1LEPL Scientific Research Center of Agriculture, Georgia
2LEPL State Laboratory of Agriculture, Georgia
3University of Milano, Italy
Flavescencedorée (FD) and Bois noir (BN) are two grapevine yellows diseases (GY), associated with phytoplasmas considered quarantine pests in Georgia.Symptoms of diseases caused by phytoplasmas were observed in Georgian vineyards, showinga wide distribution of grapevine yellows in the Country.
The main goal of the research was to study grapevine yellows phytoplasma diseases in Georgian region of Kakheti (villages Kondoli, Napareuli, Tsinandali) on three international grapevine varieties (Chardonnay, Sauvinion blanc, Tempranillo), and Georgian variety Khikhvifor selection of phytoplasma disease-free grapevine varieties in order to develop plant sanitary system in Georgia. Totally 259 symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevine samples were analyzed using a new triplex real-time PCR assay with TaqMan minor groove binder probes (TaqMan-MGB), and a Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) with commercial complete Kit DAS ELISA Poly/Mono (Biotin) (SEDIAG).
According to triplex real-time PCR TaqMan assay 38 out of 259 tested samples reacted positively, whereas infection was not found in any researched samples by DAS-ELISA, indicating that the latter technique is not suitable for phytoplasma detection.
Phytoplasmas associated with Flavescencedoree(6.3%) and Bois Noir (11.8%) were found in symptomatic plants of the cultivar Chardonnay (6.3% and 11.8% of the examined samples, respectively) and Tempranillo (3.4% and 4.2% of the examined samples, respectively). Symptomatic plants of the cultivar Khikhvi were found infected exclusively by FD phytoplasma (5.1% of the examined samples), while no phytoplasma infection was detected in the cultivars Sauvinion blanc.
Interestingly, result highlighted the first report of Flavescencedoree (FD) phytoplasma in grapevine varieties Chardonnay, Tempranillo, and ‘Khikhvi’ in Georgia.
Acknowledgment: This work was supported by "Shota Rustaveli National Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG)[NFR-18-874]".
Iveta Megrelishvili has completed Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Specialty-Biology, she has completed her PhD in Biochemistry in 2008. She is the Head of Virology Lab, Scientific-Research Center of Agricultureand Main Research Scientist of Georgian Technical University, Biotechnology Center. She was a presenter inmany international scientific conferences.She participated as key personnel some scientific projects. She was a principal investigator the project “production of in vitro walnuts planting materials using modern biotechnology method in Georgia”. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and has a great experience in Plant pathology and Plant Biotechnology sphere.
King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
Abiotic stress such as drought, heat, cold and salinity are major factors in reducing crop productivity. Salinity stress is one of the major hurdles in the agricultural sector, significantly decreasing crop yield. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Increasing salt tolerance in wheat is crucial for food production and security. The study of the effect of salinity on the physiology and biochemistry of wheat helps us to understand how wheat responds in salty conditions. More importantly, one of the components involved in wheatʼs response to salinity is thetranscription factors, which areDNA-binding proteins, which play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. WRKY genes havebeen studied in the regulation of abiotic and biotic stresses. The aim of the current study is to investigate wheatʼs response to salt stress at physiological parameters, with its biochemical changes, along with the regulation of WRKY genes, which are affected by high levels of salt stress.
Mohammed Obeid Alshaharni originally from Saudi Arabia. He working in King Khalid University (Department of Biology) in Saudi Arabia. He had bachelor's degree in general biology at King Khalid University, He completed Masterʼs Degree in Science College at Missouri State University in U.S. Currently, He is a full time Ph.D. student at Newcastle University.
A soybeanhomolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (NDR1)coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene (Gm-NDR1-1) has been identified. The gene has been observed to be expressed in root cells undergoing a defense response to the root pathogenic nematode, Heteroderaglycines. The result indicates that the soybean NDR1 may be important in the defense response to H. glycines. Soybean has 4 closely related NDR1 paralogs referred to as NDR1-1 to NDR1-4. Additional experiments show that overexpression of the soybean NDR1-1, suppresses parasitism while RNA interference Increases parasitism. Additional experiments will be presented showing related functions that NDR1-1 has during the defense response that soybean has to H. glycines infection.
Sudha Acharya is from Nepal. She had completed undergraduate from Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan. Currently, she is a masterʼs student in Department of Biology in Mississippi State University, United states. Her research mainly focuses on identification of genes that function in defense response to soybean cyst nematodes. She has been performing molecular level works to continue this project. She is very enthusiastic, passionate, hard-working, and friendly person dreaming to pursue Ph.D soon to acquire in depth knowledge on plant molecular biology. She has an experience of teaching, lab works, leadership and also participated in many webinars.