,,,,,,, Madridge Publishers | Journal of Neuroscience

Madridge Journal of Neuroscience

ISSN: 2638-1583

2nd International Conference on Neurology and Neurosurgery

December 11, 2020, Virtual Conference
Scientific Session Abstracts

The Role of the Thalamus's Magnocellular and Parvocellular Cells in Dyslexia and Other Learning Disabilities

Bakkar S. Bakkar* and Suhail AL - Zoubi

Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

Dyslexia and other learning disabilities can be neurologically explained by dysfunction of magnocelluar and parvocellulr cells in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus. The LGN is located on the dorsolateral aspect of the thalamus and resembles an asymmetric cone, the rounded apex of which is oriented laterally. The LGN consists of three types of layers which are different in size: Magnocellular layers with large- sized cells, Parvocellular layers with medium-sized cells and koniocellular layers with small-sized cells. The total numbers of magnocellular and parvocellular layers are six ones. The current study seeks to examine the relationship between the role of these Thalamus's cells and in the causation of dyslexia and other learning disabilities using the brain imaging techniques such as: Positron Emission Tomography(PET) and Magnetic Resonance Image- Tesla-3- (MRI) of a sample of individuals with dyslexia and severe reading difficulties. This sample will be chosen from Omani children who are attending Irlenʼs clinic and those who are enrolled in resource rooms in elementary (basic) schools in the Sultanate of Oman. Collected data will be analyzed according to some inferential statistics methods.

Keywords: Dyslexia, Learning Disabilities, Magnocelluar Cells, Magnetic Resonance Image- Tesla-3- (MRI), Parvocelluar cells, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Thalamus

Bakkar S. Bakkar had received the degree of Bachelor in counseling and mental health from the University of Jordan – Amman-Jordan-in 1991 and the degree of Master in counseling from the University of Jordan – Amman-Jordan-in 1994 and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in counseling from University of Jordan – Amman-Jordan-in 2006. He worked as a full-time lecturer at the department of educational psychology and college of Queen Rania of childhood at the Hashemite University – Jordan, from 1999-2008. He has been working as an associate professor of counseling and psychology at the department of psychology at Sultan Qaboos University from 2008 until now. His great scholarly interest mainly focuses on Psychoneurology, Neuroscience, Biological and physiological psychology, Counseling and psychotherapy, Neuro-cognitive psychology, Abnormal psychology and Clinical psychology, Neuro-Psychiatry and psychotherapy.

Comparison of the Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) and the Radiological Tests in Diagnosing Phrenic Neuropathy: Display the Demographic and Statistical Characteristics of Patients with Diaphragmatic Weakness

Wissam S. A. Al-Janabi

University of Derby & Burton Hospitals, UK

Objective: To compare the sensitivity of the three prevalent tests that is commonly used in the diagnosis of a patient with diaphragmatic weakness. In addition, display the demographic data for this rare condition.

Method: In a retrospective study from January/2000 until August/2018. The data of 57 patients who were diagnosed with phrenic nerve paralysis were collected from the EMG and Epic system of HFHS. The SAS software 9.4 was used for the statistical analysis. Proc Means and Proc Frequency were used to show the demographic data and Proc logistic to show the ROC curves in a graphical representation. Besides, the Proc iml was used to simulate data for 60 more patients owing to the presence of some missing data.

Results: NCS carries the highest sensitivity, which reaches (100%) amongst the three tests (NCS, chest radiograph/computed tomography (CT) and Fluoroscopy test). Whereas, the chest radiograph showed the lowest sensitivity for this condition, (23.8%). The Sniff test has a sensitivity of (52.63%).

Conclusion: The phrenic nerve conduction study in combination with electromyography (EMG) can promptly diagnose and differentiate between the neuropathic and myopathic etiologies of the diaphragmatic weakness. Further, NCS can show whether the phrenic neuropathy is caused by axonal, demyelination or both. Moreover, the phrenic nerve conduction studies and the EMG are safe to use in the intensive care unit and critically ill patients. Furthermore, the NCS can display the degree of the phrenic nerve dysfunction based upon the amplitude and the latency.

Wissam S. A. Al-Janabi is a US citizen born in Iraq and finished his MD degree from Baghdad University/College of Medicine. Currently, he is working in the United Kingdom at the University of Derby and Burton as a medical registrar. He earned many degrees from the United States, such as a bachelorʼs degree in Health Services Administration (HSA), a Certificate of Public Health, an Associate degree in Math, USMLE board. Also, he finished the Medical Council of Canada certificate (MCC) and the MRCP from the UK. He is on the verge of finishing his masterʼs degree in biostat. He is highly interested in clinical research, especially areas of internal medicine and neurology.

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome as a Prognostic Predictor of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Fakhrurrazy1*, Moh Wasʼan2, Paryono2, Husnul Khatimah3, Pagan Pambudi1, Steven1, Among Wibowo1, Lily Runtuwene1, Hasyim Fachir1 and Muhammad Welly Dafif1

1Neurology Department Ulin Hospital/Medical Faculty Lambung Mangkurat University Banjarmasin, Indonesia
2Neurology Department Sardjito Hospital/Medical Faculty Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3Biomedic Department Medical Faculty Lambung Mangkurat University Banjarmasin, Indonesia

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is a systemic response to infection and non-infectious forms known in various conditions such as acute cerebral ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship and significance of SIRS on hospital admission as a prognostic predictor factor of acute ischemic stroke patients. The study used a prospective observational cohort method. The subjects were taken from patients treated in the stroke unit and neurologic ward RSUP Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The occurrence of SIRS was assessed according to the presence of ≥2 of the following: body temperature <36°C or >38°C, heart rate of >90 bpm, respiratory rate >20 breaths/min and white blood cell count of <4000/mm3 or >12000/mm3. SIRS criteria and other prognostic parameters were evaluated as predictors of dichotomous Gadjah Mada Stroke Scale score. A total of 86 subjects divided into two groups, the 43 patients who met the criteria of SIRS and 43 patients without SIRS.

Results: The results of univariate analysis found that there are 3 significant factors as predictors of worsening neurological deficits, such as the SIRS event on hospital admission (p<0.01, RR 4.00 CI 95% 1.96 to 8.15), history of hypertension (p=0.04; RR 2.94 CI 95% 0.80 to 10.78) and systolic blood pressure (p=0.01, RR 2.26 CI 95% 1.12 to 4.55). Multivariate analysis found SIRS event on hospital admission affect the progression of worsening neurological deficits significantly. SIRS at hospital admission can be used as a predictor of worsening neurological deficits in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Fakhrurrazy is a neurologist at Ulin General Hospital Banjarmasin, Indonesia since 2013 and has been a teaching lecturer at the Medical Faculty Lambung Mangkurat University Banjarmasin, Indonesia since 1998. He graduated general practitioners in 2000 from the medical faculty Lambung Mangkurat University, master degree in neurological physiology from Medical Faculty Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2004 and completed his education as a neurology specialist at Gadjah Mada University in 2013. His field of study is neuroinfection. Several studies are published in journals and presented at scientific events at the local and national levels in Indonesia.

Increased Awareness of Olfactory Dysfunction among MCI Individuals using the Extended Olfactory Self-Report

Maryann Nicola1,2*, Melissa Lessard-Beaudoin1,2, Laura Martinez Gonzalez1,2, Tamas, Fulop1,3 and Rona K Graham1,2*

1Research Centre on Aging CIUSSS de lʼEstrie - CHUS, Canada
2Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Sherbrooke, Canada
3Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Canada

Olfaction plays an essential influence on human behavior and notably its deterioration is one of the earliest symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the single question and the extended olfactory self-report to determine if seniors and/or individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are able to accurately gauge their olfactory function. A total of 35 participants (17 controls, 18 MCI) participated in the ORCA2 study. A self-report questionnaire containing one question, another self-report containing 4 questions, as well as the quantitative UPSIT olfactory test were used to interview the participants. Based on the self-report, there was no significant difference in the single question self-report answers between control and MCI, with both reporting that they had no olfactory dysfunction. Despite this, there is a significant difference in the olfactory subcategories between control and MCI (p=0.003). Looking overall, in the MCI group, a large proportion have olfactory deficits compared to controls: 78% versus 18%, respectively (p=0.0006). Of the individuals responding no, there is a significant difference in olfactory subcategories between controls and MCI (p=0.016). Also, when looking at the sum of the self-report three question scores, there is a significant difference between control and MCI participants (p=0.017). These results reveal that there is more olfactory dysfunction among the MCI group and that MCI participants can more accurately quantify their olfactory dysfunction when they complete a more elaborate self-report questionnaire. Research has shown that olfactory dysfunction is an early predictor of cognitive decline. Finding an efficient, cost-effective method to facilitate screening of olfactory dysfunction among seniors in order to augment the early detection of neurodegenerative diseases is essential and our data suggests this may be done with the use of a more elaborate self-report questionnaire.

Maryann Nicola is currently a fourth-year medical student at the University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. She got the opportunity to complete multiple clinical rotations in Internal Medicine subspecialties, Neurology, Radiology and Psychiatry. She also has a broad range of volunteer experience, including hospital experience, tutoring and volunteering at a non-profit offering service for people with disabilities. To this day, she still participate in homeless outreach service in her community. She is currently in the process of applying for residency in Neurology and Psychiatry, in hopes of obtaining further training in those specialties.