1Chemistry Department, School of Science and Engineering, American University in Cairo, Egypt
2Material Science Department, Nanotechnology Center, Zewail City for Science and Technology, Egypt
Recently, the applications of nanoparticles (NPs) in nanomedicine have gained a lot of interest. They can be used for biological labeling, biosensors and as therapeutic agents. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop synthesize techniques that can result in more biocompatible Nps, suitable for biomedical applications. Chemical methods for the preparation of NPs are simple, easy to perform and very variable. However, their main disadvantages are the use of toxic chemicals. In the search of better pathway for synthesizing metal Nps that can overcome these limitations, researchers have turned to biological systems. Biosynthetic (biogenic) techniques employ proteins, microbes or plant extract for nanoparticles production. The target is to implement safer and biocompatible synthetic methods that eliminate using harmful chemical reagents, thus has no/less harmful impact on human beings. Photosynthesis of NPs using plant extracts have been extensively investigated. Plant extract contains intrinsic phytochemicals such as saponins, terpenoids, proteins, polyphenols and flavonoids, having the properties of stabilizers/emulsifiers. It can be used for the synthesis of biocompatible, monodisperesd NPs of minimum particle size. In comparison to other biological synthesis techniques, Nps synthesized using plants are more stable and the synthesis rates are more rapid. Problems associated with complex treatments (e.g. microbial isolation, culturing, maintenance) are resolved in the case of photosynthesis. Furthermore, the controlled flexibility in the size and morphology of obtained NPs are considered higher in case of photosynthesis due to the diverse candidates of plants. This review provides an overview of recent trends in the photosynthesis of NPs, expected mechanism for the biosynthesis process, and their potential advantage in the field of drug delivery.
Keywords: Green Chemistry, nanoparticles, drug delivery, mono-dispersed.
Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada
Savormetrics Inc., Canada
Semiconductor nanowires funnel light at certain wavelengths due to resonant excitation of optical modes. This results in enhanced optical absorption which can be used to engineer exciting optical properties. In this talk, we will describe the various optical properties that arise from the resonant excitation by comparing experimental optical absorption studies in different semiconductors including silicon, amorphous silicon and gallium arsenide. We will also demonstrate novel devices using these optical properties including multispectral absorption, biochemical sensors, enhanced photo thermal conversions and resonant conversion of amorphous silicon into crystalline silicon. We will show that the resonant wavelengths depend nearly linearly on the diameter of the nanowires. Further, near field coupling between nanowire in an array result in excitation of photonic Bloch modes resulting in red shifting of the resonant wavelengths from the waveguide modes. We will also show nanowires as short as 150 nm exhibit optical mode excitation and strong longitudinal modes. These optical properties can be used to generate exciting new applications and we will demonstrate optical biochemical sensors with a refractive sensitivity of 1E-5 using low cost LEDs for excitation and a camera as a detector. We will also demonstrate a platform for colorful solar cells where certain wavelengths are reflected to generate the color but overall absorption is nearly doubled with respect to a thin film solar cell.
Semiconductor nanowires provide an exciting platform for engineering different optical absorption profiles.
Simarjeet Singh Saini is an Associate Professor at University of Waterloo in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is also the cofounder and Chief Scientific Officer for Savormetrics Inc., a start up company developing low cost optical solutions for determining quality of food. Further, he is the co-founder and Chief Technology Officer for Nanolytix Inc., a start up company developing optical sensors for water quality measurements. He has a Doctorate from the University of Maryland and a B.Tech (Hons.) from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. He has published over 200 papers in areas involving photonics integrated circuits, semiconductor nanowires, optical biochemical sensors and high power lasers.
1Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany
2Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, China
3COMP/Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Finland
In this talk I introduce an embedding scheme for periodic systems, the Real-Space Dynamical Mean-Field Embedding (RDMFE), that facilitates a self-consistent treatment of the physically important part of a system with electronic structure methods, that are computationally too expensive for periodic systems. I use dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) to couple to the rest of the system, which is treated with less demanding approaches such as Kohn-Sham density functional theory. In contrast to the original DMFT formulation for correlated model Hamiltonians, I consider here the unit cell as local embedded cluster in an ab initio way, that includes all electronic degrees of freedom. The performance of my scheme is demonstrated by treating the embedded region with hybrid and GW self-energies (scGW) for simple bulk systems. The total energy and the density of states converge rapidly with respect to the computational parameters and approach their bulk limit with increasing cluster size. For non self-consistent GW calculations a Plasmon satellite for Si is observed – in good agreement with periodic G0W0 calculations - that vanish at self-consistency. The RDMFE@scGW gap of 0.9 eV for a two atom unit cell agrees well with previous G0W0 calculations and experiment. The same is true for the RDMFE@scGW band structure.
The Analysis I present in this talk reveals that RDMFE has the potential to make advanced electronic methods accessible for unprecedented system sizes offering a multitude of application possibilities. The RDMFE scheme is thus a significant step towards making highly accurate theoretical approaches applicable to large systems.
 W. Chibani et al. PRB (2016)
 A.Georges et al., Rev.Mod.Phys. (2006)
 M.Guzzo et al., PRL (2011)
Wael Chibani is a theoretical Physicist with a Master/Bachelor from the Technical University of Munich and a PhD in theoretical computational physics. Got PhD after a 4 years and 6 months stay at the Fritz-Haber Institute of the Max-Planck Society in Berlin, where he worked with the group of professor Matthias Scheffler on a novel embedding scheme based on Green functions following a dynamical mean-field concept. After the defense, worked for 6 months on a project part of the Novel Materials Discovery (NoMAD) Laboratory. After that moved to industry to work as a Consultant at Planisware Deutschland GmbH.
Sabanci University, Turkey
Understanding the behavior of cells in a quantitative manner will provide valuable information to reveal the mechanism of diseases, immune defense and development of new treatment reagents and strategies for the diseases. Today one of the biggest limitations relies on the traditional methods and tools that we use to investigate the rare cells and specific events in biology particularly in immunology. Since these techniques are not adequate enough to be selective, specific and quantitative, the rare cells such as the metastatic or drug resistant ones or the events such as onset symptoms of tumors and infections are being masked by majority of the cells or events in the population. Therefore, we cannot diagnosis on time or provide successful strategies. As a consequence, our approaches might not target the right cells at the right time in the right place. To overcome these limitations, we might profit from engineering approaches and tools. We can develop quantitative, accurate, reproducible and precise methods and use microfabricated tools to understand the nature and behavior of rare cells and events. The improvements from microfabricated tools in conjunction with microscopy might provide statistics from large numbers of single cells, short assay time, less sample consumption, less waste production, quantitative and reproducible data, single-cell resolution images, high-throughput, spatio-temporal tracking and real-time assays, etc. This talk will present recently developed microfabricated tools to understand the immune cell-tumor cell interactions. I will present our microfluidic applications and their preliminary data from my research group.
Meltem Elitas is a Faculty Member in Mechatronics Program at Sabanci University. Her background is in Electrical and Mechatronics Engineering. She has obtained her Doctorate from Bioengineering and Biotechnology Department at Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. She has performed her Postdoctoral studies at Yale University Biomedical Engineering Department. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals. Her research interests are surgical tools for robotic surgery, biomechatronics, cellular heterogeneity, cellular interactions, tumor microenvironment, live cell imaging and development of microfabricated tools for quantitative biology.
1Department of ECE, Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R & D Institute of Science and Technology, India
2Department of CSE, PSR Engineering College, India
In this article, tight focusing of azimuthally polarized beam through a specially designed multibelt spiral phase hologram with annular obstruction is studied numerically based on vectorial diffraction theory. Simulation result shows the generation of transversally polarized beam in the focal region with radial and azimuthal components. It is observed that this specially designed optical element can generates a transversely polarized beam with long focal depth (11.32λ) and much reduced spot size (0.28λ), the polarization property also remains unchanged entire focal depth in the focal region, which should be considered in some practical applications. By calculating Stokes parameters, it is also shown that the generated nondiffracting beam propagates without divergence in the focal segment and keeps almost invariant polarization in the main lobe along the optical axis. Such a beam may find applications in optical trapping, microscopy, semi-conductor inspection and optical manipulation technology.
Keywords: Depth of focus, Polarization, Diffractive optical element, High NA lens.
Dr. P. Suresh graduated in Electronics and Communication Engineering, from Anna University in 2008. In the year 2010, he received his Masterʼs degree in Embedded System Technologies from Anna University of Technology and Doctoral Degree from Anna University in 2014. His research interests are in the field of Optical Engineering, Nano Photonics, Nano Optics, System on Chip, Reconfigurable computing, Embedded Syetms, etc,. Currently working as Associate Professor in Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai.
1Departement de Technology, Faculty des Sciences et de la Technology, University de Djilali Bounaama- Khemismiliana, Algeria
2Laboratoire de Microsystemeet Instrumentation (LMI), Departement de electronic, University Mentouri de Constantine, Algeria
3IEMN-CNRS 8520, University des Sciences et Technology de Lille, France
The excellent microwave power performance demonstrated in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs (high-electron mobility transistors) results from the combination of high current density with high voltage operation, which benefits from the high sheet charge density in these hetero-structures (1013 cm-2), the high carrier mobility (1500 cm2/Vs) and saturation velocity (1.5 × 107 cm/s) in the channel and the high breakdown voltage inherent in the GaN material. However, their reliability still limits their applications in todayʼs electronic systems. The newly developed field-plated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors show improved performance dueto the electricfield reduction in the device channel and surface modification. We report on two dimensional numerical simulations of gate-recessed and field-plated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs where all the important device parameters have been defined, the insulator thickness under the field plate is also an important design parameter to attain higher breakdown voltage, thus an improvement of the performances of HEMT devices.
 Y. F. Wu, A. Saxler, M. Moore, R. P. Smith, S. Sheppard, P. M. Chavarkar, T. Wisleder, U. K. Mishra, and P. Parikh, IEEE Elect. Dev. Let. 117(2004) 25
 K. H. Cho, Y. S. Kim, J. Lim, Y. H. Choi, M. K. Ha, Sol.Stat. Elect. 405(2010) 54.
1Department of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, India
2University Arts and Science College, India
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using two white rot fungi; the extract was acted as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of AgNPs was observed by UV- Vis spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) occurred at 420 nm. The SEM analysis revealed that fixing of synthesised nanosilver in treated fabrics. Furthermore, the biologically synthesized AgNPs were immobilized on cotton fabrics and screened for antibacterial activity. The immobilized AgNPs on cotton cloth showed high antibacterial activity against S. aureus, M. leutes, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa species. Therefore, they could be a viable alternative source in treating wounds or may help in replacing pharmaceutical band-aids.
Keywords: Bioreduction, silver nanoparticles, cotton fabric, Agar well diffusion, Antibacterial activity
Dr. Gudikandula Krishna did Ph.D in Nanotechnology from microbiology background. He has published more than 20 research articles in reputed journals.
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, A.N.A College of Engineering and Technology, India
2Department of Chemistry, IMS, India
3Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology Solan, India
The nano composite film was prepared with 50 nm nano TiO2–polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposite materials and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The conducting polymer PANI/50 nm (TiO2) composite was synthesized by in situ polymerization techniques. This nanocomposite material was used with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for forming the nano composite film in different compositions. The composite films were characterized by SEM and DC conductivity. SEM images also indicated the fibrous structure of the composite film. Dielectric behavior and ac conductivity of the composite film were investigated in the frequency range 2 Hz to 90 kHz. The nanocomposite film had own high dielectric constant. It is observed that both dielectric loss and dielectric constant decreased with increase in frequency.
1Department of Physics, Freres Mentouri University, Algeria
2Molecular Spectroscopy Department, Faculty of Physics & Nanobiophotonics Center, Babes-Bolyai University, Romania
Carbon quantum dot (CQDs) were successfully synthesized from green Carbon source ‘coffeeʼ, using hydrothermal technique. FTIR spectroscopy confirms the different vibratory bonds of CQDs. The optical absorption spectra show an absorption band located approximately at 270 nm which shift toward red for high concentration of CQDs dispersions. Photoluminescence spectra, shows a tunable emission behavior, more intense for an excitation of 310 nm, more remarkably at low concentrations of the synthesized nanoparticles (NPs), gives a rise to an emission band situated at 407 nm. The results of the multi-exponential time decay gives a lifetime of: τ = 4, 07±0, 03 ns. The fluorescence of our Carbon NPs shows their possible applications in the medical field.
Keywords: CQDs, FTIR, optical absorption, photoluminescence
Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan
Gold nanoparticles in chemotherapy is the use of colloidal gold in therapeutic treatments, often for cancer or arthritis. Gold nanoparticle technology shows promise in the advancement of cancer treatments. With tumor-targeting delivery vectors becoming smaller, the ability to by-pass the natural barriers and obstacles of the body becomes more probable. To increase specificity and likelihood of drug delivery, tumor specific ligands may be grafted on to the particles to circulate throughout the tumor without being redistributed into the body, Gold nanoparticles can absorb infrared light, resulting in heating and Removes carcinogenic cells in tumors. Gold nanoparticles have also been used for enhancing the X-ray dose to tumors. The combination of body temperature and radiotherapy is interactive, importantly allowing a reduction in X-ray dose with improved therapeutic results. Here we intratumorally infused small 15 nm gold nanoparticles engineered to be transformed from infrared-transparent to infrared-absorptive by the tumor, then heated by infrared followed by X-ray treatment. Synergy was studied using a very radio resistant subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in mice. It was found that the dose required to control 50% of the tumors, normally 50 Gy, could be reduced to < 10 Gy (a factor of > 3.5). Gold nanoparticles therefore provide a method to combine body temperature and radiotherapy to drastically reduce the X-ray radiation needed, thus sparing normal tissue, reducing side effects, and making radiotherapy more effective.
Mansour Mohammed Hagar was born in Omdurman, Sudan, in 1986. He received diploma degree in radiological and medical instrumentation from Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan, in 2010, and the B.Sc degree in Biomedical engineering from Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan, in 2013, now he is a graduate student.
In 2010, he joined as clinical engineer at the Ombda model hospital. in 2013 he joined Mashreg university of science and technology as a Teaching Assistant, department of biomedical engineering, in 2015 he joined the university of medical science and technology Department of Biomedical Engineering as biomedical workshop coordinator and in January 2017 joined ALmashfa international hospital as biomedical engineering in Saudi Arabia.
His current research interests include Nano medicine and Medical Instrumentation design.
Mr. Mansour has been a member of Sudanese Medical Engineering Society (SMES) since 2013. also he founded the radiological and medical instrumentations engineering organization, Sudan.
1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yarʼadua University, Nigeria
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Synthesis of copper nanoparticles was carried out with gelatin as a stabilizer by reducing CuSO4.5H2O ions using hydrazine. Ascorbic acid and aqueous NaOH were also used as an antioxidant and pH controller, respectively. The effects of NaOH, hydrazine, concentration of gelatin as stabilizer were studied. The synthesized copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The formation of CuNPs@Gelatin is initially confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopic analysis with the characteristics band at 583 nm. XRD and TEM reports revealed that CuNPs@G4 is highly crystalline and spherical in shape with optimum average size of 4.21 ± 0.95 nm. FTIR onto the surface which is further supported by zeta potential measurements with the negative optimum value of -37.90 ± 0.6 mV. The CuNPs@G4 showed good catalytic activity against MB reduction using NaBH4 as reducing agent in an aqueous solution. The best enhanced properties of CuNPs@G4 were found for the 0.75 wt. % gelatin concentration. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH and ΔS) indicate that under the studied temperature, the reduction of MB by CuNPs@G4 is not feasible and had endothermic in nature.
Aminu Musa has completed his PhD in 2017 from the University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia under TETFUND Nigeria Scholarship. He is now lecturer I in the department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Umaru Musa Yarʼadua University, Katsina, Nigeria and has been doing research in synthesis of nanocrystalline cellulose from the agricultural waste. His research interests in preparation of metal nanoparticles supported on biopolymers for catalytic and antimicrobial applications. He has published papers in international reputed journals.
Center for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, India
In recent years with the advancement of nanotechnology the scientific community is in constant search to come up with new material systems which exhibits improved and exceptional properties to be utilized in various potential applications. Core-Shell, also referred as core-shell particles happens to be one such special class of highly functional materials which has unfolded research opportunities in almost every area of science and engineering including medicine, chemistry, electronics, pharmacy, biotechnology etc. Various metals, dielectrics, semiconductors, biomolecules, dyes can be utilized for the preparation of core-shell materials. In addition, new synthesis and fabrication process emerging has made it possible to prepare these nanostructured materials in desired size, shape and morphology with customized properties liked increased surface area, high stability and improved optical, chemical, magnetic properties. Interesting application of core-shell material systems is found in photonic crystals, sensors, fluorescent biological labels, bar codes, catalysis etc. This talk will provide an overview of the development, versatile properties and application of Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) based core-shell particles. ZnS is a well-known direct band gap (Eg-3.68eV) II-VI semiconductor which is one of the widely used metal sulfides with many technological applications. Later some of the interesting work carried out by our research group on ZnS will be presented. Here monodispersed ZnS nanoparticles and their corresponding core-shell particles using different synthesis strategies will be discussed. These core-shell particles are those based on silica either as core or shell. The novel and interesting applications of ZnS based core-shell particles will also be highlighted.
1Laboratory of Food Science & Technology, Food & Nutrition Division, University of Calcutta, India
2Centre for Research in Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, India
3Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, India
4Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta, India
5Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, India
Background: Empirical evidences to establish the higher bio-functionality of therapeutic lipids of nano-templated systems are starkly lacking. In this context, this work presents encouraging real-time findings against both in vivo and ex vivo inflammation models for a therapeutic lipid, alpha-eleostearic acid (ESA), encapsulated in a novel and thoroughly characterized bio-compatible nano-emulsion (NE) system (particle sizes less than 200 nm).
Methods: A protocol involving high pressure homogenizer was developed to fabricate novel formulations of ESA and was characterized with standardized methods of DLS and TEM. Molecular biological tools and assays were employed to arrive at a definite conclusion.
Results: Among the treated experimental groups, the pro-inflammatory profile was found to be significantly mitigated in the hypersensitized rats administered with 0.25% ESA-NE formulation. ESA NE also restored the cell cycle phases of splenocytes to normal conditions and in a more emphatic manner as compared to ESA CE. The short-term effect of the formulations in the isolated human PBMCs challenged with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for cell-surface bio-marker (CD 14, CCR5/CD195) expressions, also revealed novel findings.
Conclusion: The novel ESA NE formulation shows lot of palpable promise for clinical applications against pathogenic and delayed type-hypersensitivity.
Dr. Debjyoti Paul is presently a post-doc in the laboratory of Sr. Professor Parimal Chandra Sen, Molecular Medicine division of the Bose Institute, Centenary Campus, located in Kolkata, India. Dr. Paul did his Ph.D. from the University of Calcutta in nano-formulations of therapeutic conjugated linolenic acid isomer, and has provided one of the earliest evidences of such lipids as nano-systems in ameliorating bio-molecular parameters against, diabetes, pathogenic mitogens and allergens. He has also been a pioneer in putting forward a stable formulation system to emulsify such PUFAs for clinical applications that can be nano-sized without leading to the formation of undesirable lipid-artifacts. His present focus is in developing nano-carriers to deliver novel drugs against mi-RNAs associated with Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
The University of Jordan, Jordan
Cancer is the most terrified disorder disease. It is one of the most leading and second cause of morbidity and mortality in Jordan.
The experiment was designed to study the effect of combination of different plant extracts with and without probiotics and a combination of different phytosomes of extracts with and without probiotics and a combination of probiotics alone. Experimental design was used to study the experimental in azoxymethan- induced colon cancer rats (15 mg/kg) being injected in intravenous tail. Four doses were used on the basis of one dose/week for one month. Rats were sacrificed after 30 weeks by diethylether.
The total phenolic content of plant extracts, total flavonoid content and total tannins content were determined. The total antioxidant capacity of plant extracts and their phytosomes was estimated by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method.
The chemopreventive ability of different remedied was assessed using histopathological marker adenoma and adenocarcinoma in rat colons and by using cytokines level IL2, IL10 and TNF alpha.
On one hand, the positive group, all rats were finding to be with induced colon cancer and in histopathological test all were with dysplastic lesion observed of colon tumor with 100% incidence. On the other hand, the negative control were all with normal epithelial tissue without any tumor incidence, there was significant differences between the seven groups with AOX injected rats in term of tumor incidence.
The seven groups, except positive and negative groups, were treated with different remedies and with a varied response in term of colon cancer incidence. Group six, which was treated with phytosome, during injection of AOX showed 100% protection. The group three was treated with phytosome but after the injection of AOX, showed a 60% normal epithelial (no tumor) and 40% with small adenoma which means that the remedies suppress the growth of the tumor.
The other groups varied in the percentage of colon tumor incidence; it was reduced significantly (P<0.05) in all groups administrated with AOX and treated with different remedies, except that in group five it was 100% of colon tumor incidence. Our finding is promising in which phytosome showed a preventive and suppressive effect against colon carcinogenesis and consequently considered as chemopreventive treatment. Probiotics in combination with phytosome showed a depressing effect in comparison with probiotics alone. Finally the use of phytosome technique is a promising treatment to prevent and even to suppress the incidence of tumor.
1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand; Centre of Excellence in Mathematics, Thailand
2School of Information Technology & Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, Australia
3CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, France
Linear forms of crystalline diamond constitute a new one-dimensional nanomaterial. They assemble within carbon nanotubes which serve as a template and by taking diamondoids as building blocks. Template synthesis of linear chain nanodiamonds have been considered recently using diamantine polymers. The smallest building block of diamond is adamantane, which is the smallest unit with a diamond lattice. The interaction energy for two adjacent adamantane molecules and that of adamantane molecules encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes are investigated. The Lennard-Jones potential and the continuous approximation are utilized to derive analytical expressions for these interaction energies from a highly simplified model. The derived equilibrium distance is found to be within 3% of density functional calculations and an equilibrium distance of 3.281 Angstroms between two adamantane molecules is determined. The smallest carbon nanotube radius b0 that can encapsulate the adamantine molecule and the radius of the tube bmax that gives the maximum suction energy, are calculated to depend linearly on the adamantane radius. For larger diameter tubes, the off axis position is predicted, and the equilibrium distance between the molecule and the tube wall is found to be close to the interlayer spacing in graphene.
Keywords: Adamantane, carbon nanotube, Lennard-Jones potential, interaction energy.
Advanced Nanoengineering Materials Laboratory
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Programme
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India
Carbon tends to get a bad rap these days, but I think it is amazing material. It plays a huge role in the world we live in, from the carbon dioxide in the air to the graphite in your pencil, to diamond in jewelry, to your body, youʼll find its figure print everywhere, just need to open our eyes. In the earthʼs crust, it is the 15th most abundant element and fourth most abundant universal element by mass after oxygen, hydrogen and helium. Can you believe that there is another carbon material that is stronger than steel, unbreakably elastic, resistant to chemicals and high temperature, a better conductor of electricity than silver, and a better heat conductor than diamond? So, nanotechnologists have been fascinated with potential of this material in all fields starting from aerospace to medical. Currently these carbon powders are incorporated in diverse commercial products ranging from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and sporting goods to boat hulls and water filters including supercapacitors, actuators, and lightweight electromagnetic shields. For example, carbon nanotube (CNT) has high stiffness, strength, thermal conductivity, electrical capacity and thermal stability. Even though CNT has excellent mechanical properties, its incorporation in polymer matrices does not necessarily result in dramatically improved composites. The storage modulus of the multiscale composite in polyester matrix as well as the pull out strength of CNT-coated carbon fiber (CF) is improved by as much as 33 and 88%, respectively. Another example the composite of oxidized CNT and polypyrole exhibits a gravimetric capacitance of 305 F g-1 with a gravimetric energy density of 42 W h kg-1 in 5 M KOH (aqueous) electrolyte, which is the highest reported in this study. An area specific capacitance of 376 mF cm-2 in 1 M
LiClO4 acetonitrilic electrolyte exhibited by the composite of exfoliated graphite nanosheet poypyrole with an area specific energy density of 209 µWh cm-2. A volume specific capacitance of 5428 mF cm-3 in 1 M LiClO4 acetonitrilic electrolyte exhibited by carbon nanoplate coated CF with a volume specific energy density of 753 µWh cm-3 is the highest reported among the various supercapacitors (SCs) manufactured in our group. The electrically conducting, highly flexible unidirectioral CF (UCF) exhibits lowest specific gravity when compared to that of various metals and the mass of SCs can be significantly be reduced if UCF is used as current collector. Incandescent bulb filaments, consisting of CNT coated CF (CNTCF), were fabricated and their incandescent properties were studied. For comparison, CF and tungsten filaments were also studied under similar conditions. CNTCF filament of 10 Ω resistance exhibits an illuminance enhanced by a factor of ~ 400 as compared to tungsten filament of 17 Ω resistance for an applied voltage of 18 V. At an input power of 70 W, CNTCF exhibits an enhancement by a factor of ~3.6 in the illuminance as compared to CF filament. Hope to see much more miracle applications in the next decade.
Keywords: Carbon, polyester, modulus, supercaacitor, polypyrole, capacitance, energy density.
 Published results from Advanced Nanoengineering Materials Laboratory, IIT-Kanpur, Kamal K Kar et al, India
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Nigeria
The application of biomass and municipal solid waste (BMSW) as dust or as amorphous material (ash) in the stabilization of weak and expansive soils used as subgrade materials has been high for many years. Geotechnical experts have relied on the effect of these materials, which are products of the direct combustion of lignocellulosic biomass or the pulverization of same on the geotechnical properties of soils. These ash and dust materials are prepared by direct combustion and UV-Vis spectrophotometric characterization to determine the average particle size of the ash materials. Results achieved through laboratory investigations have shown that the amorphous materials or dusts from these wastes, which included palm bunch ash, palm kernel ash, sugarcane bagasse ash, rice husk ash, snail shell ash, oyster shell dust, periwinkle shell ash, groundnut shell ash, coconut shell ash, etc., have improved the strength, consistency, characterization, gradation, moisture condition value, durability and swelling properties of soils thereby satisfying the materials requirement for use as admixtures, pozzolanas, binders or fillers in subgrade stabilization for pavement construction purposes. These have equally given the disposal of solid waste a boost such that this procedure enhances the efficiency of disposing these municipal solid wastes and making them reusable materials in the rehabilitation of the environment using a more ecofriendly binders with zero carbon emission and consequently reduced contribution to global warming.
Dr. Kennedy C Onyelowe has PhD degree in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. He had over 10 years of research and teaching experience at the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. He has over 35 journal and conference articles published in reputable journals across the globe. My research interests are Geotechnical Engineering, Soil Stabilization, Environmental Geotechnics, Transportation Geotechnics, Nano-Geotechnology, Computational Geotechnics, Soil Erosions, etc. He looks up to explore new areas, make new contacts and become an internationally recognized academic collaborating with other international fellows in the areas of research, graduate co-advising, and teaching.
1Department of Chemistry, Sree Narayana College Chengannur, India
2Department of Chemistry, Devaswam Board College, India
Availability of pure water is very essential for sustaining life on earth. Disposal of toxic waste water without proper treatment to the environment, polluted natural water sources leading to scarcity of clean water across the world. Removal of pollutants from water is one approach to address the problem of water scarcity. Various biosorbents have been investigated for the purpose. We have synthesized nanoparticles of polysaccharides, alginate and cellulose for the removal of Dyes and heavy metals from water.
The potential of these nanoparticles for heavy metal and dye removal was studied by batch adsorption technique. The influence of various parameters on biosorption such as pH, initial concentration, contact time, biosorbent amount and temperature was also studied. Repeated adsorption on alginate could bring down the concentration of heavy metals and dyes to the range of potable water. Thermodynamic parameters confirmed the endothermic nature, spontaneity and irreversible nature of the biosorption process. The desorption studies using 0.2 M HCl showed the reusability of the sorbent.
Since alginate is known for its antimicrobial activity, the possibility of using it for the removal of microbes from contaminated water was evaluated by taking both gram negative (E.coli) and gram positive bacteria (S.aureus) as indicator organisms. Effect of alginate nanoparticles on cell wall integrity was studied by death rate assay. More than 80% of E.coli cells were killed after an incubation time of 120 minutes whereas only 65% of S.aureus cells were damaged showing the more sensitive nature of gram negative E.coli for alginate nanoparticles. SDS method showed the rapid reduction of cell wall integrity of gram negative E.coli strain after 30 minutes of incubation while only less than 40% and 70% loss for S.aureus after 60 and 90 minutes respectively. The result showed that the S.aureus cell wall is more resistant towards alginate. The SEM images of treated sample showed severe damage to the cell wall of E.coli while the effect was not so prominent in the case of gram positive S.aureus.
This study demonstrates the potential of using calciumalginate for the effective removal of toxic heavy metals, dyes and microorganisms from contaminated water. Since alginate is a cheap and easily available material, it could be developed as a promising material for the detoxification of waste water.
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State University, USA
As we are rapidly approaching year 2050 and the population capacity of planet Earth, it becomes a must to, sooner better than later, face our gigantic challenges. It is widely known that our global stability is seriously threatened by the consequences of our depleting energy and clean water resources. Extensive scientific research over the past 15 years has shown that Nano-technology-based solutions hold promising answers to our pressing needs. However, it is very important to understand the thermodynamic fundamentals governing the structure and performance of such thermodynamic small systems especially their ability to selectively interact with certain chemical moieties and with electromagnetic radiation. Understanding such fundamentals will definitely lead to unique solutions for our pressing challenges. Nanostructured films and membranes engineered to selectively adsorb unwanted chemical, and biological species can provide a valuable solution for water treatment, desalination, and can definitely contribute to the worldʼs water and environmental challenge. In addition, photovoltaics batteries based on nanostructured fullerene films are also a very promising rout to explore when addressing energy challenges. In this talk, we will discuss both experimental and molecular simulation fundamental work, done in our research group, as related to Energy and water challenges.
Dr. Amer is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, a senior von Humboldt Fellow, Max Planck Society, Germany, and a former Visiting Fellow of the Fitzwilliam College, University of Cambridge, England. Dr. Amer is a member of a number of national and international committees focused on nanomanufacturing and higher education accreditation. He received his Ph.D. from Drexel University 1995. Prof. Amer is currently serving as a US Fulbright Scholar.
Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Australia
Nano indentation provides the opportunity to study single twinning events. In the present work, a Nano indenter equipped with spherical tips of various radii was employed to examine a range of magnesium alloys as well as a single crystal of pure Mg. Our objective is to correlate features of the load displacement curve with twinning events and to ascertain twin initiation and growth stresses as well as the general phenomenology of the twinning events. Samples prepared to a very high quality surface finish, using mechanical polishing displayed a yielding point on the load-penetration depth curve corresponding to departure from Hertzian contact. This corresponded to the appearance of basal slip lines on the sample surface. Pop-in events were then observed at higher loads and these were marked by the simultaneous appearance of twins, evident on the surface following unloading. Twin thickening during continued penetration and shrinkage during unloading were also detected. Crystal plasticity finite element modelling was employed to estimate the stress state prior to the appearance of twinning. This enables us to estimate the critical stress for twin initiation but there is still considerable uncertainty in the values the non-unique nature of the model predictions.
Mohan Setty is a Senior Research Engineer at Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Australia. Mohan began his research career a decade ago, working on light metals and its alloys. His research interest is primarily in mechanical characterization of materials, which includes nano-scale characterization as well. Over the past decade he has carried out research related to microstructure, thermo-mechanical processing and mechanical properties of Strip cast steel, Carbon fibers, Titanium, Aluminum and Magnesium alloys.
His most recent work on nano-mechanical characterization includes: testing radial heterogeneity of PAN fibers, room temperature and high temperature testing of TiN thin films, precipitate distribution in Al alloys, quantifying individual phase properties of high entropy alloys etc.,
Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Chemical engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
The focus of this talk is placed on the dynamic behavior of proteins in confining environments which is studied as a scientific challenge for a deeper understanding of the immobilization mechanism and a better designing of enzyme immobilization in porous materials. Enzymes are immobilized in porous materials to improve the enzyme activity and simplify their purification from the product solution in biocatalytic applications. Mesoporous silica particle is used as solid support material for immobilization of enzymes. By using various spectroscopic techniques it is possible to probe the environment that enzymes experience inside the pores and/or outer surface of solid porous materials in terms of pH, polarity and characterize the behavior of enzymes after attaching or during the immobilization process.
All research presented in this talk are an effort to get closer to the mechanistic steps of immobilization process. Recently, we have suggested a fluorescence spectroscopy assay based on dye-labelled proteins to monitor the whole immobilization process into mesoporous silica in real time. The main aim is to quantify the kinetics of the enzyme immobilization into mesoporous particles and also investigate how the rate of the immobilization depends on protein size for a given pore size. Moreover, by using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy which has been done based on the intrinsic fluorescence (Tryptophan) in proteins, the rotational mobility of enzymes is investigated and by suggesting a ratio-metric method to measure the viscosity inside the particles and also calculating pore filling, three possible mechanisms for decrease in rotational mobility of immobilized proteins are discussed.
Pegah S. Nabavi Zadeh received her M.Sc. in biotechnology at Lund University, Lund, Sweden, after doing her diploma work on improving the effect of preservatives by encapsulation at Swedish institute for food and biotechnology (SIK) within the group of material characterization. Therefore, she started her PhD project at Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden regarding enzyme immobilization in mesoporous silica particle from a physical-chemical perspective in the physical chemistry division. The project aim was to characterize the behavior of enzymes after/during the immobilization, also identify the environment that enzyme experience inside the pore after immobilization.
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Hail University, KSA
Corrosion control of metals is of technical, economical, environmental, and aesthetical importance. The use of inhibitors is one of the best options of protecting metals and alloys against corrosion. There are intensive efforts underway to develop new corrosion inhibitors for steel in different medium. The environmental toxicity of organic corrosion inhibitors has prompted the search for new corrosion inhibitors which are biodegradable; inexpensive, readily available and renewable. In recent years expired drugs, modified Plastic waste, and Nano composite show real promise. The present review consciously restricts mainly to new trends as corrosion inhibitors for steel in different media.
Reda Abdel Hameed graduated with a degree in chemistry from Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. He has carried out research projects in applied organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and green chemistry. He has more than 20 years of teaching experience as a lecturer and associate professor in Egypt and the KSA. Reda has more than 43 research papers in various national and international journals. He is currently working as an associate professor of applied Physical Chemistry at Al-Azhar University.
1School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
2Department of Physics, GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan
Key properties of 9 possible defect sites in hexagonal boronitride (h-BN), VN, VN-1, CN, VNO2B, VNNB, VNCB, VBCN, VBCNSiN, and VNCBSiB, are predicted using density-functional theory (DFT) corrected applying results from high-level ab initio calculations. Observed h-BN electron-paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals at 22.4 MHz, 20.83 MHz, and 352.70 MHz are assigned to VN, CN, and VNO2B, respectively, while the observed photoemission at 1.95 eV is assigned to VNCB. Detailed consideration of the available excited states, allowed spin-orbit couplings, zero-field splitting, and optical transitions is made for somewhat analogous defects VNCB and VBCN. Long-living quantum memory in h-BN can be achieved for VNCB owing to the lifetime differences of first and second order transitions from different triplet sub-states to the singlet ground state as is seen for N2V defect in diamond. While VBCN is predicted to have a triplet ground state, and for it spin-polarization by optical means is predicted to be feasible while suitable optical excitations are also identified, making this defect of interest for possible quantum-qubit operations.
Sajid Ali is a 3rd year PhD student at University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales 2007, Australia. He is also a lecturer in physics at GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan. He has over 15 publications that have been cited over 100 times.
1Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, Turkey
2Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Turkey
MoS2 is very promising channel material for next generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications, and others. However, very little is understood about functioning and/or the role of the ultra-thin MoS2 films, in terms of chemical nature, morphology, defect structure, etc. In this presentation utilization of X-ray photoelectron spectrscopy (XPS), a popular chemical analysis tool, for investigation of electrical potential distribution across and within the device will be given. The device consists of two gold metal electrodes in the source-drain geometry, and has a ~200 µm MoS2 channel in between, all fabricated on a SiO2/Si dielectric substrate, which is gated through the Si substrate. Variations in the electrical potential distribution are detected by the shifts in the binding energies of the core levels of the corresponding atoms, in a completely non-invasive and chemically specific fashion. Accordingly, the difference in the position of the Au4f peak reflects the potential drop across the two electrodes, while the shifts in the Mo3d, S2p peaks are indicative of the potential variations along the width of the channel, and the shifts in the Si2p are induced by the gate voltage. As a result, it can easily be observed that all of these shifts are completely controlled by both the polarity and also the amplitude of the gate-voltage. This simple variant of XPS enables us to follow/detect/observe many of the electrical properties of the transistor-devices, in addition to giving rich chemical information about them. Methodology and findings will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgment: This work is partially supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Grant No. 215Z534
Associated Research at Zoology Department, Oxford University, England
Nanotechnology is a new exciting field that has the potential to transform the way that medical and healthcare solutions are being developing. At the Oxford Physics Department we research on the newest techniques and materials at the nanoscale level. We apply this knowledge directly first to learn the relevant biology at the single molecule level and then to utilize the science and the technology to solve the most pressing medical problems of the 21st century. The talk will be focus on our latest projects from basic research to potential Medical applications.
Sonia Trigueros is a Nano-Bio-Systems group leader and associated researcher at zoology department, oxford university. She is also a academic visitor at physics department, oxford university and co-director of the oxford martin programme on nanotechnology, England.
Engineering Division, New York University Abu Dhabi, UAE
The implementation of supercritical fluids has received a tremendous interest from the scientific community with the aim to upgrade the traditional technologies as well as to develop new technologies for the production of smart materials. The characteristics of smart materials at micro-nano scale are closely associated with their chemical composition as well as to their particle size. The production of such materials with specific properties is very important for numerous applications in catalysts, coatings, electronics, ceramics, superconductors, dyestuff, pigments, and pharmaceuticals.
We report a novel method for the fabrication of porous zinc oxide scaffolds by a scalable supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) based nebulization process, under mild processing conditions (P = 145 bar; T = 110 °C). This process consists of evaporation of CO2 enriched water micro-droplets (~ 3µm diameter) deposited from an aerosol onto heated substrates at 135 ± 5 °C followed through coffee-ring effect. We produced hierarchically porous ZnO scaffolds with polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure and space group of C46V (P63mc). Photoluminescence emission (PLE) characteristics of as deposited scaffolds showed sharp NBE blue emissions whereas and post heat treated to 400 °C enhancement in the PL intensity with conventional green luminescence. We explored the feasibility of this process to produce zinc oxide scaffolds and utilize for potential applications in diverse fields of nanotechnology.
Sudhir Kumar Sharma obtained masters (M.Sc. Physics and M.Tech. Materials) from Department of Physics, Barkatullah University (formerly Bhopal University) Bhopal, India. In 2012, he received his PhD from the Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India. As post doc fellow, he joined at Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), IISc. Bangalore, India. Afterwordʼs Dr. Sharma moved to New York University Abu Dhabi UAE (NYU Abu Dhabi) as a research associate in Nov. 2013. Currently, he is working as a Research Scientist at NYU Abu Dhabi. His publication record includes around 30 publications in international peer-reviewed reputed journals and more than 50 presentations in conferences. His research interest includes implementation of supercritical technologies for nanoparticle synthesis, Smart materials for micro-sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS and micro/nano-fabrications, vacuum science, and thin film technology.
Mechanical Engineering Department, Bilkent University, Turkey
Nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention in the past few decades due to their unique size-dependent properties and their great potential in biotechnology for applications such as bioseparation, tagging, imaging and drug delivery. It is important to synthesize them with monodisperse size and shape to obtain uniform properties. Currently synthesis and functionalization of nanoparticles for biotechnology is made with batch techniques. However batch processes lack the ability to obtain uniform size and shape which reduces their sensitivity and selectivity for detection. Microfluidics is an alternative method by which the limitations of conventional techniques can be addressed. Handling small volumes of liquid allows better control of mixing, and hence yields more uniform chemical composition.
Chitosan is one of the most suitable materials that can be used in drug delivery due to its biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability and stability. When it is synthesized in nanometer dimensions, due to its small size and pH responsive chemistry it can penetrate into cells to release the drug it carries. However, all of the properties of chitosan is dependent on its size when it is not in the bulk form. Therefore monodispersity is necessary to obtain uniform properties among the synthesized nanodrugs. Microfluidic systems provide several advantages in nanomaterial synthesis as handling small volumes of liquid gives the ability of rapid mixing, accurate and fast temperature monitoring, achieving precise concentrations and preventing excess usage of materials. Due to the small volumes of liquid, rapid mixing can be achieved and different temperature zones can be obtained.
Here we propose a droplet-based microfluidic system to synthesize chitosan nanoparticles in a controlled way. In order to perform targeted drug delivery, nanoparticles will be composed of both a magnetic material and chitosan that carries the drug. Therefore a two step synthesis methodology will be used.
E.Y. Erdem is an assistant professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey. She received her BS degree from Sabanci University (Istanbul, Turkey) in 2006 in Mechatronics Engineering. She received her MS degree from University of Washington (Seattle, USA) in Mechanical Engineering in 2008 and PhD degree from University of California at Berkeley (Berkeley, USA) in Mechanical Engineering in 2013.
YMCA University of Science and Technology, India
The interesting third form of carbon atom was discovered by Kroto, Curl and Smalley and got Novel prize in 1996. They demonstrated that laser vaporization of graphite in a high pressure supersonic nozzle produced a remarkably stable C60 cluster and small amount of C70. One of the first of many physical properties investigated was the UV visible absorption spectra. At present we are reporting the electronic absorption spectra of C60 and C70 molecules in various solvents viz., polar, aliphatic and aromatic. The electronic absorption spectra of C70 have more bands in visible region as compared to C60. For the analysis of many organic compounds, molecular fluorescence is one of the most sensitive methods as compared to spectrophotometric method. This technique has greater sensitivity as emitted radiation is measured directly and can be increased or decreased by varying the intensity of an exciting radiation. We have studied fluorescence spectra of C60 and C70 molecules using conventional spectrofluorometer and a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) set-up. For spectroscopic measurements, benzene as solvent is chosen. As compared to other solvents their quantum yields are slightly different. The emission spectra of C60 and C70 in different organic solvent are obtained by LIF is compared to the spectra recorded by spectrofluorometer.
Keywords: C60 and C70 molecules, electronic absorption spectra, Fluorescence, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF)
Dr. Sonia Bansal completed her MSc and PhD in Physics from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, where she worked on Spectroscopic studies of Buckminsterfullerene. In 2005, she joined YMCA University of Science and Technology, Faridabad, India, where she is currently a faculty member in Physics at YMCAUST, Faridabad. Her research interests include the study of optoelectronic properties of ZnO, Application of defected CNT and Graphenes. She received the research grant for structural analysis of doped and undoped ZnO nano structures from Department of Science and Technology (DST), Haryana. Apart from this, she is having M.Tech degree in Computer Engineering and working on Theoretical & Computational Studies of Nano-structures.