Madridge Journal of Nanotechnology & Nanoscience

ISSN: 2638-2075

2nd International Nanotechnology Conference

April 3-5, 2017, Dubai, UAE
Accepted Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2638-2075.a2.003

Extraction of activated carbon from rice husk and its electrochemical characterization

Bhavya Joshi1 and Anurag Gaur2

1Nanotechnology, National Institute of Technology, India
2Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, India

Now days, agricultural waste material are getting a wide exposure to the future generation of material science world. Rice husk is one of them, and its global production is approximately 140 million tons, annually. In the majority of cases much of the husk produced from the processing of rice is either burnt or dumped as a waste. In the present work, an attempt has been made to synthesize activated carbon (RHACʼs) from Rice Husk via KOH and K2CO3 chemical activation. Activated Carbon is a potential electrode material of supercapacitor for energy storage applications. Supercapacitors can deliver high power and reasonable energy densities with both electrostatically and electrochemically as compared to batteries. Rice Husk was initially physically activated at temperature 300°C and 600°C in a furnace with a holding time of 1hr and the carbonized material thus obtained was soaked in 1M KOH and K2CO3, in 1:1 ratio for overnight and was followed physical activation at 300°C for 2hrs in a furnace. Activated Carbon thus obtained were characterized by x-ray diffraction method in order to know the presence of amorphous carbon, scanning electron microscopy to know the pore formation, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses in order to identify the appearance and disappearance of functional groups during different activation temperatures and finally the cyclic voltammetry analysis was done to investigate the electrochemical behavior of the activated carbon material.

The K2CO3 - activated sample showed higher yield and better pore structures as compared to KOH-activated sample. XRD showed the presence of amorphous carbon at a diffraction peak 2theta equals to 26.2°and finally CV curves exhibit capacitive behavior showing nearly rectangular shape for different scan rates 50mV/s, 25mV/s, 20mV/s, 10mV/s, 5mV/s.

Keywords: Rice husk, Activated carbon, Physical and Chemical activation, FTIR, Cyclic Voltammetry.

Bhavya Joshi joined National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, a premier engineering institute of India, to pursue her master's in the field of Nano Technology. Passionate about latest developments taking place in Nano Science around the world, the move to go for higher study in Nano Technology was a natural fit for her. With encouragement from family and friends, Bhavya after completing her Bachelors in Electronics and Communication engineering, has developed keen interest in the area of Nano Technology. She is convinced that the in the near future, Nano Technology will see the most advancement and will have the cutting edge technology which will rule the world in every field. She is very keen to make her career in Nano Technology by being a part of any research group. She is an avid reader and loves to travel a lot.

Modification of energy band gap in natural dye-sensitized ZnO nano particles

Dalvinder Singh Grewal2 and Yogesh Kumar1

1Desh Bhagat University, India
2Prof Desh Bhagat University, India

The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on nano crystalline TiO2 exhibit high power conversion efficiency one of the most commonly substitutes for low cost solar-energy-conversion devices at high temperature. ZnO is another promising metal-oxide semiconductor that can be replace TiO2 because of its higher electronic mobility as compared to TiO2 and its energy level of conduction band is similar as in TiO2. In this research, Nanocrystalline particles of ZnO have been prepared by sol gel method using prepared nano particles to prepare mesoporous electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The anatase phase of ZnO has been confirmed using XRD. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been used to confirm the particle size of the ZnO nano particles. The coating of natural dyes extracted from spinach and marry gold has been done on ZnO nano particles. The Scanning Electron Microscope and EDX study reveals the morphology and elemental composition of the pure and natural dye coated ZnO nano particles. Taucʼs plot confirmed decrease in band gap of ZnO nanoparticles with natural dye coating. Raman scattering spectra reveal active phonon modes for all of the synthesized samples. The natural dye coated nano particles are found to be better candidates for DSSCs.

Prof Dalvinder Singh Grewal has been Dean Research Desh Bhagat University, Group Director and Advisor Group of institutions having 40 years teaching/research experience. He has 3 PhDs (Computer Science, Management and English) and has guided 28 research students up to Ph D level including in Nanotechnology. He has written 45 books and 276 papers: chaired 8 international and presented papers in 46 national and international seminars. He started B.Tech, and PhD Courses in Nanotechnology in India first of all. He is on the editorial panel of 12 international Journals including SAGE.

Surface state photoelectrons in topological insulators and Weyl semimetals

David Schmeltzer

Physics Department, City College of the City, University of New York, USA

We compute the photoemission intensity and polarization for the surface states electrons in topological insulators and Weyl semimetals. The number of emitted photoelectrons is sensitive to the intensity of the laser intensity, whereas the polarization of the photoelectrons is sensitive to the chirality and topology of the surface electrons. We investigate the effect of the Zeeman field and warping.

For the Weyl materials we demonstrate the existence of the Fermi arcs which connect the opposite Weyl nodes.

In the presence of a magnetic field the effect of the EB field gives rise to the chiral anomaly which is observed as a change of the chemical potential, resulting in an enhancement of the intensity in the vicinity of one of the Weyl nodes.

David Schmeltzer has completed his PhD at the age of 27 years at the Technion –Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa and postdoctoral studies at the Los-Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart Germany. Presently he is a full Professor of Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics at City College. He has published more than 120 papers in prestigious journals.

Flexible LPG sensor by chemo-bio synthesized nanostructured MgO

Solleti Goutham1,2, Devarai Santhosh Kumar2 and Kalagadda Venkateswara Rao1

1Center for Nano Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, India
2Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Hyderabad, India

The present work describe the synthesis of MgO nanoparticles in two way i.e., green synthesis using aloe vera plant extract and chemical method by glycine-based solution combustion route. Organic molecules present inaloe vera plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a one-stepgreen synthesis technique. Effect of different synthesis methods (green and chemical) nano materials was optimized almost equal sensitivity for LPG. Characterizations performed were Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to determine the particle size of the prepared sample, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for crystalline size and structure, the product nanoparticles analyzed by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the morphology confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-Visible measurement for optical studies. The dynamic gas sensing characteristics were measured for LPG at different ppm levels with altered temperature at before bending and after bending, the synthesized both materials were coated on preprinted electrodeflexible devices using drop drying method and bio method material showed good sensitivity compared to chemical.

Keywords: MgO, LPG, green synthesis, chemical synthesis, flexible gas sensor

Utilizing bulk nanostructured materials for lost-cost water treatment: Prospects and challenges

Ibrahim Dauda Muhammad1 and Abdullahi Mohammed Evuti2

1Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Abuja, Nigeria
2Chemical Engineering Department, University of Abuja, Nigeria

Delivering clean and cheap water to meet basic human demands is a far-reaching challenge of the current era. The task of water supply is striving to keep up with the rapid increasing demand, which is worsened by water quality deterioration, population development, global climate change and other factors. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated and affordable water treatment for the majority of human populace cannot be overemphasized. Nanotechnology possesses immense prospective in improving water treatment efficiency as well as to enhance water supply via safe use of unconventional water sources. In this paper, current methods for water treatment using nanotechnologies are reviewed with emphasis on nanofiltration in order to achieve the desired goals at minimal cost. The discussion comprises of the nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. Case studies of specific products for water treatment based on nanotechnology are highlighted in order outline the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management at low cost.

Ibrahim Dauda Muhammad completed his PhD from Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia with research conducted on simulating the mechanical properties of nanotubes using multiscale computational techniques. Dr. Ibrahim D. Muhammad is currently a Senior Lecturer with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Abuja, Nigeria. He has published more than 7 peer reviewed articles in several Journals and has also reviewed papers for several Journals. Dr. Muhammad is a member of several professional bodies such as the Nigerian Society of Engineers, Council for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria, American Society of Mechanical Engineers and The International Association for Computational Mechanics.

Contact behavior of RF MEMS devices

Muhammad Mateen Hassan1 and Farooq Ahmed Bhatti2

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Capital University of Science and Technology, Pakistan
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Military College of Signals, NUST, Pakistan

This paper demonstrates the contact noise found in RF MEMS switches which reduces the lifetime of RF MEMS devices. Contact resistance and its influence were investigated with respect to load current, actuation voltage, contact history and time. New experimental technique is reported to find the number of asperities responsible for reliable contact. Contamination film relation with contact noise is also reported.

Keywords: radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical systems switch, gold, single pole single throw

Removal of Malachite Green dye from aqueous solution using a new nanocomposite: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies

M. Naushad and A. A. Alqadami

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

In this study, trisodium citrate based magnetite nanocomposite (Fe3O4-TSC) was used for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous medium. The adsorption tests were performed at different parameters. The optimized pH and time were found to be 7 and 40 min, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data were demonstrated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and better agreement was attained with the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity was calculated 435 mg g-1 using Langmuir equation. The kinetic parameters displayed that MG adsorption onto Fe3O4-TSC followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and it was found that adsorption of MG onto Fe3O4-TSC was spontaneous and exothermic. The desorption studies showed the best recovery of MG dye in 0.1 M HCl. Finally, it was found that Fe3O4-TSC can be effortlessly separated from mixed solutions using external magnetic field.

The design of a new truncated and engineered Alpha-1 antitrypsin based on theoretical studies: An antiprotease therapeutic for pulmonary diseases

Nazanin Pirooznia

National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Iran

Alpha1-antitrypsin (α1AT) inhibits a broad range of proteases and protects the lung from neutrophil elastase during inflammation or infection. This inhibitor is an acute phase protein, the plasma concentration of which increases manyfold upon inflammation. The absence or inefficient function of α1AT in the lungs leads to uncontrolled function of elastase and elastin breakdown, resulting in respiratory problems such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and emphysema. Association between α1AT and a number of diseases including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, anterior uveitis and systemic lupus erythematosus suggests that α1AT is not only an anti-inflammatory protein but also an immune system regulator. Besides, researchers have shown that the protease-antiprotease imbalance is an important factor in the pathogenesis of COPD and other pulmonary diseases, such as bronchitis. COPD is one of the most important causes of irreversible lung damage and thus the fourth most common cause of death in the U.S. In this process, exogenous proteolytic enzymes lead to lung damage. Besides different physiological roles of α1AT including the control of insulin secretion, antiprotease activity, protecting β-cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis, acting as an anti-inflammation compound, it is also regarded as an antiapoptotic factor in lung epithelial cells. Therefore, only with appropriate and adequate concentrations of α1AT the lungs' correct function can be maintained. One of the treatment strategies for optimum activity of α1AT during inflammation is replacement therapy using intravenous infusion (Prolastin, Zemaira, Aralast and Glassia). In the infusion form, only 10%-15% of α1AT reaches the target organ. Another possible treatment strategy is through airway delivery. In this form of treatment not only the aerosolized α1AT directly reaches the target organ, but also prevents the accumulation of excess drug in the blood, therefore, a much lower level of drug is required.

The pulmonary drug delivery strategies for protein and peptide-based medicines are based on using particles with a lipid origin (liposomes) and polymeric particles (PLGA, Chitosan).

α1AT involves being internalized by endothelial cells mostly by the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In the case of particle uptake, clathrin-coated pits expand and enclose particles of around 200 nm. In addition, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 0.1μm are able to reach the deepest regions of the lung, the alveoli. Therefore my research focused on PLGA nanoparticles for engineered α1AT for targeted delivery to the lung. Engineered α1AT was newly constructed through fermentation in yeast and purified using a novel technique. Subsequently, PLGA nanoparticles incorporating α1AT were synthesized and characterized for targeted delivery to the lung. Different nanoparticles were prepared and nebulized for the rabbit lung perfusion experiment.

Keywords: protein purification, structure-based-drug design, bionanotechnology, biotechnology, yeast, fermentation, drug delivery, lung disease, protein engineering

Extraction chemicals from aquatic samples with functionalized Carbon nanotubes sorbents

Sara Karimi Zeverdegani1*, Abdul Rahman Bahrami2, Masoud Rismanchian1 and Farshid Ghorbani Shahna2

1Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
2Department of Occupational health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Aim: Along with the development of technology, need to the use of several toxic chemicals increased so human exposure to these substances can effect on health of them. Therefore several methods for the assessment such exposure in different workplaces are essential. Needle trap technique is one extraction method that was developed and in this research have been used with nano sorbent to extraction toluene from aquatic samples.

Methods: In this study, sorbents based on carbon nanotubes were was synthesized by sol-gel method. Needles were packed with synthesized nano sorbent and extraction of toluene in headspace was done with dynamic headspace needle trap technique. For Analysis of collection samples gas chromatography- flame ionization detector was used.

Results: Results showed that repeatability in the extraction of toluene in aquatic sampls with synthesized nano sorbent and NTD was 9% in optimum extraction about temperature and time extraction(50°c and 30 min).

Conclusion: Using needle trap devices that were packed with synthesized nano sorbent has high efficiency in extraction small amounts of toluene in aquatic samples. The use of synthesized sorbent based on carbon nanotubes reduces the cost of using the expensive commercial sorbents. This technique has good reproducibility, is relatively simple and minimize need of toxic solvents.

Keywords: NTD, Carbon nanotube, Toluene

Dynamics of room temperature ionic liquids in the nanoporous Carbon materials and performance of supercapacitors

Suresh M. Chathoth

Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, P. R. China

The development of energy storage has become a key issue due to both energy security concerns and the environmental issues associated with traditional energy sources such as fossil fuels. Significant advances in electrical energy storage technologies such as supercapacitors and batteries are required because all most all renewable energy sources are intermittent and high energy and power densities are needed to power electric vehicles. Though important improvements in energy storage technologies have been achieved, significant challenges in high energy, high power storage remain limited the widespread adoption of many renewable energy sources. Transformational improvements in these technologies require a molecular-level understanding of energy storage mechanisms in supercapacitors and batteries. In this talk, we would like to present our recent studies on the dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids in nanopores ofcarbon materials and cyclic voltammetry performance of supercapacitors.

Dr. Suresh M. Chathoth has obtained his PhD in Physics from TheTechnological University of Munich, Germany in 205. He has done postdoctoral research from The University of Gottingen and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA. Presently he is an Assistant professor at the City University of Hong Kong. He has published more than 30research papers in reputed journals. His research interest includes glass transition and dynamics of energy storage systems.

An unexpected look at high-rate properties of electrode materials for Lithium-ion batteries

Sviatoslav A Kirillov

Joint Department of Electrochemical Energy Systems, Ukraine

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are now commonly used as power supplies of various purposes, from consumer electronics to hybrid and electric vehicles. In automotive applications, high power densities of lithium-ion batteries are of great value enabling one to ensure the starting acceleration. The power density is significantly governed by the diffusion of lithium ions into (and within) the grains of an electrode material. It is therefore considered that obtaining electrode materials in a nanosized form may allow for attaining greater charge/discharge rates than in the case of the electrode materials of a large particle size. However, the dependence of the power density on the particle size is not convincingly justified yet.

The high-rate capabilities of electrode materials for LIBs are reviewed and analyzed. Theoretical predictions of the limiting discharge rates of LIBs are made in terms of the Frenkel kinetic theory. The unexpected definition of an ideal electrode material is suggested: it should consist of nonaggregated, nanosized, perfect single crystals, and a balance between high rate properties and capacities should be determined not only by the size of crystals but also by their perfectness and ability to aggregation. It is stressed that the known values of the lithium ion diffusion in a perfect single crystal ensure the full discharge time of a battery of ca. 0.2 s. This means that nanodimensionality itself cannot be a prerequisite of high-rate properties of electrode materials, as their perfectness is a key value for attaining high discharge rates.

Sviatoslav A. Kirillov is acting director of Joint Department of Electrochemical Energy Systems, Kyiv, Ukraine. He received his PhD from Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Kyiv, and obtained DSc degree (habilitation) from Moscow State University. In 1992-2000, he was a holder of several visiting professorships in Greece (Patras University, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High-Temperature Chemical Processes, Patras, University of Thessaly). His research interests embrace interactions and dynamics in disordered systems, synthesis, characterization and testing of materials for electrochemistry, adsorption and catalysis. He authored in of about 200 papers, over 10 books and chapters in books, and 6 patents.

Congruent phase diagram of fullerenes and alkali metalsas a basis for alkali-doped fullerite compounds

Vitaly B. Rogankov, Marina V. Shvets and Oleg V. Rogankov Jr.

Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Ukraine

We have applied the recent methodology of a congruent vapor-liquid (CVL) phase diagram to the study of fullerenes C60, C70 and alkali metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs in the wide temperature range from about zero up to the critical points of latters. The striking asymmetry revealed in the restricted range of standard VLE-diagram for fullerenes distinguishes the results of the present work from those obtained by the conventional GEMC-technique. The similar CVL-reconstruction for alkali metals leads to its evident anomaly observable in the entire range of subcritical temperatures including the states of a condensed (metastable liquid and solid) phase. The possible intercalation of alkali atoms existing in the low-temperature metastable vapor into the crystal lattice interstitial sites of fullerites is confirmed by the superposition of two respective CVL-diagrams.

Keywords: congruent, fullerites, phase diagram.

Vitaly B. Rogankov is a Dr. of Phys.-Math. Sci., Prof. of Department of Physics and Materials Science of Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies. The scientific interests are ranged from the theory of phase transitions and criticality in mixtures up to the study of complex heterophase states in the finite-size systems, ionic liquids, nanotechnology of fullerene problem in a fluid state (computational phase diagram, equation of state etc.). Author of about 100 papers in reputed journals and three monographs on the above items.

New extractants for separation of some Platinum-group and base metal ions from Nitric Acid solutions

D. Mohamed

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Hail, Saudi Arabia

In this study, the results on the design and application of three-structurally related thiodiglycolamides (TDGA) derivatives are presented. The extraction behavior of these new extractants towards selected Platinum-Group and Base Metal Ions from nitric acid medium was studied. The structure reactivity relationship with extraction of investigated metal ions is studied. These extractants showed great extractability and selectivity for palladium than the other investigated metal ions. Pd(II) was found to be easily separated from other investigated metal ions in a single extraction step. A systematic investigation has been carried out. The overall data already achieved suggest that TDGA is good extractantas for palladium and may be candidates for further evolution using real solutions resulting from recycling processes.

Green synthesis of BiVO4 using plant extracts

H. E. A. Mohamed1,2*, B.T. Sone1,2 and M.Maaza1,2

1UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, South Africa
2Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, South Africa

Nowadays, the development of efficient green chemistry methods for synthesis of metal oxides nanoparticles has become a major focus of researchers. These methods are being investigated in order to find an eco-friendly technique for production of well-characterized nanoparticles. In this contribution we report for the first time, the synthesis and structural characterization of n-type Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Callistemon viminalis as a chelating agent. To ascertain the formation of BiVO4, XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS were carried out.

Hamza Mohamed, 26 years old is pursing MSc studies in Physics with the University South Africa. He is the recipient of the award from the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences – South Africa, (AIMS-SA). His current research is focused on investigating the use of natural plant extracts for the synthesis of nanoscaled multi functional metal oxides.

Doxorubicin conjugated Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) Core/Shell Microparticles for MT1-MMP targeting of Hepatic cancer

Junghan Lee*, Enkhzaya Davaa and Su-Geun Yang

Department of New Drug Development, Inha University, Republic of Korea

Research: In this study, we demonstrated that the MT1-MMP-responsive peptide (sequence: GPLPLRSWGLK) and doxorubicinconjugated Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) core/shell microparticles (PLGA/pSMA MPs) can be applied for intrahepatic arterial injection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PLGA/pSMAMPs were prepared with a capillaryfocused microfluidic device.

Results: The particle size, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was around 22± 3μm. MT1-MMP-responsive peptide and doxorubicin (DOX) were chemically conjugated with pSMA segments on the shell of MPs to form a PLGA/ pSMA-peptide-DOX complex, resulting in high encapsulation efficiency (91.1 %) and loading content (2.9 %). DOX was released from PLGA/ pSMA-peptide-DOX MPs in a pH-dependent manner (~25 % at pH 5.4 and ~8 % at pH 7.4) and accumulated significantly in an MT1-MMP-over-expressing Hep3B cell line. Anin vivo intrahepatic injection study showed localization of MPs on the hepatic vessels and hepatic lobes up to 24 hrs after the injection without any shunting to the lung. Moreover, MPs efficiently inhibited tumor growth of Hep3B hepatic tumor xenografted mouse models.

Conclusion: Size-controlled PLGA/pSMA core-shell MPs were successfully produced by using a microfluidic technique. Synthesized MPs were conjugated with DOX, and the MT1-MMP-targeting peptide was introduced as a linker molecule between DOX and MPs to enhance tumor targeting. These MPs showed pH-sensitive sustained drug release for one month. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo release studies of MPs demonstrated that DOX released from PLGA/pSMA-peptide-DOX MPs has more efficient cellular entry into Hep3B cells and improved tumor suppression compared to PLGA/pSMADOXMPs. These results suggest that this material can be deployable as a potential candidate for TACE therapy for HCC.

Junghan Lee is presently a research Professor of Department of New Drug Development at Inha University School of Medicine. In 2011, a Ph.D. in Molecular Medicine was conferred on him by Ajou University School of Medicine. During the Ph.D. course, he also participated in Institute Pasteur as a co-researcher. From 2011-2012, he was a Visiting Postdoctoral Associate of Department of Chemistry at the College of Arts and Sciences in Florida International University. During his Ph.D. program and Post-Doc, he was involved in numerous publications relating to Nano/Bio Chemistry. He has been participating in many research projects associated with “Development of novel nanoprobes for the bio imaging and cancer diagnostics” and now continuously studying for related research.

Enhance radiotherapy dose based on Gold nanoparticles

Mansour Mohammed Hagar and Elnazeir Hamza

University of medical science and technology

Gold nanoparticles in chemotherapy is the use of colloidal gold in therapeutic treatments, often for cancer or arthritis. Gold nanoparticle technology shows promise in the advancement of cancer treatments. With tumor-targeting delivery vectors becoming smaller, the ability to by-pass the natural barriers and obstacles of the body becomes more probable. To increase specificity and likelihood of drug delivery, tumor specific ligands may be grafted onto the particles to circulate throughout the tumor without being redistributed into the body, Gold nanoparticles can absorb infrared light, resulting in heating and Removes carcinogenic cells in tumors. Gold nanoparticles have also been used for enhancing the X-ray dose to tumors. The combination of body temperature and radiotherapy is interactive, importantly allowing a reduction in X-ray dose with improved therapeutic results. Here we intratumorally infused small 15 nm gold nanoparticles engineered to be transformed from infrared-transparent to infrared-absorptive by the tumor, then heated by infrared followed by X-ray treatment. Synergy was studied using a very radio resistant subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in mice. It was found that the dose required to control 50% of the tumors, normally 50 Gy, could be reduced to < 10 Gy (a factor of > 3.5). Gold nanoparticles therefore provide a method to combine body temperature and radiotherapy to drastically reduce the X-ray radiation needed, thus sparing normal tissue, reducing side effects, and making radiotherapy more effective.

Mansour Mohammed Hagar received diploma degree in radiological and medical instrumentation from Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan, in 2010, and the B.Sc degree in Biomedical engineering from Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan, in 2013. Now he is a graduate student. In 2010, he joined as clinical engineer at the Ombda model hospital. In 2013 he joined Mashreg University of science and technology as a Teaching Assistant, department of biomedical engineering,. In 2015 he joined the University of Medical Science and technology Department of Biomedical Engineering as biomedical workshop coordinator. His current research interests include Nanomedicine and Medical Instrumentation design. Mr. Mansour has been a member of Sudanese Medical Engineering Society (SMES) since 2013. Also he founded the radiological and medical instrumentations engineering organization, Sudan.

Protein protected noble metal quantum clusters for biomedical application

Meegle S. Mathew1, Kuruvilla Joseph2 and Joyal Davis3

1,2Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, India
3Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, India

Fluorescent Noble metal quantum clusters have received great attention and have been intensively studied due to their unique photophysical and chemical properties. Properties of quantum clusters are distinctly different from bulk and metallic nanoparticle, composed of several tens of atoms. They have sub-nanometre core size with discreet energy levels and show molecule like optical properties. Their easy one step and green synthesis make them particularly attractive. Noble metal quantum cluster gold quantum cluster was synthesised using various templates like peptides, amino acids, dendrimers, DNA and proteins. Among this, protein direct synthesis of the cluster has received much attention due to its easy preparation and potential biomedical application. We have prepared protein directed synthesis of gold, silver, copper and gold-silver alloy quantum clusters. The formed highly stable quantum clusters showed intense fluorescence emission and were characterised using UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These quantum clusters further used for biomedical application including biosensing, such as sensing of a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, blood-creatinine sensing and development of biomedical devices such as intrauterine devices.

Meegle S Mathew took post-graduation in Chemistry in the year 2012 in first class. She qualified in National Eligibility Test (NET) and GATE in the year 2013. She have been working as a PhD Student since 2013 under the guidance of Professor Kuruvilla Joseph at Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram in the area of “Synthesis, Studies and Applications of noble metal quantum clusters”. She have two publications in international journals, one in Biosensors and Bioelectronics and the other in RSC Advances. She presented papers in two international conference and two national conferences. Her research area includes synthesis of noble metal quantum clusters and its biomedical application such as bio sensing, bio imaging etc.

Application of multi-wall carbon nanotubes to enhance the electrochemical response of biomimetic sensors for determination of pesticides in different samples

Monireh Khadem1, Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri2 and Farnoush Faridbod3

1Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
2Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Iran

Pesticides are natural or synthetic substances used to control or repel pests. Because of the increasing application of pesticides, there is a need for their environmental and biological monitoring to assess the environmental pollution, occupational exposures, and public exposure due to domestic and urban usage of these compounds. Sensors, as the miniaturized instruments, are the appropriate and interested devices to monitor the trace pesticides. The aim of this study was investigation the effect of applying multi-walls carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to modify the composition of carbon paste electrode.

The MIPs were synthesized for diazinon and dicloran pesticides and then, they were used in the carbon paste composition in combination with MWCNTs. After optimization of electrode composition, it was used to determine the concentration of analyte. Instrumental parameters affecting the square wave voltammetric response were adjusted to obtain the highest current intensity.

The modified electrode showed very high recognition ability compared to bare carbon paste electrode. The detection limits of the sensors were 1.3×10-10 and 4.8×10-10 mol L-1 for diazinon and dicloran, respectively. These sensors were used to determine diazinon and dicloran in real samples (human urine, tap, and river water samples) without special sample pre-treatment before analysis.

The MWCNTs enhance the sensor responses due to increasing of the electrode surface area, as well as improving the electron transfer between the electrode and the supporting electrolyte. The presence of MIPs can greatly increase the selectivity of the electrode. The optimization of electrode composition improved its response considerably.

Monireh Khadem was born on August 14, 1980. She done PhD in occupational health engineering and work in Tehran University of Medical Sciences as an academic member. She was interested in sample preparation, the environmental and biological monitoring of chemicals, and improving the analytical methods for evaluation of the worker exposure. For this purpose, She cooperate with chemists in University of Tehran to conduct the common studies.

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