Madridge Journal of Nanotechnology & Nanoscience

ISSN: 2638-2075

4th International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo

April 3-4, 2019, Philadelphia, USA
Scientific Session Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2638-2075.a4.002

Nanotechnology and the Development of Novel Materials for Utilization in Energy-Efficient Buildings

Bjorn Petter Jelle1,2* and Tao Gao1

1Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway
2SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Norway

Nanotechnology offers the potential of being able to tailor-make materials with desired properties for miscellaneous functions. This versatile and powerful ability could be exploited to a much larger degree in the building sector, e.g. in the development of energy-efficient buildings which are becoming more in demand according to the worldʼs ever increasing focus on scarcity and abundance of material resources, energy efficiency, environmental impact, non-polluting and renewable energy sources and carriers. Hence, aspects related to thermal transport, solar radiation, moisture transport, weather protection, durability, energy harvesting & storage possibilities and various other building physical processes, especially with respect to the building envelope, will then be important to address properly. Examples of these novel material developments applying nanotechnology investigated in our studies are vacuum insulation panels and nano insulation materials as super insulation materials for substantially reduced thermal transport, aerogel-incorporated concrete and mortar for a construction material with higher thermal resistance, translucent aerogel windows and walls with utilization of the solar radiation and lowered heat loss through the building envelope, low-emissivity materials to decrease the thermal radiation loss, anti-reflective and solar-selective coatings for different solar radiation utilizations, snow- and ice-avoiding material surfaces for various purposes like e.g. to avoid snow and ice accumulation on solar cell panels, lightweight glass materials for windows and glazing structures, phase change materials for releasing deficit and storing excess energy when needed, electrochromic materials for regulation of the solar radiation transmittance and building integrated photovoltaics for harvesting solar energy within the building envelopes.

Bjorn Petter Jelle is a professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and a chief scientist at SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. Dr. Jelleʼs background is as a physicist, chemist and material scientist and examples of current work fields include building physics, materials science, solar radiation, thermal radiation, climate exposure, accelerated climate ageing, solar cells, building integrated photovoltaics, high performance thermal insulation materials, nano materials and electrochromic materials for energy-efficient windows.

Semiconductive Red Phosphorus Thin Films

Hai-Feng (Frank) Ji

Drexel University, USA

The discovery of carbon nanotubes and the isolation of graphene from bulk graphite were individually responsible for launching entire scientific fields of inquiry into 1D and 2D nanomaterials, respectively. Researchers are taking inspiration and insights from carbon nanotubes and graphene and applying it to new or recently rediscovered 2D materials that do possess a band gap, such as black phosphorus (BP) and red phosphorus (RP). These materials may be suitable for optoelectronic applications from the near infrared region through to the visible. Recently, we found that films prepared from red phosphorus are also semiconductive. In this report, we discuss the electronic and optoelectronic property of these films.

Dr. Hai-Feng (Frank) Ji is a current professor of Department of Chemistry, Drexel University. His research interests focus on MEMS devices, polymers, nanomaterials for energy & environmental applications, drug discovery, nanopillars and phosphene for energy applications and surface chemistry. He is currently a co-author of 170 peer-viewed journal articles and book chapters. He has an H-index of more than 30 .

Structural and Mechanical Properties for a Monolayer of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Produce by Langmuir-Blodgett Technique

Ali M. AL Mafarage* and Maher S. Amer

Wright State University, USA

A truly single layer (monolayer) film of unmodified zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes by using Langmuir Blodgett (LB) technique have been processed. Measurements of their properties in bundles which include stress-strain behavior (mechanical properties) and optoelectrical properties that related to the structural of the tubes are applied. The produced films were highly oriented as determined by polarized Raman spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and by measuring electrical properties in the oriented direction. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) is also used to study the characterizations of SWCNTʼs. The produced films demonstrate a linear stress/strain behavior up to 30% strain and then deviate from linearity. None of the chemical treatment or surfactant oxidation processes are applied in this study.

Ali M. Al Mafarage, has M.Sc. in civil engineering (structure) from AL-Nahrain University in 2005 from Iraq and earn M.Sc. in material science in engineering (nanotechnology), 2018 from Wright State University in USA. His advisor is Professor Maher S. Amer. He received fellowship from Higher Education Council of Iraq (HCED) to pursue his Ph.D. Degree from Wright State University in material science and nanotechnology. He submitted a paper, but it is still under the reviewer section. He represented in (AIAA) conference held in Dayton Ohio, 2018 as a speaker and in material science and engineering conference in Nov. 2018, Atlanta, USA, as speaker also.

Two Decades of Commercializing Nanotechnology for Medical Devices: Real Products Helping Real Humans

Thomas J. Webster

Northeastern University, USA

The Charnley hip implant revolutionized medicine returning motor function to millions. Over the decades since the Charnley hip implant was first introduced to medicine, numerous researchers have tried to improve the functionality of hip implants from changing chemistry, geometry, surface texture and even using injectable chemistries. This talk will summarize some of the more promising advances, in particular what has been seen with nanotechnology (or the use of materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nm). Specifically, increased bone formation, decreased infection and reduced inflammation have all been observed by employing nanoscale surface features (and without drugs) on the traditional Charnley implant regardless of chemistry. This talk will cover such results emphasizing those which have received FDA approval and are currently helping hundreds of patients return to an active lifestyle. Moreover, this talk will discuss the fundamental reasons why nanotechnology is so promising in orthopedic medical device applications.

Thomas J. Websterʼs (H index: 86) degrees are in chemical engineering from the University of Pittsburgh (B.S., 1995) and in biomedical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (M.S., 1997; Ph.D., 2000). Prof. Webster has graduated/supervised over 149 visiting faculty, clinical fellows, post-doctoral students and thesis completing B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. students. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Nanomedicine (pioneering the open-access format). Prof. Webster currently directs or co-directs several centers in the area of biomaterials: The Center for Natural and Tropical Biomaterials (Medellin, Colombia), The Center for Pico and Nanomedicine (Wenzhou China) and The International Materials Research Center (Soochow, China). He regularly appears on NBC, CNN, MSNBC, ABC News, National Geographic, Discovery Channel and BBC News talking about science and medicine. He has received numerous honors and is a current fellow of AANM, AIMBE, BMES, NAI and FSBE.

Processing of Large Monolayer Films of Graphene Using Langmuir-Blodgett Technique and Their Electric Properties

Mohammed Khdhaier Mohammed* and Maher S. Amer

Wright State University, USA

The extremely high mobility of graphene at various temperatures due to the quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carrier make it a strong candidate material in electronic filed. These properties are much dependent on the number of graphene layer, size and functionalization as well. Nevertheless, novel and simple methods to produce highly conductive graphene films still needed. In this paper, we discuss the processing parameters leading to the production of a monolayer graphene films. We also discuss their electrical conductivity and graphene-graphite transition.

Mohammed is a third-year Ph.D. Candidate student at Wright State University/Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. He finished his masterʼs degree at Wright State University, material department. His main research area is in processing 2D material. Also, his research focuses on polymer composites, micromechanics and phase transitions in Nano-structured material systems. He served as teaching assistant in material department of Wright State University. He is also a member in The Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering (SAMPE).

The Efficacy of Targeting Peptides Linked Liposomal Nanoparticles for Therapy of Hepatocellular and Pancreatic Cancers and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Chin-Tarng Lin1*, Chen-Der Wu1, Jen-Chieh Lee1, Han-Chung Wu2 and Ming-Chieh Hsu1

1National Taiwan University, Taiwan
2Academia Sinica, Taiwan

The efficacy of systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy has been widely assessed in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For example, doxorubicin is the most commonly studied chemotherapeutic agent for HCC. However, it has been shown to have a response rate of only 10-20% in clinical trial. In addition, its potential benefit has been reduced by the related adverse effect. So far, the multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib, is considered to provide survival benefit over supportive care. However, the long term prognosis of those cancer patients still remains poor. Therefore, in the present experiment, we proposed to use the so-called peptide targeting chemotherapy to overcome the adverse event in the conventional targeted chemotherapy. In order to perform this experiment, we have constructed some specific peptides which can bind specifically to the cancer cells and cancer vascular endothelia by using a phage displayed 12-mer random peptide library. We have obtained 3 different peptides and one control peptide. Each contains 12 amino acids: a. L-peptide: RLLDTNRPLLPY (anti-different cancer cell membrane); b. control peptide: RLLDTNRGGGGG; c. SP-94-peptide: SFSHHTPILP (anti-NPC tumor cell and hepatoma cell membranes) and d. PC5-52-peptide: SVSVGMKPSPRP (anti-tumor endothelia). Those L-peptide (L-P), SP-peptide (SP-P), PC5-52-peptide and a control peptide (C-P) were linked to liposomal iron oxide nanoparticles; and also used those peptides to link liposomal doxorubicin (L-D). Using peptide linked liposomal iron oxide, we can localize the peptide targeted tumor cells and tumor endothelia and then we used those peptides linked liposomal doxorubicin to treat SCID mice bearing different cancer xenografts. Our results showed that when L-P-L-D containing 2 mg/kg of SCID mouse body weight was used to treat xenografts bearing SCID mice, the tumor could be well controlled and no specific adverse event was seen. However, when the control peptide was used to replace the specific peptide, the xenograft size was also reduced, but the visceral organs revealed marked apoptotic change. In conclusion, the specific peptides linked liposomal doxorubicin nanoparticles can be used for treatment of SCID mice bearing different cancer xenografts with minimal adverse event, especially in the SCID mice γ species (NGS), which shows a remarkable tumor suppression.

Dr. Chin-Tarng Lin, D.D.S., Ph.D. is an Emeritus professor right now at the College of Medicine, National Taiwan University. He has published more than 92 papers and obtained 12 patents. His major interests are to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of NPC with or without Epstein-Barr virus infection and of ovarian cancer. He and his colleague have identified 3 specific peptides to localize their targeted proteins and to identify the cancer xenograft by MRI and to perform peptide-targeted chemotherapy for different cancers with minimal adverse event.

Sensitive Imaging by Multifrequency Atomic Force Microscopy

Babak Eslami

Widener University, USA

Multifrequency Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has attracted attention during the past couple of years. By exciting the AFM cantilever with higher eigenmode frequencies, material composition in addition to topographical information can be achieved in a single pass. Recently, trimodal AFM has provided the capability of performing subsurface imaging. The higher number of channels to control can make the selection process for the excitation frequency and amplitude to be challenging. In this work, a comprehensive study that shows the effect of each parameter on image quality and information gathered in multifrequency AFM will be provided. By having a controllable ‘knobʼ, one can modulate the sensitivity during a characterization process. This becomes important when multifrequency AFM is done on soft matter such as biological samples and polymers. This study provides both theoretical and experimental guideline to select excitation frequency and amplitude to either minimize or maximize indentation during AFM imaging.

Babak Eslami received his Ph.D. from the George Washington University in DC. During his Ph.D. he worked on developing and optimizing multifrequency AFM techniques for surface characterization of soft matter. As an Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering Department of Widener University, he continues to work on this topic, focusing on the fundamental understanding of the cantilever dynamics in different environments, seeking to enhance imaging sensitivity and develop new surface modification capabilities.

Application of Nanomaterials in Monitoring Fatigue in Highway Bridges

Amer Alkloub

University of Jordan, Jordan

As the manufacturers of trucks boost the capacity of trucks to carry heavier loads, old bridges are encountering loads that might be exceeding their capacity. With aging of highway bridges the need for effective methods of structural health monitoring has become increasingly important. Generally, different types of sensors are used to evaluate structural health, including optical fibers, strain gauges and sensors. However, these sensors have some crucial boundaries and disadvantages, such as high cost, poor resilience, low sensitivity and insufficient compatibility with concrete and expensive supporting equipments such as data acquisition system. Electrical properties of carbon-based materials in structural engineering are drawing attention of scientists for many years, giving hope for smart materials and self-monitoring structures. The current study used data that were collected previously by other researchers. The collected data were used to study the adequacy of the bridge girders in the context of the fatigue performance. Number of cycles and amplitude of fatigue stresses were investigated at different locations along the bridge girders.

Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites for Insulator Applications in High Voltage Transmission Lines

Mohamed Ansari M. Nainar*, Bassam H. Alaseel, A. R. M. Nazim, Shahida Begum and A. Atiqah

The National Energy University, Malaysia

Fibre-reinforced polymer composite is commonly known as FRP composite are extensively used in automotive, aerospace, construction and electrical insulator industries. Recently, increased attention has been directed towards the development of natural fibre composites pursuant to the environmental issues and sustainability of the materials. However, the durability of the composite is a major problem due to the poor mechanical strength of the natural fibre and high water absorption characteristics. Therefore, the usage of nanoscale fillers are studied to improve the mechanical properties such as tensile behavior and electrical properties such as dielectric strength. Polymer nanocomposites with different nanoscale additives have been investigated in this paper to study the various properties such as mechanical properties, morphological properties and electrical properties that are required for Insulator applications in high voltage transmission lines.

Dr. Ansari is currently working as an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia. He graduated his B.Eng. (Mechanical Engg.) from University of Madras (India) in 1994, after which he was bonded to serve a Saudi company (Al-Jawdah Co.) in Riyadh, K. S. A. for 1 year. After a few years, he was invited to work as Lecturer in Polymer Technology at Crescent Engineering College (Now known as B. S. A. University, Chennai, India) where he completed 5 years of academic service. Later, he was seconded to work in Malaysiaʼs newly established University, AIMST University. After 1 year, he was given sponsorship to pursue his Ph.D at Universiti Sains Malaysia (U. S. M.). He earned his Ph.D in 2009. He has published more than 50 research publications. He serves as a technical reviewer in many international journals and conferences.

Nano Materials in IC: Design of Energy Efficient CNTFET Comparator

Soheli Farhana

MIIT, University Kuala Lumpur (UniKL), Malaysia

Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNTFET) shows excellent electrical and mechanical performance in the semiconductor industry. CNTFET is a better replacement with traditional semi-conductive device in Integrated Circuit (IC) design. In this paper, a proficient, low power CNTFET based comparator circuit design is demonstrated. As the properties of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) the CNTFET gadgets show quicker execution when contrasted with that of corresponding metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) gadgets. The CNTFET based comparator needs to indicate substantially more improved execution contrasted with comparator configuration utilizing CMOS. The exhibitions, for example, postponement, control and the transient after effects of the CNTFET comparator recreation are considerably more effective. The design and simulation of the proposed comparator was developed in CADANCE platform.

Dr. Soheli Farhana has completed her PhD in engineering from International Islamic University Malaysia and postdoctoral fellowship from International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia. She was the visiting researcher at ONE Lab, MIT, MA, USA. She has published several articles in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of reputed journals. Dr. Farhana is also serving as the committee member in several conferences. She is the reviewer of IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics and some relevant journal in Springer publication. Currently, Dr. Farhana is working as a visiting research professor at MIIT, UniKL, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.