in some cases. Knowledge and explanation of basic principles, careful planning of survey, proven techniques with strict quality control, cooperation between the laboratory and users, recognition of limits and pitfalls of the techniques are critical for success.

Dr. Héctor A. Ostera has done Ph.D. in Geological Sciences, University of Buenos Aires. Associate Professor, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (1998-2018); Research scientist, National Research Council (1999-2006); Vice-Director, Institute of Geochronology and Isotope Geology (INGEIS), 2001-2006; Research scientist, Environmental and Analytical Area, YPF S.A. (2006-2010): Director, DTP Laboratorios (2010-2011); R&D Manager, DTP Laboratorios S.R.L (2011-2018). He has been director and participant of numerous accredited research projects; author and co-author of more than 150 contributions in scientific magazines, congresses and symposiums and more than 100 technical reports on surface exploration geochemistry, environment and isotope geology. He has been member of the Directive Commission of the Superior Council of Geology and the Geological Association of Argentina. Secretary of the Scientific Committe, II South American Symposium on Isotope Geology (Carlos Paz 1999), XV Geological Congress (Calafate 2002), President of the Scientific Committee, VI South American Symposium on Isotope Geology (Bariloche, 2008); reviewer for scientific magazines, congresses and symposiums; evaluator of research projects for government agencies; director of PhD and M.Sc. Thesis at the Departament of Geology, University of Buenos Aires; Consulting geologist for govenment agencies and private companies. Actually, focuse his R&D on new techniques and instrumental for surface geochemical exploration, environment & isotope geology.

Hydrocarbon Volume Optimization using Three Dimensional Modelling of Thin Bedded Heterolithic Reservoirs in Malay Basin

Stanley Jaul Kampit1*, Tuan Zaid Tuan Muda1, Zulkarnain Abdullah Anas1 and Samira Albati Kamaruddin2

1KUFPEC, Malaysia
2Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Malay basin located at the east coast of Malaysia peninsula, one of the main petroleum systems in Malaysia. The thin bedded heterolithic reservoir plays a significant role containing oil and gas deposits throughout Malay basin. Three-Dimensional (3D) geological modelling for thin bedded heterolithic reservoir is used to demonstrate the high resolution 3D model that integrates thin bedded sand-shale petrophysical parameter analysis for volume estimation. High resolution 3D model is created from thin-bedded petrophysical log analysis to capture the properties in laminated sand. Results are compared to conventional 3D modelling using normal petrophysical log analysis. This approach includes modelling of the heterolithic reservoirs that captured the lamination of thin bedded sand-shale. The lithofacies, sand and shale volume are modelled together with other reservoir properties to provide flexibility between static and dynamic model updates.

The heterolithic lithofacies observed from the lamination of thin bedded sand-shale shown significant contribution to the total hydrocarbon volume and provided connectivity for better history matching. The approach using high-resolution 3D volume base modelling managed to preserve the thinly bedded petrophysical parameter from thin bed analysis. The 3D heterolithic reservoir model supported the shale volume (VShale) property derived lithofacies relationship which allows the sensitivity analysis, volume refinement and improves mobility within heterolithic reservoirs.

The high resolution 3D volume base model provides a better approach in 3D geological modelling for heterolithic reservoir and to unlock the reservoir potential. The model allows uncertainties analysis for closer uncertainty gap, gives more accurate hydrocarbon volume prediction and provide solution to complex history match.

Stanley J. Kampit graduated with BSc (Hons) degree in Earth Science and Master in Petroleum Engineering. Currently, he is pursuing Doctorate degree at University of Technology Malaysia. Accomplished career of 22 years with international and regional experience in O&G industry. Previously worked with Schlumberger, Energy Quest, Petrofac, ROC Oil and currently with KUFPEC as Senior Geologist spearheading the exploration and development project towards enhancing subsurface reservoir characterization, development and exploration program. Vast experience working across different geographies and hands-on field operations as well as exploration and development projects in FDP, FFR, geological evaluation, reservoirs modelling, resource assessment and prospect maturation.

Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential of Paleozoic Units in Diyarbakır Basin, SE Turkey

Bayram KARA1,2 and Veysel IŞIK2

1Çalık Petrol Arama Üretim Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş., Turkey
2Ankara Üniversitesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, Tektonik Araştırma Grubu, Turkey

Turkey includes structurally complex part of the Arabian plate with Paleozoic and Mesozoic units. Paleozoic units targeted exploration and production activities have been increased during last two decades in southeastern Turkey. These activities have been resulted with several oil field discoveries in the region. Diyarbakır Basin in this region contains Paleozoic units ranging from Cambrian to Permian in age show a good example for petroleum system. In the basin, the upper Silurian shales considered as hydrocarbon source rocks and seals and upper Ordovician sandstones suggested as good local reservoirs. That is why individual members of early-late Silurian (Wenlock- Pridoli) to early Devonian (Lochkovian) age Dadaş Formation of the Diyarbakır Basin were evaluated in respect to their potential of petroleum formation based on some organic-geochemical, petrographic and biostratigraphical analyses. Upper Ordovician (Hirnantian) Bedinan Formation represent the oldest reservoir rocks exposed in the Diyarbakir Basin, which were recorded from several deep wells in southeastern Turkey.

Several outcrop studies and exploration wells have been performed, which can be tied to the type sections of the formations from north to south between the Hazro and Derik sections. For surface study both outcrop has been studied and surfaced sections measured and units were identified. The findings have been correlated with subsurface units. Subsurface study consists of geophysical and well drilling studies. 2D and 3D seismic data have been processed and interpreted. Drilling cuttings, core and log data has been received as a well data.

Following results have been achieved;

• Surface (outcrop) and subsurface units were correlated.

• Hydrocarbon system; source rock, reservoir rock and sealing have been identified.

• Rezervoir lithology is arcozic sandstone consisting of 70% of quartz and 20% of feldspar Cementing agent is dolomite.

• Reservoir quality and petrophysical parameters have been described. Porosity and permeability quality is a function of clay content. High clay content is lowering permeability and porosity.

The Diyarbakır Basin may be the least explored Paleozoic basins of the Arabian plate with proven petroleum systems. Lack of information continues to contribute to the perception of low prospectively in the basin. As a result, this study will provide a new understanding for exploration and production of the hydrocarbon resources in the region.

Bayram Kara has BS degree from Istanbul Technical University, Turkey and MSc degree from University of Tulsa, USA both are in Petroleum Engineering. He is studying to fulfill Phd degree in Geological Department of Ankara University, Turkey. He started to work for Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) in 1993 as a production engineer and he took different responsibilities and positions until 2001. He worked as a senior electrical submersible pumps (ESP) applications engineer on Reda/Exxon Chad project for Schlumberger Oilfield Services in 2001 and as a consultant for ESPʼs for PDO-Shell in 2002. He was appointed as Batman Regional Manager of Turkish Petroleum Corporation in April, 2003 and he kept this position until August 2007. He joined to Çalık Enerji A.Ş. as the Director of Oil and Gas Exploration and production activities in August 2007. He is holding General Manager and Board Member positions in Çalık Petrol Arama Üretim A.Ş. since February, 2018.

Geometry and Kinematics Analysis of Structures of Touye Darvar Region (Southwest of Damghan)

AmirHossein Sharifi1* and Saeedorreza Eslami2

1Tectonics Student, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
2Assistant Professor, Tectonics Group in Damghan University, Iran

In the Touye area, located in the eastern part of the Alborz region, the strikes of structures are almost northeast- southwest. Although the rows of sediments in the Touye Darvar region are from the old to the new, they have never been regular and the tectonics activities have made them disturbed or eliminated. For instance, the discontinuity between the Geirud and Elika formations and the lack of Permian sequences can be noticed which are indicative of tectonics activities. Regarding to the evidences, it was found that the faults of Astaneh and Touye darvar with explicit activity in Quaternary have played a major role in the development of the region. In this area there are the over thrust faults owning normal and strike that cause the area to be tectonically active. These thrusts have been associated with major deformations, leading to appropriately fault detection and the existence of the Gholghol springs (located in northwest of Damghan) are also evidence of multiple faults in the area. No reports were found about the existence of an altered layer in the region. According to the contact of the Elika and Shemshak Formations, this orogeny can be created due to the collision in the late Triassic. The Elika and Girud formations have been transmitted to the Shemshak Formation due to the corrosion fault. The evidence of this transition are the fossils and dolomitic parts that are observed unshakably in the Shemshak, displaced by transverse faults. The presence of slickenside, fault grooves and fault breccia are the evidences for the existence of faults in the region.

Geological Characteristics of Landslides in Siwaliks Zone of Nepal

Bharat Prasad Bhandari1* and Subodh Dhakal2

1Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
2Department of Geology, Tri-Chandra Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

The Siwaliks region of Nepal comprises of fluvial sediment which were deposited as a result of Neogene tectonics of Himalaya. Lying between two major thrusts (Main Boundary Thrust and Main Central Thrust), the Siwaliks region is fragile and responsible for several landslides and mass movement during rainy season. Having weak and fragile sedimentary rocks and adverse geological conditions the Siwaliks regions is badly affecting by shallow landslides. The Government of Nepal has raised the serious issue about the situation of landslide in Siwaliks region and its economic impacts. The purpose of this study is to find out the geological causes of landslide in the Siwaliks zone of Nepal.

The landslide distribution map was prepared by using remote sensing data. The field study was carried out for landslide verification and geological study. Geological characteristics, geological structures and other geological attributes which are responsible for landslide were identified in the field.

The major causes of landslide in this area are geological structures and adverse geology. Most of the landslides are observed in weak sandstone beds. The existing landslides are unstable and possibility of reactivation is higher. The landslide density is found higher toward the fault zone and geological contact. The thin layer of weak mudstone bed between less compact sandstone beds has been played vital role for rock fall and rock slide in stiff slope. Highly permeable conglomerate beds are resulting to debris fall and debris flow during heavy rainfall. The landslide cluster nearby fault zone, geological contact and lithological variation suggested that there is vital role of geology to causes landslides.

Keywords: Siwaliks, Landslide, Geology

Mr. Bharat Prasad Bhandari is conducting his PhD research from Central Department of Environment Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal since 2017. He has completed his Masters in Geology in 2013 from Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University. He is teaching assistant in Central Department of Environment Science since 2014. He has conducted several scientific researches in the field of geosciences. His research interest is “Evolution of landslide in the Tectonic Himalaya”. He is conducting his PhD research in Landslide characteristics of Siwaliks Zone of Nepal.