Madridge Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN: 2638-1591

International Conference on Toxicology and Risk Assessment

March 20-21, 2019, Frankfurt, Germany
Accepted Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2638-1591.a3.004

Contribution of Toxicological Assessment of Aflatoxins in Oleaginous Meant for Human Consumption in Cameroon

Evelyne Nguegwouo1,2*, Alex Tchuenchieu1, Hippolyte Mouafo Tene1, Zita Youmbi Yepie5, Abel Wade4, Gabriel Medoua Nama1, Elie Fokou2 and Marcel Evrard Nguidjoe3

1Centre for Food and Nutrition Research, IMPM, Cameroon
2Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
3Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences of the University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
4National Veterinary Laboratory, Annex of Yaounde, Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries, Cameroon
5Regional Center for Special Education in Agriculture (CRESA) Forest - Wood, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon

Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic substances produced by a fungus called Aspergillus. They are associated with many public health and food security issues. This study aimed at contributing of toxicological assessment of total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in some oleaginous seeds such as peanuts, pistachios and soybeans consumed in Yaoundeʼs town, the politic capital of Cameroon. A survey on 120 adult participants of the population allowed us to highlight the daily quantities of oleaginous seeds consumed, as well as the state of their knowledge on mycotoxins (aflatoxins). A total of 45 oleaginous samples based on food preference were collected according to the standard procedure from different markets in the town of Yaoundé. Analysis results obtained by validated Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay showed that 26%, 33% and 40% of peanuts, pistachios and soybeans samples, respectively, were contaminated with total aflatoxins (AFt), with respective averages of 7, 27 μg / kg, 7.76 μg / kg and 1.19 μg / kg. The highest levels of AFt found in these samples were 19.52 μg / kg, 23.48 μg / kg and 1.25 μg / kg, respectively. Taking into account the average body weight (60 Kg), the Probable Daily Intake (PDI) for AFt through the consumption of peanuts, pistachios and soybeans in adults were: 18.05 ng / kg body weight/day, 12.55 ng / kg body weight/day and 0.32 ng / kg body weight/day, respectively. The Margin of Exposure (MOE) to aflatoxins contamination was 9.42 for peanuts, 13.6 for pistachios and 531.2 for soybeans. The Risk of Primary Liver Cancer (RPLC) was also estimated to be 0.81; 0.56 and 0.01 cancer/year/100.000 persons respectively for the three matrices. These results suggest the need for the establishment of regular control measures for these toxins in oilseeds marketed in Cameroon.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, Peanuts, Pistachios, Soybeans, Exposure, Yaoundéʼs population, Cameroon.

Dr. Nguegwouo Evelyne, Ph.D in Biochemistry, speciality food Science and Nutrition at the University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon. Researcher at the Centre for Food Research and Nutrition of the Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plan studies/MINRESI, Cameroon. Authors of several publications in food research and toxicology. Editorial boardmember of international reputed Journals.

Nonylphenol Exposure Induces Cellular and Organismal Toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

Shiwangi Dwivedi*, Leonard Clinton DʼSouza, Shalini Kunhikannan and Anurag Sharma

Division of Environmental Health and Toxicology, NUCSER, NITTE, India

Depicting the effect of environmental toxicants at the cellularand organismal levels are critical aspects of human risk assessment. The endocrine disruptor nonylphenol has been widely used in industry, agriculture and daily requirements. The presence of nonylphenol residue in water and food may cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Therefore, the effects of nonylphenol at the cellular and organismal levels were examinedin Drosophila melanogaster exposed during the larval development. The Drosophila larvae were exposed to three different concentrations (0.05 μg/mL, 0.5 μg/mL, and 5.0 μg/mL) and adult emergence rate, developmental time, body weight, locomotory behaviour, heat shock proteins, oxidative stress, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and gut microbial population were determined. At the cellular level, nonylphenol exposure showed time and concentration dependent changes in heat shock protein expression, ROS levels and oxidative stress markers. Moreover, nonylphenol exposure also showed a reduction in number and diversity of the total commensal gut microbial population. Propagation of this cellular effect resulted at the organismal level, i.e., delay and reduced emergence, reduction in body weight of male and female organism and altered locomotor behaviour. These findings suggest the nonylphenol exposure causes toxicity at the cellular and organismal levels and Drosophila can be used as an alternative animal model to study environmental chemical induced toxicity. However, the role of nonylphenol altered microbial dynamics in cellular and organismal toxicity is an open question.

Ms. Shiwangi Dwivedi is a Ph.D. student from Division of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Nitte university Centre for Science Education and Research, India. Currently, she is working on project to decipher interaction between host immune system, microbiome and environmental toxicants using Drosophila melanogaster as model system. Her research interests are focused on toxicogenomics, xenobiotic inducing cellular and organismal level toxicity, molecular mechanism of toxicity, cellular immune response, toxicants induced metabolism disorders, gut microbiome and stress response toxicology.

Assessing the Effect of Benzene on Hematopoiesis Using Drosophila Model System

Leonard Clinton DʼSouza*, Shiwangi Dwivedi, Shalini Kunhikannan and Anurag Sharma

Division of Environmental Health and Toxicology, NUCSER, NITTE, India

Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are responsible for the generation of all blood cell types during all life. Due to the enormous rate of blood cell production, hematopoiesis is sensitive to local and systemic stress. Deregulation of the hematopoietic differentiation program is at the origin of numerous pathologies including leukemia. In adult mammals, hematopoiesis takes place in the bone marrow. In Drosophila larvae hematopoiesis takes place in a specialized organ called the lymph gland (LG). The LG is composed of three zones: (1) the medullary zone (MZ) that contains the hematopoietic progenitors called pro-hemocytes (2) the cortical zone (CZ) containing the differentiated hemocytes and (3) the Posterior Signaling Center (PSC) that acts as a niche to regulate the hematopoietic response to immune stress such as wasp parasitism. As a result of agricultural and industrial developments, the distribution of chemicals in the environment poses a serious risk to human health including hematopoietic malignancies. Benzene, a monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is used in many industrial and household products. Prolonged exposure of benzene has shown many serious health issues at both occupational and non-occupational levels in humans. In this study, we investigate the effects of benzene on hematopoiesis using Drosophila LG as a model. Benzene exposure to Drosophila larvae resulted in a dose dependent effect on blood cell production, activation of the immune response, premature bursting of LG and an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels in LG. Besides, we observed that PSC plays an important role in benzene induced hematopoietic disturbance. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the process of benzene induced hematopoietic perturbations using Drosophila LG as a model system.

Mr. Leonard Clinton DʼSouza is a Doctoral Research Fellow at Division of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research, Nitte (Deemed to be University) situated in a beautiful city of Mangalore, India. He has completed his graduation (Biology-2013) and his post-graduation (Biochemistry-2015) from Mangalore University. Before eventually joining for a doctoral research at Nitte (Deemed to be University), he worked as a research fellow for two years at SDM College of Medical Sciences, Dharwad, India. His research areas include biochemistry, cancer biology, toxicology, developmental biology and immunology. He has also co-authored two research articles and also two book chapters. He is currently working on the effects of environmental toxicants in hematopoiesis using Drosophila as a model system.

Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Toxicology: Current Scenario

Srinath B1*, K. S. Jaganathan2 and Y. Padmanabha Reddy1

1Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER), India
2Shantha Biotechnics Ltd, India

The science of particles has been an area of interest, thrill and full of mystery since beginning. Over the decades we have seen the focus on various types of applications of particulates matter in different areas of technology whether it be pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, paints, coating etc. Nanotechnology in the drug delivery has found renewed applications in the areas of targeted drug delivery due to their very specific nature of affinity for localizing after crossing the physical cell barriers and providing a dosage regimen, which is generally not achievable by conventional means of drug administration. The nanosystems research and applications offer the major advantages like – improved efficacy, reduced toxicity, improved patients compliance and convenience. Nanoparticles based drug delivery systems have created great impact on practically every branch of medicine including cardiology, ophthalmology, endocrinology, oncology, pulmology and immunology and also on highly specialized areas like gene delivery, targeting to brain, tumor targeting, oral vaccine formulations and other areas. However, some unknown health risk, different types of toxicities like cellular, tissue, Immuno, organo etc, unpredictable and undefined safety issues, some clinical as well as regulatory issues still pose formidable challenges.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Nanotoxicity, Gene delivery.

Detection of Dioxin-Like Compound Contamination in Bohai Bay, China by Use of the Transgenic Zebra Fish Model

Wu Dong*, Wenjing Dong, Feng Wang, Mingliang Fang, Jie Wu, Shuiaiyu Wang, Ming Li, Jingfeng Yang, Jingli Mu, Melissa Chernick, David Hinton, De-Sheng Pei, Hongxing Chen and Lingtian Xie

Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory for Toxicants Analysis and Toxicology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, China

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been detected in Bohai Bay, near Beijing in northern China. We used zebra fish (Danio rerio) as an aquatic fish model to detect dioxin-like compound contamination of the coast of northern China. Zebra fish embryos were exposed to either sediment extract or 1 ppb 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) from 4 hpf to 72 hpf. During their development, we evaluated morphological changes including pericardial edema, length of lower jaw and blood circulation in the tail. Following exposure, antibody staining was used to localize CYP1A mRNA expression. When exposed to sediment extract from either location, embryos developed severe pericardial edema, changes in the lower jaw and hemostasis in the tail; additionally, there was significant induction of CYP1A in the liver. Embryos exposed to TCDD showed similar changes, suggesting that these locations may be contaminated by dioxin-like compounds. We found the in vivo zebra fish embryo model to be good for this type of environment contamination analysis. In the future, we will collect and chemically characterize water samples from river, sediment and pollution discharge sites.

Keywords: Dioxin-like contamination; Zebra fish embryo assay, Bioassessment; CYP1A

The Toxic Effect of Using Cyanide in Gobat Salime Village

Gihad Bashir Elamin Bashir

Sennar University, Sudan

Gobat Salime is one of the most affected villages by cyanide used by the traditional mining in Northern Sudan; Cyanide appears to be without control in that part of Sudan.

The general objective of this research is to study the destructive toxic effect of losing control in mining by using cyanide and to determine the magnitude of the effect that resulted from mining by using cyanide in Gobat Salime, so as to recommend appropriate awareness measures to promote health and reduce the hazards to eliminate the ignorance about health guideline of cyanide poisoning.

And finally to help in reducing the danger related to mining by using cyanide on human being and the environment.

Methodology: This is a descriptive cross sectional study, conducted at Gobat salime.

The study population is 1600 (1) a sample of 144 male and female is selected by using systemic random sampling. Three types of tools have been used: open-ended questionnaire (2) (3), Blood lactate level test and a sample from the soil in the study area (multistage procedure) (4).

Results: Dying cattle, reduction in the number of birds, numbers of human poisoned by cyanide which leads ultimately twice to death, increase in cyanide range in soil and abnormal lactate level in blood.

Conclusion: The use of cyanide is only causing harm to population instead of being a useful tool to help explore the natural recourse to help the economy. The government should take look into demolishing all cyanide use to help reduce the harm it causes in those areas and reserve human life to be protected from danger it brings.


1. Central bureaus of statistic in Sudan.
2. Knowledge assessment of care-takers of Children from 2 to 6 years old living in Bureghaven about lead exposure and lead poisoning. Aleksandrian Gohar.
3. Use of a Survey to Assess the Environmental Exposure and Family Perception to Lead in Children (<6 Years) in Four Valley Cities, Northwestern China. Xuemeng Sun, Xiaoping Li, Dongying Liu, Tao Yang, Yanan Zhao, Ting Wu, Yue Cai, Yuwei Ai, Xu Zhang, Jiwen Wang, Rui Yang, Hangtao Yu and Howard W. Mielke.
4. Effects of artisanal gold, mining activates on soil properties in part of southwestern Nigeria. Adebayo O. Eludoyin, Abosede T. Ojo, Temitiope O. Ojo and Olusegun O. Awotoye.

Carbon Black Particles Decrease Serum CC16 and Increase Sp-A and Affect Small Airway in Exposed Population and Mice

Yuxin Zheng1*, Mo Yang1,2, Yanting Li1, Tao Meng3, Yong Niu3, Yufei Dai3 and Weimin Gao4

1School of Public Health, Qingdao University, China
2School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
3National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China
4Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health West Virginia University, USA

Although the potential threat of superfine carbon black (CB) particles to human health has received attention, few human toxicological data are currently available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum CC16 or SP-A and small airway related pulmonary functions in CB workers. Ninety-nine male CB packers and 115 non-CB-exposed healthy male workers were recruited. Serum CC16 and/or SP-A and pulmonary function tests were evaluated and the relationship between them were also analyzed. To further assess the pulmonary damage induced by CB particles in target organ, an animal inhalation exposure study was conducted. The male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CB for 6 hours per day for 28 days. The levels of CC16 and SP-A were evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results showed that the medians of CC16 had a 20% decrease and SP-A had a 15% increase in CB workers. FEV1%, FEV/FVC, MMEF%, FEF25% and FEF75% were decreased in CB workers (P<0.05). The significant positive correlation was observed between serum CC16 and FEV1/FVC, meanwhile an apparent negative correlation was found between serum SP-A and FEV1/FVC. In mice exposed to the CB particles, serum CC16 in high exposure group had a significant reduction of 72% and serum SP-A in low and high exposure groups were 1.65- and 1.17- times higher than the control group, respectively. Lung CC16 and serum CC16 levels were positively correlated in mice (P=0.024). Longterm exposure to ultrafine CB particles can cause a decrease in CC16 and an increase in SP-A in peripheral blood of exposure workers. In conclusion, superfine CB particles have the potential to cause small airway obstruction.

Dr. Zheng Yuxin is a Professor and Dean of School of Public Health at Qingdao University. From 1996 to 2016, Dr. Zheng held an appointment as an Associate Professor (1996-2000) and later Professor and Deputy Director (2000-2016) in National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, China CDC. His research field is biomarkers in populations exposed to environmental pollution, industrial chemicals, metals, for biomonitoring. The association and mechanism of some biomarkers with disease phenotypes also studied. The research includes: (1) the industrial chemicals or byproducts, such as PAHs, trichloro ethylene, formaldehyde, lead and manganese; (2) air pollution, such as PM2.5 and diesel engine exhaust. He has authored for three books, 200 original research manuscripts. Dr. Zheng was an elected vice President of the Chinese Society of Toxicology (2009-2018). He has been invited as an Adjunct Professor of Peking University and University of Chinese Academy of Science.

Studying the Possible Effect of Silymarin as a Natural Extract against Lead- Induced Liver Damage in Rats

Ebtihaj J. Jambi

Biochemistry department, Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

This study was conducted to investigate the possible ameliorative effects of silymarin against adverse effects and hepatotoxicity induced by lead toxicity in rats. Given of rats a daily dose of lead acetate (4mg/kg B.WT/ day/8 weeks) caused oxidative liver injury evidenced by an increase in serum levels of hepatic markers enzymes (transaminases and gamma glutamyl transferase), inflammatory factors (tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and level of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) with marked sever damage in the histopathology of liver tissues compared to control rats. Also, lead significantly reduced the level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione content (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and catalase (CAT). While, treatment of rats with lead along with silymarin (50mg/kg/day/8weeks) induced significant decrease in the activity of liver enzymes, level of TNF-α and IL-6 with enhancing of antioxidant status and reduction of lipid peroxidation as well as silymarin treatment significantly reduced sever damage and necrosis of liver tissues induced by lead. The results concluded that silymarin ameliorate the toxic effects of lead to a major extent, suggesting the probability of using silymarin as a powerful natural extract that can protect against liver injury.

Keywords: Lead toxicity, Silymarin, Lipid peroxidation, Liver injury.

Comparative Effects of Two Novel Betaproteobacteria Based Insecticides on Myzuspersicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Phenacoccusmadeirensis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

Hail K. Shannag1* and John L. Capinera2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, USA

The lethal and sublethal effects of two novel Betaproteobacteria-based insecticides (Burkholderiaspp. strain A396 as Venerate®XC; Chromobacteriumsubtsugae strain PRAA4-1 as Grandevo® WDG) were compared for suppression of two polyphagous insect pests of world-wide importance: Greenpeach aphid, Myzuspersicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccusmadeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). In laboratory and screen house tests, the insects were exposed to residues applied by leaf dipping or by spraying the insects and foliage. These novel products also were compared to a well-established product, spirotetramat (Movento® 240 SC). Spirotetramat was generally effective for suppressionof both species of insects and Burkholderia (Venerate) induced mortality levels that made it competitive with spirotetramat. Chromobacteriumsubtsugae (Grandevo) was less satisfactory, inducing only moderate levels of mortality in both species. Reproduction by aphids surviving exposure to Burkholderia was slightly affected, whereas C. subtsugae did not affect reproduction. These new products show promise for a useful role in suppressing important insect pests such as M. persicaeand P. madeirensis and provide opportunities to advance use of bio-based insecticides, along with the potential to enhance insecticideresistance management. To obtain a complete picture of these novel bio-based pesticides, further investigations assessing their efficacy on their promising natural enemies are worthwhile.

Risk Assesment of Adverse Effects of Immunosuppressive Drugs on Kidney Transplants: Experience of Pharmaco-Toxicology Service of University Hospital Center Hassan II Fes-Morocco

Rtel Bennani M1,2,3*, EL Hassouni M3, Achour S1,2 and Khabbal Y1

1Team Science of drugs, Medical center of biomédical and translational research, Morocco
2Service of Pharmacology-Toxicology CHU HASSAN II Fès, Morocco
3Laboratory of Biotechnologies, Faculty of Science Dhar Mehraz, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah, Morocco

Main Objective: Highlight the benefits of therapeutic monitoring of immunosuppresive treatment on kidney transplants in order to prevent on avoiding the risk of rejection, guarrantee efficiency and prevent toxicity.

Method: It is about a retroprospective study concerning pharmacologic therapeutic monitoring of immunosupressive drugs on kidney transplants followed in the Service of Nephrology of University Hospital Hassan II Fes, Morocco (January 2001-December 2018). The data was seized in Excel and treated by SPSS and R.

Results: It concerns 1000 samples in 35 kidney transplanted patients from mostly living donators with at least 50% compatibility, aged in average between 45 years ± 15,22 (18:75 years). The sex ratio was 2:5 (H=25, F=10).

The patients are mostly treated by Tacrolimus 58% against 40% under ciclosporine and 2% under Everolimus. The main side effects are infertility and gingival hypertrophy in 4 patients treated by ciclosporine. For Tacrolimus, we observed some side effects of induced diabetes (2 cases), one erectile dysfunction (1case ), one gingival hypertrophy (2 cases) and shaking (2 cases) associated with hypomagnesimy. One patient showed a neoplasic side effect of Sarcom de Kaposi type, which we will talk about in detail in a clinical case. Three transplant rejection cases were noticed, one of which of medication origin (nephrotoxicity induced by the tacrolimus).

Some high immuno depression therapeutic concentrations were observed with 53% over dose and 43% under dose for Tacrolimus and 51% and 49% respectively for the ciclosporine. Some are related to pharmacocinethic interactions due to intake of other medication types such as antifongic, antagonist calcic and marcolid. In a patient under colchicine and ciclosporine, neuromuscular side effects were increased by pharmacodynamic interaction due to immunodepressor.

The analysis shows that there is no linear relation between the dosage and the residual concentration of the two immunosupressors. The calculation of the correlation coefficient of tacrolimus is very weak (r=0,27) and not significant (p=0,08). As for the ciclosporine, the coefficient of correlation was weak (r=0;4) and significant (p=0,001) and the coefficient of determination was r2=0.16, so 84% of the dosage variation is not explained by its relation to the residual concentration.

Conclusion: The implementation of a rigorous therapeutic pharmacologic monitoring is necessary for the assesment of the risk and the toxicity of high concentratations of immunosuppressive medication.

Correlation of Mental Health, Body Constitution, Cytotoxicity and Chewing Arecanut and Tobacco Related Products

Nikita Vadsaria* and R. J. Verma

Zoology Department, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, India

Use of tobacco and arecanut related products are rampant all over the world. Few of those are mava which is mixture of arecnut, tobacco and lime another is panmasala which is made by companies using arecnut. People are also addicted to consuming arecanut and tobacco alone.

Here we have made and attempt to study the mental health status of these addicted people with the help of DASS scale. Along with this we have taken in to consideration their prakrati which means oneʼs body constitution. Prakrati is a key feature in Ayurveda. In order to study cytotoxicity in these chewers we had collected buccal cell of the same individual.

Result: Our result showed Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in non-chewers was less as compared to that chewers. In addition chewers were classified according to their chewing habits into arecanut, tobacco, panmasala, mava and their analysis will be discussed further. On evaluating their prakrati it was observed that 61% of non-chewers fall into a balanced dosha and only 20% of the chewers had balanced dosha. Chewers (58%) showed vaat and pitt prakrati, 14% showed pitt and kaaf type of prakrati and only 8% showed vaat and kaaf prakrati. There was a significant difference (X2; p value: 31.09; 0.0001) found between both the groups. The other study showed significant difference in cytotoxicity of all the products consumed by people i.e mava, tobacco, panmasala and arecanut. Mava chewers showed highest anomalies in buccal cells. This may be due to physical damage caused by arecanut and chemical exothermic reaction due to presence of lime, these two processes goes hand in hand which could be potent reason.

Conclusion: Our results showed that prakrati and mental status along with addiction is directly correlated. The disequilibrium doshas could be one of the reason for developing mental health problems and might have lead to addiction and rehab centers should consider prakrati aspect in their treatment. Chemical ingredients in Panmasala should be looked into as high number of anomalies signifies presence of some toxic or carcinogenic compounds which causes damage to mucosal cells, so government should take strong steps towards and look forward to analyze, assess the chemical composition of the product also should educate the companies to re-modify their composition.

Currently working as Ph.D. Research Scholar (SRF) from Zoology Department, School of Sciences, Gujarat University.

Awards and prize:

• Was awarded Sumer research Fellowship Program, sponsored by IASc (Bangalore), INSA (New Delhi) and NASI (Allahabad).

• Second Prize winner in National Conference on “Frontiers and Avenues in the field of Herbal Drug Research” organized by L.M college of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad. Abstract was entitled of “amelioration of lead induced toxicity by curcumin and In vitro study”.

• Won Second Prize in National Conference on “Basic Sciences as Foundation of Applied Sciences and Technology” Conducted by Bhavnagar University. Abstract was entitled “Statistical and analytical data of cancer patients reported in Bhavnagar District”.

• Won third prize in poster presentation in seminar on “Cancer: From biologistʼs Perspective” Abstract was entitled “Role of Nano technology in changing trend of cancer cure”.

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Post Harvest Soil and Grains of Rice and Wheat with Application of Sewage Sludge

Satish Kumar Singh* and A. M. Latare

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India

Application of sewage sludge (SS) for crop production is increasing as it is relatively inexpensive in comparison to chemical fertilizers. In addition to nutrients, it provides organic matter to soil however, it also contains pollutant elements. Field studies were conducted for two consecutive years (2011-12 and 2012-13) at Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India to assess the effect of SS application on heavy metals accumulation in soil and grains of rice and wheat grown in sequence. Three levels of SS (15, 30 and 45 t ha-1) and its combination along with 50 and 100% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) were applied. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with 10 treatments taking three replications. Sewage sludge was applied only in first crop (Istrice) and its residual effect was monitored in three successive crops (Istwheat - IInd rice - IInd wheat). Rice variety PRH 10 and wheat variety HUW 234 were taken as test crops. The initial soil had pH 8.49 (1:2.5), EC 0.149 dS m-1 and organic carbon 0.47%. The SS had pH 6.57, EC 2.57 dS m-1, organic C 9.65%, total N, P, K and S content as 1.4, 1.2, 0.87 and 0.96%, respectively. The contents of DTPA extractable Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in SS were 4.62, 9.67, 13.6 and 8.87 mg kg-1 and the total were 24.4, 51.3, 65.9 and 44.6 mg kg-1, respectively. Sewage sludge significantly increased the DTPA-extractable Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb content over control in post harvest soil (PHS) of both rice and wheat. The highest content of Cd, Cr and Ni were recorded in PHS of Ist rice and decreased in PHS of subsequent crops. However, the highest content of Pb in soil was recorded in 4th crop of study (IInd wheat) followed by third crop (IInd rice). The highest total content of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in PHS collected at the termination of experiment were 2.43, 8.95, 18.9 and 17.0 mg kg-1, respectively which showed accumulation of 4.1 times, 3.2 times, 59% and 93% over their respective controls. The maximum content of DTPA and total Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in soils was recorded in treatments where 45 t ha-1 SS was applied. Although the SS used in the present study was suitable for agricultural use, but if it is applied in high amount to soil over long periods, the heavy metals content may reach to a toxic level for public health. During the experiment, application of SS in soil significantly increased content of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in grain of rice and wheat. Keywords: Sewage sludge; Rice; Wheat; Post harvest soil;Grain; Heavy metals

Assessing the Generation, Collection and Recycling Practices of Electronic-Waste (E-Waste) from Patna, India (Dirtiest State Capital in the country)

S. Singh

Indian Institute of Technology, India

Patna, the capital city of Bihar, though boasts of rich cultural heritage, is unfortunately also known as the garbage city of the country. In this study, I have focused on E-Waste which is commercial as well as residential and is generated in all over the city. Patna is the largest consumers of electronic goods in the state as large corporate, business houses, IT companies and Malls are situated in the city. Rapid Industrial and economic growth in the city has triggered greater consumption and waste generation of Electronic Equipment, Emerging issue of E-waste in Patna demands its effective management strategy for the City. However, it cannot be achieved until assessment of e-waste quantification and disposal is carried out. The main objective of this study was to quantify the E-waste inventory and itʼs processing from Patna to evaluate its generation and recycling practices. E-Waste has been classified as Information technology and Telecommunication equipment category. The study reveals that Municipal Corporation has no record regarding how much E-waste the city generates. Data states that Bihar Government has specified 57 E-Waste collection points and 2 Warehouses in the city however no recycling centre is there. Patna sill doesnʼt have any mechanism to dispose electronic waste. During city visits, it has been observed the streets of city are strewn with garbage including E-Waste which has several environmental concerns. Findings of my study strongly recommend dire need for urgent and effective monitoring as well as control of e-waste management in Patna.

Keywords: E-Waste, Collection Points, Warehouse, Recycling Center

S. Singh is a sophomore in the department of Civil Engineering. She has been working in the field of Environmental studies since my freshman. She has already undertaken a project at IIT Roorkee, India under Dr. Bhanu Prakash Vellanki on Ozonation of Humic and currently she is working on bio-electro-fenton using Microbial Fuel Cell under Dr. Hait (HoD, IIT Patna).

Risk Assessment for Pharmaceuticals in Manufacturing Facilities

Varun Ahuja

Drug Safety Assessment Department, Novel Drug Discovery & Development, India

Manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and products in pharmaceutical industry requires qualitative and/or quantitative health based risk assessments for occupational (workers) safety purposes. Quantitative occupational health-based risk assessments involve the development of Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) which allow the manufacturer to quantitatively assess worker exposure potential through industrial hygiene air monitoring. Alternatively, qualitative health-based risk assessment involves categorization (“banding”) of API based on toxicity and potency, which provides a measure of relative hazard. The occupational health categorization is then linked to task-specific safe handling practices for worker protection purposes which involves use of personnel protective equipment (PPEs) or especially designed/separate facilities in particular cases. OEL determination requires evaluation and interpretation of toxicological, pharmacological and clinical data, selection of appropriate critical studies/endpoints for assessing health risk to workers and extrapolation to acceptable levels from these studies using appropriate factors. The responsibility of toxicologists tasked with setting OELs is to estimate a value that is protective of workers yet without being so overly protective that resources are unnecessarily spent. The talk would cover various topics including: i) risk assessment methodology, ii) various approached to calculate OELs, iii) approach for calculation of OEL for mixtures, iv) considerations for OEL calculation of large molecules, v) calculation of OEL in cases where data is insufficient e.g. raw materials, intermediates etc., vi) various guidelines involved, vii) important aspects in calculation of OEL for carcinogens, viii) occupational exposure banding.

Varun is an American Board certified toxicologist (DABT). He received doctoral degree from Freie University, Berlin, Germany. Varun pursued post-doctoral work from Charité Medical University, Berlin. During his doctoral and post-doctoral tenure, he worked in the field of immunotoxicology. Later, he worked as a Study Director, Toxicology, at BSL Bioservice Scientific Laboratories, Munich, Germany. Presently, he is working as Senior Research Scientist at Lupin Ltd., India. In a scientific career spanning more than 17 years, he has got experience working in various fields. He has over 80 publications and has been serving as an editorial board member of various reputed journals.

Organochlorine and Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Buffalo Milk Samples of Varanasi, India

Vinod Kumar Paswan1* and Basant Kumar Bhinchhar2

1Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India
2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sri Karn Narendra Agriculture University, India

The research work was aimed at assessing the possible health hazards from the pesticide residues in milk by exploring their concentration level in buffalo milk samples from Varanasi district of India. One hundred and eighty buffalo milk samples were collected from 20 different villages of Varanasi district, India during the three seasons over one year duration and analyzed for different organochlorine (OCP) and organophosphate (OPP) pesticide residues through GCMS (GCMS 2010 Plus, Shimadzu, Japan). It was revealed that buffalo milk from Varanasi district were contaminated with different prevalence rate and concentration level of OCP residues viz., aldrin, endosulfan, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, 4,4ʼDDE, 2,4ʼDDD, 2,4ʼDDT, 4,4ʼDDT and OPP residues viz., chlorpyrifos, monocrotofos, phorate and dimethoate. Total 25.00% buffalo milk samples were found positive with aldrin residues whereas 30.00% buffalo milk samples were found to be contaminated with endosulfan residues. In buffalo milk samples the residues of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH were observed 0.00546, 0.00533, 0.00886 and 0.00857 mg/kg, respectively. The prevalence of residues of 2,4ʼ DDD, 2,4ʼ DDT and 4,4ʼ DDT in buffalo milk was 19.44%, 26.11% and 30.00%, respectively. Mean concentration of chlorpyrifos, monocrotofos, phorate and dimethoate were detected at levels of 0.00401, 0.01502, 0.00462 and 0.01663 mg/kg, respectively. Regular trend of seasonal variation in terms of prevalence and concentration of OCP and OPP residues were observed i.e., the prevalence and concentration of all the OCP and OPP residues were maximum during the winter season followed by summer and rainy season. It was concluded that although the buffalo milk samples from the study area were invariably contaminated with one or other OCPs and OPPs residues with prevalence rate as high as 49.44% for OCPs and 55.00% for OPPs, the above MRL prevalence of OCP residues was quite low being only 6.11% (11 out of 180) and that of OPP residues was 8.89% (16 out of 180).

Keywords: Pesticide residues, Buffalo milk, Organochlorine, Organophosphate, Food safety

Dr. V.K. Paswan is Bachelor in Veterinary Science from Ranchi Veterinary College, Ranchi and Masterʼs and Ph.D. in Animal Nutrition from IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly, India. Presently, Dr. Paswan is working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Dr. Paswan has made outstanding contribution through his applied research in the fields of animal nutrition and food-feed safety. He has published several articles in the area of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Food-Feed Safety in Different National and International Journals and Magazines. For his efforts, he has been awarded with prestigious Cochran Fellowship by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Mississippi State University in 2014 and Best Teacher Award by Banaras Hindu University in 2016. Presently, Dr. Paswan is engaged in active research in the area of Feed-Food Quality and Safety, Nutrition and Health and Fortification of milk with Micronutrients.

Multiple Organ Injury in Mice Exposed to Ambient Particulate Matter in a Real-World Inhalation System in Shijiazhuang, China

Wen Chen1*, Daochuan Li1, Rong Zhang2, Rui Chen3 and Yuxin Zheng4

1Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
2Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Hebei Medical University, China
3School of Public Health, Southeast University, China
4School of Public Health, Qingdao University, China

The development of a rodent ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation system is critical for drawing causal inferences between PM exposure and the onset of human diseases. In this study, we constructed a real-world PM exposure system to investigate multi-organ injury and the reversibility of the impairments in C57BL/6J male mice exposed to PM with aduration of up to three months in Shijiazhuang, a city with the highest PM2.5 concentration in China. This unique exposure system provided an optimal scenario for round-the-clock PM exposure absent a change in the physiochemical properties of PM and minimized the disturbance to the mice habitat. The mean concentration of PM2.5 in the exposure chambers was 89.95, 79.98 and 87.87μg/m3 at three different time points, respectively: weeks 1–3, week 1–6 and week 1–12. The injury in multiple organs, including lung, brain, heart, testis and intestine was profound and was evident by the significant pathological and functional alterations. Pulmonary pathological examination revealed severe interstitial inflammatory and alveolar hemorrhage throughout the exposure, which was in line with the reduced lung function and the increased cytokine excretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood plasma. Notably, the PMmediated inflammatory response in different systems was correlated with the severity of the injury and the attenuation of pulmonary lesions in the recovery group. Thus, the PM2.5-induced inflammatory response, the chemical components-induced cytotoxicity, genetic damage and oxidative stress might be implicated in the impairment of multiple murine organs. These findings revealed the severity, sensitivity and reversibility of multi-organ injury in response to a real-world PM exposure.

Role of Nanomatrials in Inducing Cellular Stress and Influencing Cellular Response

Y K Lahir

Department of Biophysics, University of Mumbai, India

Cell is the structural and functional unit of acellular, unicellular and multicellular biosystems. These units respond to all the changes in their ambient environment, body fluids and clearance of the intra and extra cellular biomolecules. Cellular response to any type of stress is quite complex process. These units of biosystem are among the prime sites of bearing the impacts of these changes. Nanotechnology and nanoscience and their versatile products – the nanomaterials are applied in most of the fields ranging from varied industries to biomedical, biochemical, food technology, pharmacokinetics, theranostics etc.

The interactions between cells and these nanomaterials are based on their ability to get fabricated and/or engineered, designed with special features to attain specific set targets. These nanomaterials are of multifaceted applications as drug carriers, as imaging agents and remedial agents of environmental aspects, biotechnological and biomedical processes, implants, biosensors etc. The implications of these wonder materials in any biosystems, industrial processes and products etc ensure their interactions with cells. Cellular stress induced by nanomaterials is likely to be of varying degree depending on the dose, exposure time, type of cell and nanomaterials and the modifications of surface of these materials administered in biosystem. The cellular responses can be physical, biochemical, physiological or derogative etc. There are numerous biomolecules and the cellular processes that are involved in intra and intercellular communications. These are likely to exhibit fluctuations. The cellular communication is the prime functional aspect for cell survival. The interactions between the cells and the nanomaterials are likely to influence this cellular communications and other cellular processes. These features affect cellular responses. Cellular responses are protective and/or rendering the affected cells prone to necrosis or cellular death. Various nanomaterials with different reactive affinities are bound to influence the cellular responses with respect to the stress. This reflects on the needs to evaluate and understand the mechanism involved during the process of cellular stress and the related cellular behavior.

Keywords: Cellular Stress; Cellular Responses; Cellular Communication; Bionanointerface, Biochemical Impacts; Biophysical Impacts; Necrosis; Cell death

Dr. Y K Lahir got M.Sc and Ph.D degrees and DHE diploma from University of Bombay (now University of Mumbai). Currently as visiting faculty, Department of Biophysics, Vidyanagari, University of Mumbai, Mumbai-400098, teaching M Sc-I and M Sc-II students.
He has authored three books on toxicology and 35 research papers, 16 review articles and one chapter on graphene as drug carrier. His research fields include Toxicological studies encompassing histological, enzymatic, redox reaction, lipid and protein oxidation, overall biochemical aspects; Nanotoxicological studies includes redox reactions, lipid oxidation, histological impacts, interaction with erythrocytes, chromosomal fluctuations and cellular aspects including cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. Hematological studies in birds, digestive enzymes in birds, metabolic marker enzymes in millipede, influence of hormones, some of the chemicals, heavy metals and toxicants on the enzyme activities in fish, mollusk and crustaceans; Meiofauna of Mumbai coast; Nanomaterials in food toxicity, phytoremediation and environmental sciences; Review on nanotoxic topics.