Chiang Mai University, Thailand
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as osteoarthritis, muscle pain, back and neck are the 2nd most common cause of disability of the world. Moreover, MSDs is dramatically increasing in lower and middle income countries. The effect of this disorder is the most common cause of severe long-term pain and disability. Karen is the largest ethnic groups in Thailand, they cultivate rice in widen fields using very few agricultural machineries. Therefore, they spend long time bending their body which in turn produce a high risk of back injury, muscular pain and fatigue. The treatments in the hospital, which is often located far away from their homes, take long time to heal. Thus, they have decided to use traditional treatments that involve many medicinal plants. Therefore, in this study, we use qualitative and quantitative ethnobotanical methods to quantify the importance of medicinal plants for musculoskeletal disorders treatment of Skaw Karen. The thirty-eight informants were interviewed using semi structured questionnaire. The importance and the most popular medicinal plants among the informants were calculated by Use Value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), respectively. A total of 552 used reports from 70 medicinal plant species belonging to 43 families were recorded in this study. The most used plant families were Asteraceae (5 species), Fabaceae (4 species) and Malvaceae (4 species). The most used parts were roots (32%), whole plants (27%) and leaves (23%).The decoction was the most of preparation (68%). The highest used category was reported for muscle pain (297 use reports), flank/axilla symptom/complaint (87 use reports) and back symptom/complaint (73 use reports), respectively. The highest UV and RFC were recorded for Phlogacanthus curviflorus (1.37 and 0.97) and Sambucus javanica (1.24 and 0.95).
Rapeeporn Kantasrila is presently pursuing her Ph. D at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Solomon Islands National University, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands (SI) is known for its rich biological diversity. There are an estimated 1000 individual species of vascular plants in Solomon Islands (SI), most of these are endemic. A rich tradition of medicinal plants use exists in the country with well over 50% population relying exclusively on traditional herbal medicine for health care. In view of the growing importance and contribution of indigenous systems of health care practices worldwide and consistent with various international resolutions which call for promotion and development of Traditional Herbal Medicines (THM), a formal program on THM is proposed to be developed in Solomon Islands. The recent WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy (2014-2023) seeks to support member states in harnessing the potential contribution of THM to health and to promote its safe and effective use. In the Solomon Islands, a national policy on traditional and complementary medicine (TM/CAM) was issued in 1994. However, national program on traditional herbal medicine has not been developed and no herbal medicines are included on the national essential drug list. Despite gradual loss of traditional knowledge, reports suggest that many communities in Solomon Islands (SI) maintain rich tradition of medicinal plants uses to treat various sicknesses. With the objective of incorporating THM in the primary health care system some of the activities that could start immediately include systematic survey and documentation of medicinal plants and traditional medicine practices, establishment of herbal medicine database, training of herbalists and traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in primary care and awareness and promotion of safe and effective THMs in communities. This presentation will highlight the need and layout mechanism to develop indigenous herbal medicines for broader coverage of health needs especially in rural communities.
Professor Prem Prakash Rai, PhD works at Solomon Islands National University, School of Natural Resources & Applied Sciences. He has previously worked in University of Papua, New Guinea, PNG and headed the traditional medicine program in the National Department of Health. His speciality includes Pharmacognosy and quality control of herbal medicine. Dr. Rai is an active researcher and has published over 98 papers and authored number of technical books including one on Medicinal Plants in Papua New Guinea, published by the World Health Organization. Dr. Rai serves as an advisor and member on editorial board of number of local and international scientific journals.
Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, India
In the present era of modern civilization most of us have accepted the modern lifestyle. Revolution in the field of technology has changed the scenario in almost every field. Modern scientists used this technology to enrich medical science. This is one of the reasons of its global acceptance.
Ayurvedic scholars should provide the knowledge of Ayurveda in the form of language of modern science. There is a need of critical and unbiased study. Ayurveda is an ancient science. Ayurveda is a science of life. Ayurveda adds years to life and life to years. Sushruta charya says that, continuous study, exchange of thoughts, knowledge of other applied sciences supportive to Ayurveda and dialogue with guru are the means to enhance the intellect and understanding. One should always use the knowledge of other applied sciences to understand and to elaborate the Ayurvedic concepts. Efforts should be taken to make it demonstrable and experimental.
With the help of application of modern instruments in Ayurveda and modern technology we can make concepts of Ayurveda widely known and appreciable by scientist from all over the world.
Dr. Kavita Indapurkar is Professor and Head, Kriya Sharir Vidyan, College of Ayurveda, Bharati Vidyapeeth University of Pune. Dr. Kavita Indapurkar is a “Double gold medalist” at M. D. & Ph. D. Guide for M.D. and Ph.D. students. She is Founder/President of R. K. Academy as well as Kavita Holistic Healing, she is handling the responsibilities of Editor of Deerghayu International peer reviewed Journal. She has 27 years of teaching experience at under graduation (UG) level and 22 years of teaching experience at post graduation (PG) Level. She has also presented papers at national and international levels.
Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, India
In the present study the Ocimum canum leaf are selected for antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The different solvent extracts of selected medicinal plant were tested for their antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activity. It has been observed that the antidiabetic activity reported by petroleum ether extract of the plants exhibited maximum percentage. Hence, they were further screened for in-vivo antioxidant study. In case of hepatoprotective activity the aqueous extract of Ocimum canum possesses maximum action. Further its in-vivo antioxidant activity was studied. In order to detect the oxidative stress in lipid peroxidation in liver checked its in-vivo antioxidant parameter like reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) which justify the antioxidant property, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of the plant.
By through analytical works i.e. by through isolation techniques like TLC, HPLC the responsible phytoconstituents were confirmed. By the help of different spectrophotometric technique like Infrared spectrophotometric techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques the responsible functional groups and the molecular structure of the active constituents were reported. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of pancreas and liver section. In histopathological observation it was showed that the petroleum ether extract of Ocimum canum possess effectively antidiabetic and hepatoprotective property. From this study it was concluded that petroleum ether extract of Ocimum canum leaf shown antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective action.
Dr. Alok Kumar Dash is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Pharmacy, V.B.S. Purvanchal University, U.P., India. His field of research focuses on Medicinal chemistry, Natural Products Chemistry, pharmacological screening of drugs. He has more than 40 publications and 2 patents in his credit. He is having 11 years of experience in research and teaching. He grabs Asian Admirable Achievers globally reputed ‘Rashtriya Gaurav Awardʼ-2017, Bharat Vikas Award, “Certificate of Excellence in Reviewing-2017, Best Moderator Award and has been serving as an editorial board member of many International Journal. He had delivered many Invited lecture across the globe like London, Beijing, Lasvegas, USA etc.
Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, India
Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the worldʼs population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.
Dr. Jhansee Mishra is a proud Indian who was born and raised on Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. She had received her B. Pharm, M.Pharm & Ph.D degree from different renowned University of India. She is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Pharmacy, V.B.S. Purvanchal University, India. She has more than 40 National and International publications and 4 books in her credit. In the “6th Edition of International Conference on Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants” during April 16-17, 2018 at Amsterdam, Netherlands, she has received Young scientist award. She has also received most prestigious Atal Samman Award. She is working as editors/reviewers of many reputed national and international journals.
University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Unani system of medicine refers to Greco-Arabic medicine spreading around the globe which is based on the teaching of Greek physician Hippocrates. After Hippocrates, Gallen, Rashes and Avicenna enriched, constructed and imposing edifice the system. Unani medicine may have disappeared from the country of its origin, but it has found in South Asian countries including India and Sri Lanka. The modern day bible of the so called English or modern medicine “The cannon of medicine” is a complete translation of “Qanoon e Tibb” which should have rightly been called as “principle of Medicine” even to this date it is being referred to in this modern era and a lot of research is being done on the formulae, concepts, procedures and treaties mentioned in this book. According to the concept of the Unani medicine the health is maintained by the homeostasis of the seven principles known as elements, temperament, humors, organs, vital sprit, faculties or powers and functions. Equilibrium between these principles maintains natural constituents of the body. There are basic tenets to maintain health of an individual categorized as six essential factors such as food and water, air, sleep and wakefulness, evacuation and excretion, physical movement and rest, mental movement and rest. Unani system of medicine is based on the principle of four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile) known as humoral theory on their respective temperaments, their quantity and quality, viscosity, colour and smell. Any slight change in any of these parameters of these humors leads to a disease. Various types of treatments are employed, such as regimental therapy, dietotherapy, pharmacotherapy and surgery. However, lack of awareness, improper dissemination, inadequate knowledge about Unani Medicine and their principles are major lacuna for the proper exploitation of benefits of this system of medicine. Therefore, evaluation of the rich heritage of the Unani Medicine on the basis of literatures with special reference to phytochemical, pharmacological and analytical studies such as microscopy, chromatography of some precious classical remedies are essential. The objective of this study is to identify scientifically proven, safe and effective alternative remedies and to promote their use among general public with sound scientific basis. Further, this study is to suggest technical guidelines for the preparation of these medicines that would satisfy the established international standards in the field of herbal medicines. Therefore, this study will not only pave the way for the protection and preservation of treasure of Unani Medical system but also effectively integrate our herbal practice with other system of medicine in order to provide primary health care services to the nations.
Dr. Mohammad Shareeb Mohammad Nasmeer currently works as Senior Lecturer at Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. He is also a Member of Unani Sectional Committee, Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo.
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
From the year 2009 to 2012, there were 657, 839 diabetic patients registered in National Diabetes Report. Almost 99% of them were diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterised by high-blood glucose level resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. It might lead to death if it is not treated and managed correctly. Intensive studies on new lead have been conducted, mainly because of limitations and side effects contributed by the existing synthetic drugs. The leaves of Orthosiphon aristatus are traditionally used to treat diabetes. The anti-diabetic activity could be attributed to secondary metabolites, possibly rosmarinic acid and sinensetin. Rosmarinic acid rich extract from the plant achieved IC50 0.34 mg/mL which was found to be 5 times more active than the drug, acarbose (IC50 1.66 mg/mL) in the inhibition of α-glucosidase. Fractions with 50% rosmarinic acid (IC50 1.48 mg/mL) had a comparable inhibitory capacity with acarbose. Therefore, it is believed that peptides of the plant could also exert Anti-Diabetic activity. Proteomic profiling of white and purple flowers variety of O. aristatus found to have the potential transketolase. The presence of transketolase in maize, bacteria, fungi and human have been reported and the peptide was found to prevent diabetic retinopathy through blocking three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage; the hexosamine pathway, the advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation pathway and the diacylglycerol (DAG)–protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. The activity of transketolase was highly regulated by thiamine and its derivatives. Transketolase of O. aristatus is likely to be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent diabetes.
KLE College of Pharmacy, India
The natural pigments obtained from plants are nowadays are of significant interest as nutritional supplements and dietary antioxidants reason they being bioactive components of food. There is also strong and clear evidence on natural pigments like Anthocyanins, Carotenoids, Betanins, Annatto and Paprika, etc. as nutritional supplements and crucial antioxidants, as their presence in the diet reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases anti-carcinogenic, anti-bacterial and anti-tumor promoting effects. Even though the biological activities like radical scavenging property and nutrition benefits cannot be overseen, the safety and concern always remain as in regards to the elemental composition of natural pigments which may prove to be toxic over the years on frequent and regular consumption of the same. In the present study an effort has been made to develop and validate the optical spectroscopic method for identification and estimation of elements in the form of heavy metals if any, thereby providing a reliable and rapid analytical tool for analysis of herbal and natural pigments establishing evidence on its toxicity profile.
Shrikrishna M. Nandanwadkar currently, pursuing his doctoral study in Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance at KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, India. He is an active member of the Society of Ethnopharmacology (SFE) and Society of Pharmacognosy and had been in the field of Chromatography for the past 5 years and has hands-on experience on related sophisticated instruments. He had presented his research work at various National and International conferences like Advances in drug discovery and development at Manipal University, CSIR-NBRI and MFU University, Thailand and had presented his research work in form of scientific paper presentation.
1National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taiwan
2China Medical University, Taiwan
3Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan
4China Medical University, Taiwan
Neuropathic pain is due to neuronal damage on the somatosensory system and that can induce spontaneous pain intractable to the treatment. Chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain rat model is the most similar to neuropathic pain in human. Therefore, we established a CCI model by using 4-0 chromic gut loose ligated on the nerve proximal to the trifurcations of right sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. 2 Hz and 15 Hz electro acupuncture (EA) was applied at bilateral L4 and L6 of Hua TuoJia Ji points (EX-B2) and right Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37), respectively to investigate the effect of EA on neuropathic pain. Results indicated that 2 Hz EA and 15 Hz EA at bilateral L4 and L6 of EX-B2 could ameliorate neuropathic pain and also could increase the levels of GABAA receptors of spinal cord; EA at right ST36-ST37 also could relief neuropathic pain and also could reduce cerebral cortical transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRVP4) expression. Therefore, spinal segmental effect plays a crucial role.
Ching-Liang Hsieh graduated from the School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University (CMU), Taiwan, in 1978, he received Ph.D. degree from Kyushu University, Japan (1995) and Ph.D. degree of Guangzhou Chinese Medicine University, China (2004). He is a Western medicine doctor and also is a Chinese medicine doctor. Currently, he is professor at Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, CMU. He had previously worked as Vice Dean of the College of Chinese Medicine, the director of the School of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, Acupuncture Science and Integrated Medicine, Acupuncture Research Center and Research Center for Chinese and Acupuncture at CMU and deputy superintendent at CMU Hospital.
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Medicinal plants always get greatest attention due to their good pharmacological activities such anticancer activity. A number of herbal preparations either in wholesome or in their components have been shown to exhibit good anticancer activity. Hence, the current study was reported the anticancer activity of Polyalthia longifolia. The MTT assay results disclosed a lowest IC50 value of 14.181 µg/ml as P. longifolia leaf extract debilitate HeLa cells. The cytological observations underlined formation of apoptotic bodies, which are correlating within Light Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope and HoloMonitor images. The Annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis was showed that P. longifolia leaf induces apoptosis whereas the cell cycle analysis demonstrated the accumulation of cells at sub G0/G1, G0/G1 and G2/M phases with an increase in mitochondria membrane potential depolarisation. Subsequently, the radioprotective effect of P. longifolia was studied in mice. P. longifolia treatment rendered remarkable improvement in mice survival (27 days) compared to 100% mortality in irradiated groups mice within 14 days. We also firstly reported the protective effect of P. longifolia leaf on DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, we have reported the potential uses of P. longifolia leaf as green therapeutic approaches, as well as radioprotectors against the adverse effects of irradiation on healthy cells during radiotherapy as future prospects. P. longifolia leaf preparation also can be consumed in a range of methods such as by drinking as teas, capsules and tinctures as a supplement or functional food by the patient as cost-effective medicinal plant-based therapeutics.
Currently, Associate Professor Dr. Sreenivasan Sasidharan serves as the Deputy Director in Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine. He has over 165 publications with total impact factor of 185 (With more than 2300 citation in Scopus), multiple book chapters, as well as Keynote, Invited Speaker and Chair of International & National Congresses. Has been serving as an Editorial Board Member and Reviewer of international journals and grants. He reviewed more than 250 manuscripts for international journal. His research interests include medicinal plants and their role in Health and Disease Management. He also graduated more than 15 post graduate student as main supervisor.
Austrian Educational Society for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Austria
Generally speaking, most physicians who are practicing Tibetan medicine today are using up to 150 different compounds, which are not individually adapted to the individual patients but are prescribed as fixed formulas according to the individual constitution and disease of the patient. This presentation analyzes aspects of potency in Tibetan medicine and pharmacology. Starting with the nus pa brgyad (eight potencies) described in Deumar Geshe Tenzin Püntsokʼs (Deʼudmardgebshesbstan ‘dzinphuntshogs, born 1672) introduction of his important materiamedica text shel gong shelphreng, the paper firstly aims to deepen the understanding of the meaning of each of the “eight potencies” through detailed explanations and through examples. The relevance of the “eight potencies” and their description in other Tibetan medical texts, such as the rgyudbzhi (Four Treatises), will be discussed. Moreover, based on recent findings from fieldwork in India, Nepal as well as the TAR of China, additional potencies will be presented.
Analyzing the “eight potencies” gives a deep insight into the subject of the efficacy of Tibetan medical substances, providing a basis for further discussions on dosage, substitutions, medication administration, possible pros and cons of modern ways of manufacturing Tibetan medical pills as well as the questions: “What makes a substance in Tibetan medicine ‘potentʼ?” and “Where lays the importance of the application of the concept of the “eight potencies” to Tibetan medicine in the 21st century?”
Aspects to be discussed will be among others the contemporary production of medicine and an outlook to the next decades.
Florian Ploberger (MD, BAc, MA), Austria, pursues international interdisciplinary and university teaching activities. He is president of the OAGTCM and has been entrusted by the Men-Tsee-Khang (Institute of Tibetan Medicine and Astrology in Dharamsala, North India) to translate the most significant work of Tibetan Medicine (rgyudbzhi).
He is Executive Committee Member of the WFCMS (World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies) and also Director of “Alliance of Research and Development of Traditional Medicine, Complementary Medicine and Integrative Medicine” of Fudan University in Shanghai. In 2018, he was appointed a member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Chinese Medicine.
MOXANA Acupuncture Centre, Norway
The principle of ECIWO is easy to see in nature when you are aware of it. Any multicell organism is built up of structures, big or small, growing out from the first structure formed and then as a sequence one after the other. Whether it is branch of a tree or an arm, a liver or an ear of a human being, the principle is the same. The ECIWO theory is that every time a such structure is formed, it is also a representation of the whole organism. With plants you can see that if you take one part of the plant and plant it in earth, it will develop into a complete new plant. Any structure at any level will have points corresponding to the main parts of the whole body. Such points can be used to diagnose and treat problems and pathology in the corresponding limb or organ.
The ECIWO acupuncture with points located along all bones in the body and found that the ECIWO Acupuncture was perfect to treat disease in the central nervous system, such as Multiple scleroses. ECIWO was fantastic effective for treating Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). The points used were the head and liver pointʼs on the second metacarpal and first metatarsi, plus one liver point in the palm of the hand. The liver point is used because the liver is controlling the blood circulation of the eyes.
An example of the effect of the treatment is a woman 82 years old who had to stop making woven artistic carpets due to AMD. She was very famous for her work in Norway. After only a few treatments she started weaving again. At the age of 92, she held a big exhibition with her carpets. When she was 96 years old, her vision was still good.
AMD is an increasing problem everywhere in the world. In USA alone, there are 11 million patients suffering from AMD and the prognoses say that in 2050 the number will be 22 million. In UK there are 1.5 million and in Europe there must be many millions with AMD as well. Research from WHO shows that every three persons with vision problems world vide got AMD diagnoses. In industrialized countries, AMD is the primary cause for blindness for people with age above 60.
ECIWO acupuncture should be the obvious and uncomplicated form of treatment for those millions of patients suffering from the diagnoses. ECIWO acupuncture is a very safe treatment and no problem for acupuncture doctors to learn and acupuncture doctors should start practicing this fantastic easy and effective treatment, so many patients will save their vision.
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic auto-immune neuromuscular disorder. Current diagnostic measures for MG still remain a challenge. In this study, metabolomics was applied to find serum biomarkers of MG patients to develop a new and effective diagnostic tool for early-stage MG. Serum samples were collected from 30 patients with MG class II and randomly from 17 healthy volunteers. These samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography/Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC/FTMS). Multivariate statistical analyses were employed to analyze the spectral data. Firstly, orthogonal partial least-squares analysis (OPLS) was used to determine significant differences between MG patients (n=20) and healthy people (n=10). Then, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) class prediction was performed on a total of 17 subjects (10 MG and 7 healthy samples) that were not used in above OPLS model. With the OPLS model, 40 serum metabolites were temporarily identified as biomarkers of MG, which were used to distinguish between MG patients and health people. With the PLS-DA prediction model of the 10 MG samples, 10 were predicted correctly and of the 7 healthy samples, 6 were predicted correctly. The results illustrated that serum metabolomics provides good performance in discriminating MG patients from healthy people and it may be useful for detecting early-stage MG.
Prof. Ngai Sai Ming has over 20 years experience in Protein/Peptide biochemistry, proteomics and computational techniques and is the author of over 70 scientific publications, 4 book chapters and numerous conference papers. He is currently Director of The Chinese Medicinal Fungal Proteomics Laboratory and Investigator of State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and associate professsor in The School of Life Sciences, in The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. His research interest is bioinformatics, proteomics and metabolomics, protein/peptide structural and functional studies and Modern Chinese Medicine.
Sunway University, Malaysia
Acanthamoeba castellanii is opportunistic protists that is known to cause Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK) and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE). Current treatments for both AK and GAE are becoming more challenging due to the resilient nature of cyst form of Acanthamoeba. The objective of this study is to determine the Anti-Acanthamoeba effects of Dictmanus Dasycarpus (白鲜皮), Glycyrrhiza Uralensis (甘草), Prunella Vulgaris (夏古草) and Cornu Saiga Tatarica (羚羊角) against Acanthamoeba Castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype, as well as their cytotoxicity effect on human cells. Amoebicidal and amoebistatic assays were performed with P. Vulgaris, G. Uralensis, D. Dasycarpus and Cornu S. Tatarica at concentrations of 150 and 200 µg/ml to determine their effects against the viability and growth of A. Castellanii. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was conducted to measure the cytotoxicity level of Chinese medicine on human cells. Results showed that all Chinese medicines exhibited amoebicidal activity with a significant reduction of at least 50% in the number of viable Acanthamoeba at 200 µg/ml. In addition, all Chinese medicines, except D. Dasycarpus, showed lowest cytotoxicity effects (<10%) against HeLa cells at both 150 and 200 µg/ml. In conclusion, these findings showed that these Chinese medicines exhibited amoebicidal, amoebistatic against A. Castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype and no cytotoxicity effect against human cell lines.
Dr Gew Lai Ti is senior lecturer in Sunway University, she is also appointed as Programme Leader of BSc (Hons) Biomedicine. She is currently working drug delivery, antimicrobial nanocoating. She uses green solvents for chemical synthesis and extractions in her research projects. She shows concern on the use of hazardous organic solvents and her desire to reduce the use of organic solvents in chemical processes. She is determined to work on projects that in line with Sustainable Development Goals. She is one of the recipients of SSHN (High level Scientific Stay) scholarship for young researcher from France Embassy in Malaysia.
KLE College of Pharmacy, India
The traditional practices of many crucial ethnic herbal medicines includes use of oils, herbs and related composition, collected from wild or cultivated fields. However, significant concern over authenticity and safety of the same has been growing concern from past few decades, reasons being theirs sources, collection and extraction methods, storage, transportation etc. The changes occurring inside composition of herbs or related medicines in every above mentioned conditions is must and if avoided can pose great risk to mankind. The cases of adulteration, deliberate mixing of low grade and substandard materials is also rising remarkably over the years. Sale of non-toxic herbs with those of potential poisonous effect is common as in cases of aconite roots or nux vomica seeds. Along with the conventional pharmacological screening methods of in-vivo ex vivo, in-situ techniques, the combined use of sophisticated and advanced chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques like TLC-MS, LC-MS, GC-MS-MS, ICP-MS seems to be promising tool breaking barriers of identification and detection of components of interest at trace levels (ppm & ppb), in turn providing helping to existing conventional methods. The present study focuses on advances in analytical instrumentation particularly in analysis of natural medicines and herbs where adulteration of toxic components seems to be raising concern in respect of safety and efficacy for mankind post consumption. From the present study an effort is made to develop newer analytical methods using GMP and GLP guidelines and other regulatory protocols, not implemented in conventional methods thereby providing scientific, effective and reliable tools in analysis of herbs and related natural medicines.
Amruta Balekundri currently, pursuing her postgraduate study in Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance at KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, India. She is active member of Society of Ethnopharmacology (SFE) and Society of Pharmacognosy and has hands on experience on HP-TLC, UV and HPLC. Further, she has presented her research work at various National and International conferences like Advances in drug discovery and development, Kaher, Manipal University, India.