Madridge Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN: 2638-1591

2nd International Conference on Pharma & Nutrition, Health and Aging

August 1-2, 2019, Valencia, Spain
Accepted Abstracts
DOI: 2638-1591.a3.008

Observations on Nutritional Diet of a Transylvania Lactating Women Group with Potentially Impact of Early Life Nutrition and Long Term Effects

Ramona Suharoschi1*, Simona Codruta Heghes2, Ioana Ecaterina Pralea2, Laura Ioana Gavrilas3, Lorena Filip3, Adela Viviana Sitar Taut4, Angela Cozma4, Adriana Fodor5, Crina Muresan6 and Cristina Adela Iuga2,7

1Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Proteomics, Institute of Life Sciences, Food Science Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2Department of Drug Analysis, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
3Department of Bromatology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
4Medical Clinic IV, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
5Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
6Food Engineering Department, University of Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
7Proteomic and Metabolomic Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania

Breast milk composition of the lactating women highly vary with their nutrition habits and thus vary many nutrients that are essential for growth and development and are secreted in breast milk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the energy and nutrient intake from food of lactating mothers during a self-selected diet in a Romanian sample population from Transylvania.

Methods: A total of 33 lactating women living in Cluj county, from Transylvania were surveyed and average intake was recorded by 7-day diary and a general questionnaire, both designed by the research team. An experienced member of the research team trained every woman.

Results: The results highlighted that energy intake was significantly lower compared with the level of energy intake recommended for lactating women and the distribution of macronutrients was misbalanced in the study group. The results indicate that lactating mothers have an inadequate intake of energy (1879.00 kcal/day for mothers in G1 vs. 2744 kcal/day recommended and 1770.08 kcal/day for mothers in G2, G3, G4 vs. 2803 kcal/day recommended). Results from the current study and from similar studies in different countries which reflect that lactating mothers have a poor energy and nutrient balance can be attributed to low intakes of nutritious food categories such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, low- fat dairy and oily-fish and high intakes of saturated fat rich foods. With such inadequate food intake, mothers might be at risk of depleting their energy and nutrient reserves, therefore affecting breast milk composition with a negative health impact.

Conclusions: In the present study, lactating mothers did not meet dietary recommendations of energy intake and macronutrient, except for proteins. These results highlight the importance that women, during breastfeeding, should receive proper information from professionals in order to improve their overall nutrition.

Ramona Suharoschi has more than 20 yearsʼ experience in the field of applied nutrigenomics in food science, development and optimization of nutritional intervention of functional food products, food safety and food toxicology. She had completed PhD in the field of Medical Sciences (Vet Medicine) at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, following a research stage at the University of Reno, Nevada USA and the University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland with the research topic “In silico Studies of Prostate Cancer”. She had published more than 100 papers in national and international journals of scientific flow.

Modification Bioactive Compounds-Azomethins and Hydrazids with Adamantan Structure

Mikheil Labartkava1*, O. Lekashvili2, N. Lekishvili2, Z. Pachulia3 and D. Zurabishvili2

1Geomedi University, Georgia
2Tbilisi State University, Georgia
3Sochumi State University, Georgia

The modification of bioactivity compounds azomethine and hydrazine by adamantane structure has been conducted to fight against rabies and human immunodeficiency virus. In particular, we have studied condensation of 1-aminoadamantane, 4-(1-adamantyl)amine and adamantoilhydrazine with aromatic type aldehydes as well as acylation of adamantoilhydrazine to the relevant acids chloranhydrides in different conditions, creating adamantane series N,N-diacylhydrazine with the presence of base agents. The bioscreening test revealed compounds with enhanced selective action in comparison with Gentamicin. By means of quantum-chemical method we determined the electronic structure and reactivity of the molecule of the compounds. It is a well know fact that. Adamantane derivatives greatly influence on the reproduction of the agents of viral and microbial infections. In this regard the most interesting are azomethines, which are characterized by a wide variety of pharmacological activities, among them they are active against rabies, herpes and human immunodeficiency virus. As the study of H NMR spectra revealed, in the weakest point the resonance signal is obtained from unsaturated hydrocarbon fragments of the proton and in the strong filed -Adamantane methylene protons. As for the amide hydrogen the chemical shift of the relevant proton (CDCI3) equals to δ8,04 ppm, in the deutero-dimethyl sulfoxide (compounds IV and V) respectively δ11,54 ppm and δ11,57 ppm. In the much weaker field phenolic hydroxyl (CD3)2 SO shifts into the solution due to the creation of strong hydrogen bonds (δ12,8 ppm). The resonance signals of N (CH3) group protons are revealed in a relatively strong field (δ3,0 ppm ). Aromatic protons (IV-IX) in the compounds corresponds to A2M2 type spectra; AM types spectrum is obtained by (VII, VIII, IX) compounds aromatic part, as for the X compound, PMR spectrum of its aromatic part belongs to AMX type. Changing of the solvent does not affect the chemical shift of the aromatic part of the spectrum. We also conducted the 13C NMR spectral analysis of (VIII, IX, X) synthesized compounds. The spectrum is clearly divided into 4 parts: 1) Sp3 hybridized carbon atoms range (adamantine groups) δ0-40 ppm; 2) Chemical shift of the Methyl group connected to negative electric element δ40-50 ppm; 3) Area of hybrid sp2 carbon atoms being into the composition of aromatic core; 4) The most descreened carbon atoms in the composition of carbonyl group. As for N,N- diacylhydrazines NMR spectral analysis, their amide protons corresponding resonance signal is revealed from 8,8 up to 11,6 ppm (solvent (CD3)2SO), which are easily distinguished from the rest of the protons. Adamantane protons are located in the strongest part of the field and their shifting range is δ1, 68-2,14 ppm.

The Study of the Organochlorine Pesticide Residues Incidence from Pork Fatty Tissues, Meat and Meat Products

Crina Carmen Muresan1*, Ramona Suharoschi1, Romina Vlaic1, Angela Cozma2, Adela Sitar Taut2 and Adriana Fodor3

1Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2Department of Internal Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu -University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
3Clinical Center of Diabetes, Nutrition, Metabolic diseases, Iuliu Hatieganu -University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania

The topic of organochlorine pesticides is a current one, given that in March 2005, 90 countries, including Romania, joined to the Stockholm Convention. Convention approaches the problems of toxic chemicals, respectively of the 12 most dangerous persistent organic pollutants, between them being also aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin and endrin heptachlor, which are monitored in the present study.

To assess the effects of organochlorine pesticide residues in pork fatty tissues, meat and meat products the following activities were achieved: Determination of crude fat content, identification of organochlorine pesticide residues by GC-ECD method and confirmation by GC-MS method, optimized and compared with the maximum residue levels admitted by standards and establishing a correlation between crude fat content and organochlorine pesticide residues.

The material for analysis consisted of fatty tissues, meat and meat products and was sampled from one commercial unit in Cluj-Napoca (Romania). An organochlorine pesticides standard mixture was containing: aldrin, α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, 4,4ʼ-DDD, 4,4ʼ-DDE, 4,4ʼ-DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and methoxychlor was used to construct the calibration curves. The calibration curve of each OCP was constructed using standard samples with six different concentrations (5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500 ng/g) of the standard mixture solution. Each sample and standard solution was analyzed in duplicate using gas chromatography combined with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The method was validated by determining recoveries, correlation coefficients, relative standard deviations (RSD) and detection limits. The precision of the method was satisfactory with RSDs < 20% for all OCPs. The highest amount of organochlorine pesticides was identified in liver sausage samples. An explanation for these values should be the affinity of these pesticides to bioaccumulate in fat and pork organs. The values obtained for organochlorine pesticide residues are low, being below the maximum residual limit.

Crina Carmen Muresan is a Postdoctoral Researcher who has more than 9 years experience in exploitation of food industry by-products, development and optimization of functional food products, food safety and determination of food products quality parameters. She started the PhD stage (2004-2010) in the field of Veterinary medicine, having as research theme “Researches concerning the influence of processing on organochlorine pesticide residues from meat and meat products”, granted by the PhD evaluation commission with the “Very good” degree. She is responsible for 2 project PN-III-P2-2.1-CI and research assistant in 10 projects.

The Relationship between Frailty and Depression among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Social Support

Cuili Wang1*, Yaru Jin1, Huaxin Si1, Xiaoxia Qiao1, Xiaoyu Tian2 and Xinyi Liu2

1Peking University, China
2Shandong University, China

Objectives: Frailty is associated with elderly depression and impairs their social support. However, the mechanism underlying such relationship remains unclear. We aim to examine whether social support acts as a mediator and moderator in the relationship between frailty and depression.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting and participants: 1779 community-dwelling older adults age 60 and over.

Measures: Frailty, social support and depressive symptoms were measured by the Friedʼs Frailty Phenotype (FFP), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and 5-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-5) respectively.

Results: Linear regression models with Boot strap methods proved that subjective support and support utilization but not objective support mediated and moderated the relationship between frailty and depressive symptoms. The Johnson-Neyman technique determined a threshold of 31 for subjective support but did not for support utilization, beyond which the detrimental effect of frailty on depressive symptoms was offset.

Conclusions: Social support underlies the association of frailty with depression and its protection role varies by dimensions. Interventions on depression should address improving perception and utilization of social support among frail older adults rather than simply providing them with objective support.

Keywords: depressive symptoms, frailty, older adults, social support

Cuili Wang is a PhD holder and a Senior Research Scientist in Peking University. Her research focuses on geriatric nursing, especially on long-term care delivered to elders as well as assessment instruments, risk factors, adverse outcomes and non-pharmacological interventions related to geriatric syndromes (e.g., frailty, sarcopenia, cognitive impairment, pain, sleep disorders, depression, urinary incontinence and functional decline). Also, she focus on adherence to health behaviours and health education, chronic diseases self-management (e.g., COPD, DM) and socio-psychological factors in health science. These projects were funded by NSFC (Natural Science Foundation of China).

Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) among Chinese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Xiaoxia Qiao2*, Xiaoyu Tian2, Lijuan Dong1, Na Liu1, Huaxin Si2, Yaru Jin2, Xinyi Liu1 and Cuili Wang2

1Shandong University, China
2Peking University, China

Objectives: To translate the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) into Chinese and examine its psychometric properties among community-dwelling older adults.

Study design: Cross-sectional study.

Main outcome measures: The Chinese GFI was generated through forward-backward translations. An urban sample of 1230 community-dwelling older adults were enrolled to test its feasibility, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and validity (criterion validity, convergent validity and known-group discriminant validity).

Results: The Chinese GFI achieved semantic and idiomatic equivalence of the 1230 participants, 1202 (97.7%) individuals completed all items of the GFI. The internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbachʼs α± = 0.64) and the test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.87). The GFI showed good diagnostic test accuracy on identification of frailty with reference to the Frailty Index (AUC = 0.84) and the optimal frailty cut-point was 3. The convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the four GFI domains and their alternative measurements (the Katz ADL index, the Lawton IADL index, the 5-Item Geriatric Depression Scale, the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire and the Social Support Rating Scale). Higher proportions of frailty (GFI ≥ 3) were found in those who were older, female, less educated, lived alone and had 2 or more chronic diseases, supporting the known-group discriminant validity.

Conclusions: The Chinese GFI presents good feasibility and reproducibility, acceptable internal consistency, satisfied validity among community-dwelling older adults.

Keywords: Frailty, Groningen Frailty Indicator, Older Adults, Reliability, Validity

Xiaoxia Qiao is a Ph D holder in School of Nursing, Peking University. Her research focuses on geriatric nursing, especially on assessment instruments, risk factors, adverse outcomes and non-pharmacological interventions related to frailty.

Integration of Menu Reformulation for Catering Addressing Pre-School Children

Angela Cozma1*, Adela Viviana Sitar Taut1, Adriana Fodor2, Crina Muresan3, Dan Sitar Taut4 and Ramona Suharoschi5

14th Department of Internal Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
2Clinical Centre of Diabetes, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
3Department of Food Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4Department of Business Information Systems, Babes-Bolyai University, Romania
5Molecular Nutrition and Proteomics Laboratory, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The novel catering IT concept is based on the integration of nutrition analysis with menuʼs reformulation promoting a healthy diet. Innovative technologies in catering implement the personalized nutrition principle (nutrigenomics, nutrigenetics) in the design of daily menu addressed to the pre-school children. The smart food design, along with pre-school children nutrition education to develop healthy eating habits that promote health and well-being is a desiderate for catering companies. Food could impact health and well-being, brain development and growth, preventing specific health issues (anaemia, obesity, teeth caries). A healthy nutrition is rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains (wheat, oat and brown rice) and healthy fat (olive oil, rapeseed oil, nuts oil and fish oil) besides correct hydrating habits (water drinking) that replace sugar beverages.

Methods: We reformulated 179 dishes (main course, soup, garnish, dessert) and perform a comparative analysis of the menu (comparative tests) nutrition analysis before and after reformulation and taste optimization based on the pre-school preference by standardized sensory tests.

Results: As results we piloted the reformulated menu and recipes (menu technology sheets, prepared technological schemes), created database workbench (Access) - Nutritional analysis of reformulated menus and identification of potential allergens, developed a smart phone application PERSONAL_MENU (food choice and pre-school health priorities). Simultaneously, we set-up the traffic light system of the menu for the children to learn by colours about what is a healthy food.

Conclusion: The major important future trends of the catering service for pre-school kids will be open to the desire of individualism and free-smart choice, based on personalised catering services. Added value of this approach is based on bringing services to the research community that facilitate networking and community building and provide access to standardised, inter-operable and innovative data and tools.

Angela Cozma, MD, PhD has more than 10 yearsʼ experience in the field of internal medicine, cardiology and metabolic diseases. She had completed PhD in the field of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis at the ”Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Angela Cozma is following a research stage at the University of Paris, France in the field of arterial stiffness. She had published more than 30 papers in national and international journals of scientific flow.

Use of Mobile Education for Sustainable Development (Esd) to Promote Solution Adoption in Rural Areas in Africa

Julia Bello-Bravo

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, USA

The United Nations (2016) emphasizes the need for cost-effective, high-throughput education for sustainable development (ESD) as a means for getting solutions to agricultural and food security challenges around the world to people who need them. To this end, both research and experience have shown mobile phones to be the most affordable, familiar and widely used Information and Communication Technology (ICT) available for accessing and delivering critical information on agriculture, health and nutrition to people in developing countries. Everyday now in Africa, the number of mobile phone subscriptions continues to skyrocket, providing greater and greater opportunities for developing and utilizing new approaches for sharing information and knowledge.

One empirically tested way is ‘mobile ESD.ʼ Developed by Scientific Animations Without Borders (SAWBO) in collaboration with global and local knowledge experts, mobile ESD effectively transfers knowledge and learning gains and elicits participant solution buy-in by delivering animated, linguistically localized educational information accessible to the widest array of populations. Recently, mobile ESD demonstrated an 89% solution adoption rate two years after an initial mobile ESD video training (in Mozambique), while two studies (in Niger and Mozambique) found no statistical correlation between educational level and measured increases in learning gains delivered by mobile ESD. These findings build on many previous studies that found a majority of participants preferring mobile ESD educational experiences over other forms of knowledge delivery. In general, mobile ESD more cost-effectively secures knowledge transfer to people regardless of age, educational or technological level, gender, geographic remoteness, socioeconomic status or intersections of these factors. It has a demonstrated and immense promise for transforming the lives of people otherwise missed, overlooked or out of reach for other knowledge-delivery systems, especially women in rural areas.

Mobile ESD can spearhead educational initiatives leading to the empowerment of rural communities, especially women and youth. Beans, for instance are recognized as a principal source of protein, income and community well-being in many African countries particularly in the maintenance of good health and nutrition among women and children. Numerous impacts effect significant crop losses for farmers, through insect damage, poor storage conditions and climate change factors. This presentation highlights how mobile ESD answers the United Nationsʼ call for education for sustainable development that enhances health, agriculture and womenʼs empowerment in areas where it is most needed.

Julia Bello-Bravo is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Food Sciences and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University and a cofounder and co-director of ScientificAnimations Without Borders (SAWBO). Dr. Bello-Bravoʼs research interests lie at the intersection of effective communication and education, specializing in informal education and communication strategies to reach low or non-literate learners in developing and developed countries. Areas of research include identifying, developing and deploying scalable strategies for effective educational knowledge transfer and solution uptake to the approximately 800 million low and non-literate learners globally. Much of her research involves rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa over a dozen countries to date investigating the appeal and learning gains delivered by animated educational videos viewed on mobile phones.

School Meals in Light of the Regulation - Assessment of the Public Catering Decree in Primary Schools in Hungary

Anita Varga1*, Márta Bakacs1, Andrea Zentai1, Barbara Nagy2, Zsuzsanna Nagy-Lőrincz1, Gergő Erdei1, Éva Illés1, Veronika Varga-Nagy1, Kinga Miháldy1, Eszter Sarkadi Nagy1 and Csilla Kaposvári3

1National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Hungary
2University of Physical Education, Hungary
3National Public Health Center, Hungary

Children spend most of their daytime in school, thus food provided by public catering has pivotal role shaping childrenʼs health. In Hungary the Public Catering Decree entered into force in 2015, addressing dietary risk factors and setting standards for food provided by public caterers.

The assessment was carried out in 2017 and supported by the World Health Organization. The aim was to evaluate the implementation of the Regulation in terms of achieving compliance and acceptance and to identify changes compared to the National Nutritional Environment Survey in Schools, 2013.

In a national representative sample of 139 primary schools self-administered questionnaires were filled out by school administrators. In the sub-sample of 33 schools (the sub-sample as in the 2013 assessment) food allotment sheets for 10 school meal days and menus were collected and analyzed for raw materials. The compliance of meals was assessed against the specifications of the Regulation. Three meals served in the sub-sample schools were subjected to food chemistry laboratory analysis to determine the salt content of the food provided.

Results: The proportion of primary schools has increased significantly where fruits and vegetables were provided to children once or more times a day, still not reaching the number of portions specified by the Regulation. 87% of the schools could cater for special dietary needs. The meal quality, assessed by analysis of the food allotment sheets, improved as deep-fried food was served only by 30% of caterers compared to 100% in 2013. The use of low-fat foods as required by the Regulation has become the norm for kitchens. The laboratory measurements demonstrated that the average salt content was 6.7 g / 3 meals, 20% less than in the previous survey but still twice as high as the recommendation. Overall the survey revealed high levels of implementation at almost all evaluation areas of the Regulation.

Anita Varga have satisfied the academic requirements of the Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences qualification of Dietitian in 2006 and she continued her studies at Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences and Corvinus University of Budapest Faculty of Food Science joint masterʼs degree programme in Nutritional Sciences and she graduated in 2014. She has been working as a dietitian in the National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition in Budapest almost for 11 years. She is interested in public catering, food and nutrition related surveys and take part in the preparation of nutritional recommendations and legislations.

Innovative Crutch Equipped with Sensors

Giampiero Donnici*, Leonardo Frizziero, Alfredo Liverani, Giulia Alessandri, Grazia Chiara Menozzi and Emma Varotti

Department of Industrial Engineering, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Italy

The present study wants to bring to light the search for a new type of crutch designed primarily for a chronic patient with perennial limited mobility and therefore with frequent use of this tool. Filter of our research is the selection of certain characteristics, compared with each other through relationship matrices (of importance and of relationship) and benchmarking (or competition analysis), which then defined the project requirements. The result is a sensorized crutch, functional, attentive to the use of the user to prevent incorrect use and the onset of other pains, adjustable and therefore conformable to the userʼs physiognomy. It is clear that there are few innovations in the area and that there are not many crutches suitable for a long period that can becustomized. In fact, users who use crutches are people who have suffered injuries, various types of surgery in the lower limbs or amputations and so they need a comfortable and ergonomic support. Starting from these premises and placing at the center of the question the user who suffers a long-term disability, the project has opened to a phase of market and competition analysis, supported by the QFD method and by the Benchmarking. Through these methods, some qualitative and technical characteristics have been obtained, which constitute the project objectives. Then, through a careful analysis of product architecture, styles and trends, it has been defined a crutch shape more likely to the final product.

Giampiero Donnici Ph.D in Mechanical Sciences and Advanced Techniques at the University of Bologna1 from 2017. In the academic field he deals with scientific issues related to Design Methods (CAD, QFD, TRIZ, 3D Printing). From 2000 until today he has been involved in mechanical design, particularly in the sectors of agricultural machinery and automatic machines. He also worked as a consultant in the fields of PLM and CAD-CAE systems. Companies where he worked: Orsi Group s.r.l., O.A.M. S.p.A., SacmiImolas.c. Companies for which he has worked as a consultant: Pet Projectas.r.l., Sacmi Verona S.p.A., Sacmi Filling S.p.A., Sacmi Packaging S.p.A., Protesa S.p.A., Tonelli Group S.p.A., TiesseProgettis.r.l., Compomacs.r.l. From 2013 he has held teaching tutor positions in Mechanical and Automatic Design courses at the University of Bologna.

Child Malnourishment in India and its Scientific Solutions

T. S. Gururaja* and C. Ravidhas

Bishop Heber College, India

Despite Indiaʼs 50% increase in GDP since 1991, more than one third of the Worldʼs malnourished children live in India. Among these, half of the children under three years old are underweight and a third of wealthiest children are over-nutrient. It results not from calorie intake but from dependence on a carbohydrate based diet low in protein and fat. Another factor triggering malnutrition is inadequate sanitation which triggers an increase in infection — borne deficiencies in nutrients. RUSF is a specifically formulated food branded and is produced industrially by Nutriset. RUSF is a powder-in-fat matrix fortified with multiple micronutrients. Path to improved wellness — encourage healthier food choices, snacking, make food taste good again, consider adding supplements to your loved oneʼs diet, encourage exercise, plan social activities. Keywords: RUSF, healthier food choice, snacking, exercise, diet, social activities.

Using Microbubbles as Target Drug Delivery to Improve Aids

Harsha Virsingh Sonaye1*, Rafique Yakub Shaikh2 and Chandra Shekhar A. Doifode1

1Shri Sachhidan and Shikshan Sanstha Taywade College of Pharmacy, India
2K.E.M. Hospital Research Centre, India

No preventive vaccine are available for the treatment of AIDS. To improve therapy combinational antiretroviral drugs are given however some patient develop resistance to particular combinational drug. Microbubble mediated drug delivery technology solve that problem with reducing systemic dose and toxicity. Microbubbles are bubbles smaller than one millimetre in diameter but larger than one micrometer. The general composition of microbubble is gas core. The mechanism of microbubbles through which its delivery get increases are sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. Rapid isolation strategy of CD4+ cells is mixing blood and glass microbubbles which then bind with the specific target cells to the microbubble carrying specific antibodies on their surface. The target cells will spontaneously float to the top of the blood vial and can be quickly separated. This strategy for cell isolation based on buoyancy and glass microbubbles is quick and inexpensive, minimizes blood handling, does not require magnetic fields or centrifugation equipment, and could lead to new, efficient strategies for AIDS diagnosis in resource-limited areas. This review, demonstrate the problems with the current treatment of the disease and shed light on the remarkable potential of microbubbles to provide more effective treatment and prevention for HIV/AIDS by advancing antiretroviral therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, vaccinology and microbicides.

Keywords: Microbubbles HIV/AIDS, Target Drug Delivery.

Harsha Virsingh Sonaye has a Life Membership in Association of Pharmacy Teacher of India, She has 8 research/review in International Publication and 2 research /reviews in National Publication, she presented 10 Poster Presentations in National Conferences and She attend 4 International Conferences and 29 National Conferences.

“Ageing Well in Nepal? Exploring the Health and Social Care Needs of Older People in Dhading District”

Laxmi Timalsina*, Padam Simkhada and Rose Khatri

Liverpool John Moores University, UK

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the ageing experience along with health and social care needs of older people residing in Dhading district of Nepal. Participants recruited purposively from 2 municipalities in Dhading district participated in semi-structured interview and focus group discussion. Questions structured within conceptual framework and the subsequent probes where appropriate guided participants to share their past and present life experience, including education, work, family life, health where experienced and economic status. Findings revealed that, older people place greater emphasis on the fulfilment of basic needs without any hardship along with good and positive relationship with family and good physical health as being the key to ageing well. Furthermore, finding also suggests that there is a need of having quality of data and information about older peopleʼs need and experiences for developing policies and programmes in local level to maintain wellbeing and healthy ageing.

Each individual experienced old age differently. Meaning of ageing well and the components associated with older peoples wellbeing differed from each other as per their individual necessities.

Laxmi Timalsina is a PhD student at the Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Mooreʼs University. Interested in ageing, elderly care and health system in LMICs. Her PhD focuses on exploring the ageing experience of older people and identify any possible gaps in local service provision in Nepal. Most recently, Laxmi was a part of research team for capturing the key discussions around Primary Health Care (PHC) and the role of the Private Sector during the 5th Global Symposium on Health Systems Research 2018.

Orthopaedicuse of 3D Printing Applied to the Flat Foot Diseases

Leonardo Frizziero1*, Giampiero Donnici1, Elena Maredi2, Stefano Stilli2 and Alfredo Liverani1

1Department of Industrial Engineering, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Italy
2IOR, Rizzoli Orthopedic Institutes, Italy

A general view of the technique most used in the medical field is provided for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital flat foot from tarsal synostosis. An alternative methodology is proposed which involves the inclusion of a new technology within the traditional method workflow. In orthopedics new technologies such as 3D printing are introduced with the aim of improving patient diagnosis by supporting healthcare personnel. These technologies allow treatments to be performed more quickly and accurately. In fact, surgical planning has undergone an evolutionary process that has seen it progress hand in hand with the improvement of technologies available for diagnostic imaging. In the early 1900s, the only diagnostic imaging technique used was radiology. Today, however, this is flanked by more modern acquisition systems such as CT computed tomography, which provide the surgeon with detailed reconstructions of the patientʼs anatomy. The proposed methodology wants to take a further step forward, transferring the planning phase from the virtual world to the physical one through the printing of three-dimensional reconstructions of the anatomical parts. The workflow to get to the printing of anatomical models starts from tomographic images acquired through the traditional non-invasive acquisition technique, the TC, to then use a series of software to convert the images into a three-dimensional digital file format, readable by CAD and then from a 3D printing software. At the end of the work, the impact of this innovative procedure both from an economic and a functional point of view was evaluated.

Leonardo Frizziero graduated in Mechanical Engineering at University of Bologna in 2003. In academic field, he promotes the scientific issues related to Design Methods (CAD, QFD, TRIZ, DFSS, 3D Printing, AR, etc). In 2005, he was recruited by Ferrari Spa as project manager of new cars projects. In 2009 he obtained the and then he became Junior Assistant Professor in February 2013 at AMS University of Bologna. He teaches and follows researches in several design fields, including bio-engineering applications, such as 3D Printing and Augmented Reality applied to human bones. Since 2017 he is qualified Associate Professor. Since 2018, he has been a Senior Assistant Professor.

Polymer -Lipid Hybrid Nanovehicles Designed for Synergistic Drug Delivery for Solid Tumor Management

Madhu Gupta

Delhi Pharmaceutical Science and Research University, India

Efficient dual targeted chemotherapy is an attractive approach for killing the tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells, while sparing the normal tissue. Herein, we investigated whether encapsulation of paclitaxel (PTX) within polymer—lipid hybrid nanoparticles conjugated with kNGR (PLNs-kNGR) achieved this goal in a subcutaneous tumor induced Balb/c mice bearing HT1080 tumor model with nanocarrier-modified biodistribution and toxicity. The dual targeted PLNs-kNGR was prepared by modified nano-precipitation technique combined with self-assembly and evaluated for different parameters. Compared with other tested NPs, PLNs-kNGR-NPs revealed more cytotoxicity by inducing more apoptosis, higher intracellular uptake and% tumor volume inhibition rate that was 59.7%. These findings substantiate the importance of rational design of nanoparticles for dual targeting synergistic therapy. As a consequence, the PLNs-kNGR-NPs play a key role in enhancing tumor therapeutic efficiency for treatment of CD13 receptor specific solid tumor.

Dr. Madhu Gupta has research experience pertaining to drug delivery to nanoformulations for magical molecule delivery, bioligands for targeting of bioactives and drug moiety, biopolymers, cancer nanomedicine as well as topical delivery. She is pioneer scientist in the field of nanotechnology and drug delivery field. She has over 35 research publications to her credit published in journals of high scientific impact and contributed 14 chapters in various renowned books and to several international and national books. Dr. Gupta has H-index of 15, i14-index of 11 and more than 500 citations.

Chronic Administration of IL-17 Favours the Selective Recruitment of Inflammatory

Maione Francesco

University of the Studies of Napoli Federicoli, Italy

The late infiltration of Th17 cells in the inflamed tissues/organs of many autoimmune diseases is considered a key step towards the establishment of chronic inflammation. Indeed, the sustained and localized release of IL-17 in these tissues has been reported to exacerbate and sustain the inflammatory response although the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind these effects are far from being fully understood.

To address this question, we have investigated the effects of repetitive administration (two consecutive injections) of IL-17 into a murine air pouch as surrogate model of a pre-inflamed tissue. As expected, injection of a single dose of IL-17 into the air pouch caused a transitory influx of neutrophils that peaked at 24 hours and declined at 48 hours. Conversely, double administration of IL-17 at 0 and at 24hr caused a significant increase (almost 2-fold) in the number of infiltrated cells with inflammatory monocytes as the second main population emigrating to the pouch. This unique cellular response was matched by an equally unique biochemical profile as the comparative analysis of the inflammatory fluids obtained with a single or double injection of IL-17 showed a specific increase in IL-16 and TREM-1 levels in the latter compared to the former. All these effects were specific, as a double injection of IL-1β caused neither an increase in the recruitment of inflammatory cell recruitment to the pouch nor a shift in inflammatory cell types or a selective accumulation of IL-16 and TREM-1.

Collectively these results widen our knowledge on the inflammatory properties of IL-17 and contribute to a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this cytokine contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

Francesco Maione graduated in Pharmacy in 2005 from the University of Naples Federico II. During his PhD in Pharmacology (2005 to 2008) he studied the role of N-formyl-peptides (FMLF and FTM) in different models of pain and inflammation. Dr. Maione directed his efforts on this research path even further after beginning his post-doctoral training in the laboratory of Prof. Mauro Perretti and Prof. Fulvio Dʼacquisto, at William Harvey Research Institute - Queen Mary University of London (2008-2010). During this time, he expanded his knowledge on inflammation by focusing on immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and investigated the role of Annexin-1 (ANX-1) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in different model of inflammation. Since 2010, he joined Prof. Nicola Mascoloʼs lab where he re-activated his long-term interest in natural compound biology, starting an unexplored path in the role of natural molecules in the inflammatory response and cardiovascular system.

Changes in the School Nutrition Environment in Hungary

Nagy-Lőrincz Zsuzsanna1*, Zentai Andrea1, Nagy Barbara2, Bakacs Márta1, Illés Éva1, Erdei Gergő1, Varga Anita1, Varga-Nagy Veronika1, Miháldy Kinga1, Sarkadi Nagy Eszter1 and KaposváriCsilla3

1National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Hungary
2University of Physical Education, Center of Sports Nutrition Science, Hungary
3National Public Health Center, Hungary

Healthy nutrition is important for the mental and social development of children. Making kindergarten and school nutrition environment healthy means a long-term investment into health because its positive effects extend to adulthood.

The aim of the analysis was to assess changes in the school nutrition environment based on the National School Nutritional Environment Survey conducted in 2013 and 2017.

The two surveys used similar methodology. A one-step, stratified (county) sampling design ensured national representativeness in the realized sample there were 159 and 139 schools in 2013 and 2017 respectively. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the elements of school nutrition environment: the uptake of school meals, the length of the lunch time, the selection of school snack shops and vending machines, accessibility of drinking water, participation in school fruit and school milk schemes.

There are a number of positive changes observed in schools environment in 2017 compared to the survey in 2013. In 2017, 75% of primary schools reported to have free access to drinking water outside of bathrooms which was a significant increase compared to 2013. The proportion of primary schools participating in the EU School Fruit and School Milk Scheme has increased significantly. School snack shops selling sugar-sweetened beverages or coke despite the legal restrictions still exist, but in smaller proportion than in 2013. Unfortunately, less school snack shops sold fresh fruits and vegetables, some still had energy drinks in their selection in 2017.

Despite the legal regulations targeting school nutrition environment in Hungary, further interventions are needed on the basis of these results.

Nagy-Lőrincz Zsuzsanna satisfied the academic requirements of the Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences qualification of Dietitian in 2012 and she continued her studies at Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences and Corvinus University of Budapest Faculty of Food Science joint masterʼs degree programme in Nutritional Sciences from where she graduated in 2014. She has been working as a dietitian in the National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition in Budapest almost for 5 years. She is interested in public catering as an effective food policy measure, food and nutrition related surveys and nutrition intervention programs.

Transition Metal Complexes/Organometallic Compounds as Anticancer/Anti HIV Drugs or in Pharmaceutical Industry

Prakash Kinthada

Sri Vidyanikethan Engineering College, India

Cancer is a dreadful disease and any practical solution in combating this disease is of paramount importance to public health. Cancer patients have burdened by drug induced toxic side effects, and no turned to seek help from the complementary and alternative medicine hoping for a better cure. Research on Platinum based drugs and Non Platinum based drugs is a Multi-Million Dollar Industry in USA and there is every need to produce safe drugs for the cure of this monstrous disease. Flavonoids have a long history of use in traditional medicines in many cultures.

The phytochemical, curcumin is one of the major dietary flavonoid, belonging to a group of flavonol, Curcumin is a natural polyphenol. It is highly potential molecule capable of preventing and treating various cancers. Various dietary chemo preventive agents, turmeric powder or its extract are broadly used as therapeutic preparations in Indian System of medicine. We provide a summarized synthesis and structural determination of Curcumin Oxime, Curcumin Thiosemicarbazone derivative of Gold (III) complex.

The use of these analogs for prevention of cancer tumor progression and treatments of human malignancies, A pharacologic agent for treating and/or preventing cancer, among other diseases and conditions and particularly breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer, in humans and animals. The novel pharmacologic agent is an isoflavonoid or isoflavonoid mimetic covalently attached to a cytotoxic pharmacophore that, preferably has the ability to conjugate with a metal salt to form a more potent metal complex, particularly a Au (III) complex and other complexes of Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Copper etc.

My talk would mainly encompass different Transition Metal Complexes/Organometallic Compounds that are presently used as drugs, especially Anticancer and Anti-HIV drugs, apart from Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial and diseases like Arthritis and Parkinsonʼs Disease etc. The talk would mainly focus on the use of Medicinal Chemistry and its application to Drug Design and Development in Pharmaceutical Industry, especially Transition Metal Complexes and Organometallic Compounds viz. Gold, Platinum, Palladium and Ruthenium apart from Copper, Cobalt, Iron, Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium etc.

The main emphasis of my talk would be on different class of Ligands, their Schiffʼs Bases and Transition Metal Complexes especially Au, Pt, Pd and Ru, with the main aim of designing, developing very novel small molecules, as possible and extremely potential candidates as Anti-cancer and Anti-HIV drugs. The talk would provide an overview of current programs being undertaken in our laboratories, especially focused on the development of potent ligands capable of recognizing Binding sites and diverse strategies employed by my group for elucidation of Anti-Cancer and Anti-HIV drug leads to circumvent the problem caused by Cis-Platin. We have synthesized and characterized several phytochemicals from Traditional Medicinal Plants and isolated some phytochemicals and made the corresponding Oximes, Thiosemicarbazones and substituted thiosemicarbazones as ligands and synthesized, characterized, structurally elucidated their Transition Metal Complexes especially with Gold, Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Copper etc. and studied their Anticancer activity, Nuclease activity etc and tested their potential as Anticancer Drugs.

The main aim of our extensive/preclinical Pharmaceutical development program is to investigate the use of these extremely novel small molecules-metal complexes/compounds of phytochemicals, flavanoids etc., which have very interesting structural features and properties and hence are excellent candidates as Anti-Cancer and Anti-HIV drugs. The main aim of our research is Design, Development and Synthesis of Transition Metal Complexes/Organometallic Compounds that would certainly help to bring this force of nature from Bench To bedside and enhance cancer killing with less toxic effects and would certainly lead to initiation of clinical trials.

Dr. Prakash Kinthada, is a Professor in the Department of Chemistry at National Institute of Medical Science (NIMS) University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. He was the Professor at Sri Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Jawaharlal Technological University, Anantapur, A.Rangam Peta, Tirupathi, India. He was an Associate Professor in Chemistry at Gitam University, Visakhapatnam, India. He was recently returned from USA, where he was a NIH visiting fellow at Karmonos Cancer Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine. Earlier, he was a Royal Society Visiting Scientist in the Inorganic chemistry laboratories at the University of Oxford, UK and working on “Transition metal complexes as Anticancer Drugs”. Earlier, he was a visiting fellow at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at Aston University, Birmingham, Prior to that he was a Nehru Centenary British Council Fellow in theorganometallic laboratories at Imperial college of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK. He was a CSIR Research Associate in the Organometallic laboratories, Department of chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India. He published all his research in high impact international journals and presented papers in International Conferences including American Chemical Society Conferences and he had published 33 International publications and 31International conference presentations including American Chemical Society Conferences.

Importance of Herbal Drugs in Health Care

Sharma Prerna1* and Upadhyaya Kumud2

1Maharashi Markendswar University, India
2Kumaun University, India

Herbal medicine are refers to the use of plants and herbs for the purpose of cure and mitigation of human ailments. Plants have been used for medicinal purposes by humans since long before recorded history. Although modern medicine has taken over the lead from herbal medicines in the treatment of diseases in humans, the use of herbals has increased in recent years worldwide, as they are believed to be safer than modern medicines with few or no side effects. Herbal drugs are commonly administered as an extract of the whole herb, as herbal tea or fresh juice. Many times, the whole herb is consumed either fresh or in the dried and powdered form Herbal medicines are the synthesis of therapeutic experiences of generations of practicing physicians of indigenous systems of medicine for over hundreds of years. Herbal medicines are now in great demand in the developing world for primary health care not because they are inexpensive but also for better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and minimal side effects. Herbal medicine is considered by many to offer an alternative treatment for various diseases, particularly lifestyle diseases that require lifelong pharmaceutical medication and thus raises safety concerns. More recently, the use of specific extracts of herbal medicines was popular in the United States and Canada from the nineteenth century until the 1930s before slowly falling out of favor with the advent of modern pharmaceuticals. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of people in developing countries depend on herbal medicine and traditional practitioners for their primary care.

Keywords: Herbal Medicine, Health Care.

Sharma Prerna, field of specialization is Pharmacogonosy in Pharmaceutical Sciences and she has completed her master in Pharmaceutical sciences (2012) honor with gold medalist/appreciation in RITS, Sirsa, India and recently she is pursuing her PhD from last four years at the Uttarakhand Techical University, Dehradun, India. She has 6.9 years of experience as an assistant professor & IIIC head in MM School of pharmacy Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Sadopur (Ambala), her field of expertise is standardization of herbal plants/ herbal formulation. Her research area includes pharmacognostical & phytochemical investigation of Indian medicinal plants. She has 04 research/review publication national/international journals of repute to her credit and deligated more than 20 National/international conferences /workshops. Recently, she has given oral presentation on clinical pharmacology and toxicology in Dubai on 4-5 December. She is the life member of professional bodies like association of pharmaceutical teachers of India (APTI). Organizer Secretary in government funded program like DST, MSME. Collaboration with different reputated pharmaceuticals industry like Sun Pharmaceuticals, Panacea Biotech, Mankind Pharma, Torque Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Zee Lab. Pvt. Ltd., got appreciation certification received by Haryana State Pharmacy Council, Panchkula and Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises.

Upper, Unified Physical Property Estimation Relationships

Samuel H. Yalkowsky

Department of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, USA

Unified physicochemical property estimation relationships are a system of empirical and theoretical relationships that relate 20 physicochemical properties of organic molecules to each other and to chemical structure. Melting point is a key parameter in the unified physicochemical property estimation relationships scheme because it is a determinant of several other properties including vapor pressure, and solubility. This review describes the first-principals calculation of the melting points of organic compounds from structure. The calculation is based on the fact that the melting point, Tm, is equal to the ratio of the heat of melting, α”Hm, to the entropy of melting, α”Sm. The heat of melting is an additive constitutive property. However, the entropy of melting is not entirely group additive. It is primarily dependent on molecular geometry, including parameters that reflect the degree of restriction of molecular motion in the crystal to that of the liquid.

Symmetry, eccentricity, chirality, flexibility and hydrogen bonding each affect molecular freedom in different ways and thus make different contributions to the total entropy of fusion. The relationships of these entropy-determining parameters to chemical structure are used to develop a reasonably accurate means of predicting the melting points of over 2000 compounds.

Samuel Yalkowsky received his Ph.D. in pharmaceutical chemistry from the University of Michigan in 1969. He worked at The Upjohn Company from 1969 until 1982 when he joined the faculty of the University of Arizona. His work has led to over 280 scientific publications and patents and six books. His early work dealt with the alteration of solubility andthe formulations of insoluble drugs. The formulation work includes the development of novel dosage forms and the pharmaceutical evaluation of parenteral formulations. His current interest is the relationship between physicochemical properties and chemical structures.

Impact of Nutrition Education in Improving the Quality of Meals among Low Income Families

Scully Anne D. Bunag*, Arielle Joyce D. J. Macawile, Ma. Elanica P. Santos, Kathrina M. Sepagan, Miakella DG. Teope and Diane S. Mendoza

University of Santo Tomas, Philippines

Introduction: Poverty, food and nutrition insecurity among low income families, have been considered long-term issues in the Philippines, most especially in both rural and urban poor communities. Nutrition programs and activities should consider the challenges of inadequate resources and economic status of families for its successful implementation and adoption.

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effect of nutrition education in improving the quality of meals among low income families in selected communities.

Methods: The study employed a quasi-experimental design with a total of 70 households randomly allocated to control and experimental group. Weekly nutrition education that focuses on healthy and economical meal planning was given for a period of eight weeks for the experimental group while control group were given instructional material for general healthy living. Nutrition knowledge, dietary diversity and intakes of protein, iron and vitamin A were gathered and analyzed for differences between and within groups.

Results: Majority of the respondent considers the price and nutritional values as the two most important considerations in meal planning. There were no significant differences in nutrition knowledge, dietary diversity and intakes between the two groups at baseline. The experimental group had significantly higher protein (p=0.015) and diversity score (p=0.004) after the intervention. Additionally, the experimental group had significant increase in their nutrition knowledge (p=0.002) after the eight-week nutrition education.

Conclusion: Findings of the study showed the possible impact of nutrition education in improving nutritional knowledge, dietary diversity and intake among low income families. Further, agencies and policy makers may look into institutionalizing the provision of nutrition education among low income families to help in addressing malnutrition.

Keywords: Low income families, diet diversity, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake