1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
2InstitutEkosains Borneo, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
3International Food and Water Research Centre, Waters Corporation, Singapore
Passifloraquadrangularis L. belongs to the family Passifloraceae which bears larger fruit with edible juicy mesocarp and pulp known as a good source of phytochemicals. Cultivation and plant management practices are known to influence the phytochemical compositions of agricultural produce. This study aimed to examine the influence of the cultivation practices on the antioxidant activities and secondary metabolites of the organically and conventionally grown P. quadrangularis. Findings revealed organically treated P. quadrangularis plants showed enhancement in their antioxidant properties and secondary metabolites profiles. Among the plant parts, leaves of P. quadrangularis grown organicallypossessed higher antioxidant activities compared to the conventional in all assays evaluated. The antioxidant activities in the edible parts of the P. quadrangularis fruit have also been enhanced through organic cultivation with significantly higher total phenolic content and DPPH in mesocarp, and the pulp showed higher total flavonoid content, DPPH and FRAP. This observation is supported by a higher level of vitamins and secondary metabolites in the samples. The secondary metabolites profile showed mesocarps were phenolic rich, the pulps were flavonoids rich while leaves showed good composition of phenolics, flavonoids and terpenoids with outstanding antioxidant activities. The common secondary metabolites for organically produced P. quadragularis in different plant parts include 2-isopropyl-3-methoxycinnamic acid (mesocarp and pulp), myricetin isomers (pulp and leaves), and malvidin-3-O-arabinoside isomers (pulp and leaves).This study confirmed that organic cultivated, P. quadragularis possessed higher antioxidant activities contributed by its vitamins and secondary metabolites.
Dr. Shiamala Devi Ramaiya is from Malaysia working as a senior lecturer at Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Malaysia. She has obtained a Ph.D. in the field of Agronomy from the same university. In four years as an academician, she has obtained 3 grants as a principal investigator. Her research included cultivation and production of passion fruits, effect of environmental factors on seedling production of indigenous crop of such as terap and dabai, and physico-chemical and volatiles constituents of local durian species. Up to date, as a main and co-author, she has published a total of 25 journal publications in CIJ and non-cited index journals, 40 proceedings, and 3 chapters in book.
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, India
Agriculture is totally dependent on weather and climate. Most agriculture scientists believe that high temperatures and droughts caused by climate change will depress crop yields in many developing countries in coming decades. Global climate changes are caused by increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and other trace gases. Climate change affects agriculture and food production in complex ways. It affects food production directly through changed agro-ecological conditions and indirectly by affecting growth and distribution of incomes, and thus demand for agricultural produce especially in the developing world. Developing countries are more vulnerable to climate change because most of the peoples depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Thus, for farmers struggling under the burden of cultivating land under the ever-present threat of drought, floods, and mid-season dry spells. Land degradation, water scarcity such problems associated with climate change will have to be answered more frequently. Climate change will directly affect the agriculture in tropical countries and the mean temperature is around 40 degree Celsius. These high temperatures could completely destroy crops if they coincide with flowering period. Climate related disaster have brought widespread misery and huge economic losses to many countries, it adversely affecting the food security, agriculture, water resources, public health and biodiversity. Agriculture of any kind is strongly influenced by the availability of water. Climate change will modify rainfall, evaporation, and runoff and soil moisture storage.
Effective utilization of natural resources with due care and adopting integrated crop production technologies can increase productivity of agricultural crops. To mitigate the effects, the following crop management strategies are recommend to overcome the impact of climate change i.e. alternate cropping, planting date adjustment, irrigation and fertilizer optimization ,cover crop, zero tillage, mulching practices and use of slow release fertilizers . Diversity farming is the single most important modern technology to achieve food security in a changing climate .There is abundant scientific evidence that crop biodiversity has an important role to play in the adaptation to our changing environment. These technologies are more concern for improvement in nutrition, food security, food safety, and local environment with the economics of the local communities.
Dr. R. Raman is currently serving as Professor in the Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University. His research interest focus on: Organic farming, post harvest technology and climate change studies. He has presented many of his research papers in international and national conferences as a keynote speaker/ plenary speaker, invited speaker and also served as Chairman/convener of scientific session. He is recipient of many He is operating many research projects in his capacity as Principal Investigator. He has published many of his research papers in the reputed scientific journals. He has visited 14 countries for the research and academic purposes.
Principal Scientist (Soil Science), ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute, India
Nutrient management-based production system of citrus like any other fruit crop is inherently complex to understand due to large variation in nutrient-use-efficiency. The rhizosphere (0-20 cm) soil samples through four grid sizes (10 x 10 m, 20 x 20 m, 40 x 40 m and 60 x 60 m) were collected using GPS-based tracking system at orchard finally earmarked at UmsaitiningRibhoi, Meghalaya and Ladgaon, Nagpur Maharashtra (India). The spatial variograms were developed based on data generated through soil tests under different grid sizes were developed using geographical information system (GIS) and interpreted for working out the optimum grid size for soil fertility evaluation in Khasi mandarin. Based on soil test values for different nutrients, doses of fertilizers and targeted fruit yield, a tripartite prediction models were developed viz., fertilizer nitrogen = 13.09 (Targeted fruit yield) – 2.37 (Soil test for nitrogen); fertilizer phosphorous = 4.08 (Targeted fruit yield) – 26.83 (Soil test for phosphorous); Fertilizer potassium = 1.69 (Targeted fruit yield) – 0.39 (Soil test for potassium) for Nagpur mandarin. Similarly, prediction equations for Khasi mandarin were developed as decision support viz., fertilizer nitrogen = 13.09 (Targeted fruit yield) – 2.37 (Soil test for nitrogen); fertilizer phosphorous = 4.08 (Targeted fruit yield) – 26.83 (Soil test value for phosphorous); fertilizer potassium = 1.69 (Targeted fruit yield) – 0.39 (Soil test for potassium). These attempts are simply the translation of nutrient constraints diagnosis and their management using the recommendations on a real time basis, the information on which is absolutely meagre in citrus.
Dr. A. K. Srivastava has done PhD in Soil Science from Banaras Hindu University (India). He has handled 30 projects, credited with 161 peer reviewed publications, life member of 33 academic societies, fellow of 11 academic societies, and associated with editorial board of ten high SCI journals. He is author of books like Citrus: Soil and Climate, Citrus Nutrition and editor of books entitled Advances in Citrus Nutrition and Fruit Crops: Diagnosis and Management of Nutrient Constraints. He is adjunct faculty at three universities in India. He is a visiting professor at HZAU and Yangtze University, China and AREEO, Iran