Yeungnam University, Korea
For the steady supply of renewable energy such as solar energy and wind energy, energy storage system is necessary. To establish an energy storage system, supercapacitors and batteries are necessary. Numerous researchers are trying to develop high performance supercapacitor electrode materials. Since EDLC-type supercapacitors carry limitations in the energy density, to improve the capacitance, nanomaterials with psedudocapacitive nature such as metal sulfide or oxide have beeninvestigated. Composites of graphene-based metal sulfides (or oxides) have been synthesized for efficient charge storage. Recently, electrodes with threedimensional morphology have got tremendous attention as it provide a large surface area and large pores that enables electrolytes and charges penetrates freely.
Also catalysts and photocatalysts based on nanomaterials have been developed, especially graphene-based materials are getting attention. Nanocatalysts for pollutant degradation or water splitting are becoming major concerns these days. In this study, we will introduce novel efficient electrode materials and their fabrications to supercapacitor devices and efficient new photocatalyst materials for organic waste treatment.
Dr. Jae-Jin Shim received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Seoul National University in 1980, M.S. in Chemical Engineering from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) in 1982, and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin in 1990. He is a professor in the School of Chemical Engineering at Yeungnam University, Korea. He served as the President of Korean Society of Clean Technology (KSCT) and the editor of JKSCT and KJChE. His current research focuses on graphene-based nano materials for energy storage (supercapacitor), sensor, and photocatalysis using clean solvents (supercritical fluids, ionic liquids, and water).
SSN College of Engineering, India
Friction Stir Welding on AA5083-H111 aluminium alloy plates were done using Scandium as Insert and the results were compared with another combination of FS welded AA5083 plates without scandium insert. The medium strength 5000 series non-heat-treatable aluminium alloy plates are used in the construction of marine transportation industry vehicle bodies. The Welding Institute (TWI) in UK has invented a new solid state welding process, viz., Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process in 1991. This FSW process is better than the conventional fusion welding processes, such as Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) techniques. An Al-2 wt. % Sc master alloy is used as an insert in between the two Al plates to be joined. After micro structural and mechanical characterization of the welded joints, it has been observed that the properties of FSW joint of Scandium added AA5083-H111 are inferior to the scandium insert free FSW joints. The chemical compositional analysis of both welded joints has lead to some important conclusions and directions for future research in the combinations of materials.
Dr. K. Subbaiah is serving as a Professor in Mechanical Engineering Department of SSN College of Engineering in Chennai, India. He is having 34 years of Teaching and 12 years of Research experience. His areas of Research are Metal Joining Techniques, Scandium Addition in Tungsten Inert Gas and Friction Stir Welding Processes. He is currently guiding 12 Ph.D Research Scholars. He has presented and published more than 50 Papers in Conferences and Journals. Miss. B. Rajam Varshini is currently doing her third year in Mechanical Engineering at SSN College of Engineering in Chennai, INDIA. Her field of interest is Research in welding.
Department of General Chemistry, Peopleʼs Friendship University of Russia, Russia
In this study, synthesizing new complex compounds of titanium with ligands containing organic hydroxyl, determining the structure of the isolated compounds using a set of independent research methods were investigated also study of complexation processes in solutions, synthesizing and determination of optimal conditions of nanoscale catalysts from organometallic complex from obtained complex (ligand containing hydroxyl group with titanium) and determination of the activity of the obtained catalyst in photodegradation reactions of organic compounds were considered.
To achieve this goal, it was necessary to solve the following problems: a) synthesizing new complex compounds and study their composition and structure by a set of independent methods of analysis, b) carrying out the theoretical modeling of various coordination units using modern software package to calculate the electronic and geometric characteristics of ligands and their complexes, c) synthesis of catalytically active Nano-sized titanium dioxide, d) Modifying Nano-sized titanium dioxide with cations of transition metals, e) determination of the possibility of the obtained catalysts for photodegradation of organic phenol-containing compounds such as bromophenol blue and salicylic acid.
In result, eight complex compounds of titanium (IV) with ligands containing hydroxyl aromatic and six bimetallic complex compounds which contained in addition to titanium (IV) cations ions of divalent transition elements such as manganese, cobalt and nickel, are isolated in the crystalline state and studied by a combination of physical and chemical methods. Doping of TiO2 nanoparticle with 3d-transition metal cations was carried out by thermal decomposition of Ti (IV) complex compounds in the presence of transition metal compounds.
Dr. Yahya Absalan highly accomplished environmental scientist with demonstrated expertise in analyzing the molecular composition and properties of raw materials and metals. Outstanding academic record; earned full scholarship to complete Ph.D. at the Peopleʼs Friendship University in Russia (RUDN). Dynamic researcher capable of rapidly synthesizing metal and inorganic organ metallic compounds, complexes, Nano catalysts and photocatalytic application. Published in numerous peer-reviewed journals. Demonstrated teaching and mentorship abilities; experienced in teaching General Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry to RUDN students.
1Laboratory of Materials, Ibn Tofail University, Morocco
2MAScIR, Rabat Design Center, Morocco
The development of the new active polymer based on bio-based polysaccharide constitutes an active area of modern research . In this work, cellulose nanocrystalline (NCC) reinforced modified-chitosan films with both good mechanical and antibacterial properties were prepared by grafting two molecules of styryl-quinoxaline derivatives separately on the chitosan hydrogel in acidic media followed by solvent-casting process. The structures of synthesized molecules were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H, 13C-NMR spectral data and the antibacterial activity of these compounds against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was investigated. The results found a good antibacterial activity of the two compounds against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Both, unmodified and modified chitosan films are able to inhibit the growth of P.A by surface contact whose modified chitosan films were distinguished by their resistance to the antibacterial tests conditions, in contrary to the unmodified chitosan films, which are partially soluble in the same conditions. Concerning mechanical properties, the chemical modification of the chitosan was a little decrease the Youngʼs modulus and tensile strength of the films, whereas, the addition of NCCs as nanoreinforcements leads to an important improvement of Youngʼs modulus and tensile strength for modified-chitosan nanocomposites comparing to unmodified chitosan nanocomposites. So, this work exhibits that the combination of the chitosan modification by the new styryl-quinoxalin derivatives and the chitosan reinforcement by the nanocrystalline cellulose permits to develop new nanocomposite films that can be used as active polymers in packaging or medicinal fields.
Meriem Fardioui, PhD student (last year) at Ibn Tofail University, Morocco. My thesis is about the development of Nano-composites based on nanocrystalline cellulose extracted from plant fibers reinforced biopolymers for active packaging and biomedical applications. As part of my PhD, I focused on the isolation/characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose and the development of active modified-chitosane reinforced by nanocrystalline cellulose.
Department of Mechanical Power, Cairo University, Egypt
In the present study an electro-rheological (ER) exercise leg press machine is designed and tested. The innovation reduced otherwise the heavy traditional equipment with a light versatile machine that can be easily mounted in rehabilitation centers, dwellings as well as office buildings. The design included two concentric cylinders acting as electrodes to a film of the ER-fluid of thickness 1 mm. The relatively small thickness allowed for a minimal electric discharge to produce the required torque. The results were obtained at a very low power consumption of approximately 9 watts. Adequate protection against oil leakage and electric insulation was arranged in the design. The high voltage was obtained from a power supply circuit designed amongst the scope of the present work. The governing equations, detailed working drawings and design calculations are presented together with a performance test of the newly designed device.
Dr. Mohamed Yehia was He received his BSc degree in Mechanical Power Engineering with honors in 1983. Then he received his Msc degree in 1987, from the Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, and with a master thesis titled: “Effect of Different Parameters on Heat Transfer to Immersed Bodies in Fluidized Beds”
In 1992, Dr. Yehia received his PhD degree from the Imperial College, The University of London, with a thesis titled: “Modeling of pulverized coal swirling flames in axi-symmetric furnaces.
His research interests mainly include: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Coal Combustion Furnaces, Large Eddy Simulations, Turbulent Flames Modeling, Flow and Combustion Simulations, and Smart Fluids.
He is currently working as an associate professor and the Head of Combustion Group, at the Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, and Cairo University.
1Department of Materials Science, Alexandria University, Egypt
2Abu Qir Fertilizers and Chemical Industries Co., Egypt
Thin film composite (TFC) membranes with polyamide (PA) as an active layer synthesized via interfacial polymerization (IP) are dominant in reverse osmosis (RO). This work report the development of TFC-PA-RO membrane that minimizes the energy consumption while maintains superior membrane separation properties. The TFC-PA-RO membranes were prepared by IPof 2,6 diaminotoluene (DAT) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on polysulfone (PS) support. The conventional monomer, m-phenelynediamine (MPD), is replaced by DAT monomer, DAT. These membranes were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and contact angle measurements. It was found that the optimum preparation conditions to obtain the highest performance of the synthesized membranes indicated soaking DAT (1 wt %) for 2 min, TMC (0.15 wt %) for 0.5 min and curing the resultant membrane at 75 0C for 5 min. The synthesized membranes by these conditions exhibited a salt rejection of 99.54 % and a permeate water flux of 11.4 L/m2.h at bar operating pressure of 18 for 10 g L-1NaCl solution. Also these membranes produced a salt rejection of 98.25 % and a permeate water flux of 9.3 L/m2. h at 35 bar operating pressure for 35 g L-1NaCl solution. This low pressure compared with the commercial membranes that operate at 55 bar for sea water desalination saves the energy consumed by the RO system to 1.29 kWh/m3.
Keywords: Reverse Osmosis; Polyamide; Thin film composite; Membrane; Desalination
1Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Israel
2Department of Hematology, Sorokin University Medical Center, Israel
3Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, ACLP- Afeka Center for Language Processing, Afeka Tel-Aviv Academic College of Engineering, Israel
4Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
5Department of Physics, SCE-Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Israel
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-spectroscopy has been found useful for monitoring the effectiveness of antibiotics during chemotherapy in cancer patients with bacterial infection, in addition, (FTIR)-spectroscopy was used to identify the infectious agent type as either bacterial or viral, based on an analysis of the blood components [i.e., white blood cells (WBC) and plasma] for cancer patients during chemotherapy.
From the primary results, diagnostic markers (i.e. RNA/DNA ratio and Amide1/Amide2 ratio) were used for monitoring the biochemical changes in WBCs and plasma during antibiotics and chemotherapy was impressive. We can see trends of several markers.
By employing the (FTIR)-spectroscopy of feature extraction with Fisher linear discriminant analysis (FLDA)in order to identify the infectious type, a sensitivity of ~92 % and an accuracy of ~80 % for an infection type diagnosis was achieved.
The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of WBCs is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the diagnosis of the infection type.
Mr. Adam Hamody Agbaria has completed his M.Sc. Beer-Sheva, Israel. Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences. Supervisors: Prof. Ilana Bar Title of thesis: “Studying Photo dissociation of Molecules by Velocity Map Imaging of Ions via Electrostatic Lenses”. He is Ph.D. Candidate in Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel. Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences. Supervisors: Prof. Daniel H. Rich, Prof. Shaul Mordechai, Prof. Mahmud Hulihel and Dr. Ahmad Salman in vibration spectroscopy and machine learning.
The British University in Egypt, Egypt
Triboelectric Nanogenerator (TENG) is an energy harvesting devise via converting the mechanical energy to electrical energy based on the contact electrification and electrostatic induction. There are two principle modes of triboelectric nanogenerators: the contact-mode and the sliding-mode. The sliding-mode is more effective for static charge generation compared to the contact-mode. In this paper, we will study the effect of air gab on the Attached-electrode sliding-mode TENG. The gap has a great influence on the TENG output parameters which are the open circuit voltage, the short circuit charge, the capacitance, and the output energy. A comparison between the optimal simulation results between the different types of attached electrode TENG modes is introduced. A new equation of the open circuit voltage and capacitance of the attached electrode sliding mode is proposed taking into consideration the gab effect. The gap between the two electrodes has been studied physically using the COMSOL Multiphysics and analytically using the MATLAB. The increase in the gap leads to the increase in the open circuit voltage and decrease in the short circuit charge. It is found that the attached electrode TENG dielectric to dielectric with the gap of 10% of width of the TENG is the best one in generating all TENG outputs.
Dr. Ashraf Seleym earned his B.Sc. degree in Air Defense Science (Radars & Missile Systems) from Air Defense College, Armed Forces of Egypt in 1993. He earned his second B.Sc. degree in Electrical Communications Engineering and Electro-Physics (Excellent with Honors) from the Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt in 1994. In 2003, He received his M.Sc. degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering. In 2012, he earned his Ph.D. degree from Cairo University.
In 1995, he joined the Department of Engineering Science at the Air Defense College, Egypt as a full-time Demonstrator and then Assistant Lecturer. In 2012, he was appointed as Assistant Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, October 6 University, Egypt. Dr. Asharf is currently an Assistant Professor at the Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, BUE since 2015. His research interests span the areas of Radar Signal processing, Nnoncoherent LADAR, and SAR Waveform Diversity. Dr. Ashraf is also interested in Energy harvesting and photovoltaic applications. Now, He is the PI of a joint research project between US (MIT) and Egypt (The British University in Egypt).
Energy Research Institute (ERI), Nottingham University, UK
Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigerationʼ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘greenʼ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener worldʼ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows. This study discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology for communities. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.
Keywords: Energy saving; Energy efficiency, Sustainable technologies; Heat exchangers; refrigerant; Future prospective
Dr. Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHOʼS WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 200 review articles, 7 books and 150 chapters in books.
The University of Nairobi, Kenya
There are numerous modern-day applications of isentropic flow in both natural and industrial processes. This paper is about the design of an isentropic flow calculator that can be used to calculate isentropic flow parameters for different types of gases. Calculators for isentropic flow calculations have already been developed but most of them are limited to air which is the only gas whose isentropic flow properties at different sonic conditions has already been tabled and documented. For this reason, we developed an isentropic flow calculator program that will make it easier to come up with solutions for most of the problems encountered in real life both in the classroom and in the industry. The software is programmed in the Java language which offers numerous advantages over other programming languages. Testing of the softwareʼs capability was done by comparing its tabular output for air against the available tables and confirmed that they were a match. The program uses the basic equations of compressible fluid flow analysis to output data which includes the Mach number, the area ratio, whether flow is subsonic or supersonic, pressure ratio, density ratio among other information. This output is not limited to air as a gas only but applies to all Ideal gases and more can be added to the list if the gas properties are known. The net result is a program that reduces the time spent on calculating flow parameters and also improves on the accuracy of the data required.
Fuel has always been one of the forces which are driving the world forward. Since the early days of human evolution, people have always been dependent on either renewable or non-renewable fuel as the source of energy. But what if that force have now turned into a threat? Most of the conventional fuels we now use give out a lot of pollution. We might not be able to see the world as it is now, if the pollution keeps on increasing with the same rate. Foreseeing the consequences, people have started shifting their focus on pollution free fuels such as fuel cells, Li-ion batteries, metal-air batteries and many more. Among them the metal-air batteries do grab a lot of attention due to their theoretical high energy density. My contribution towards this field of metal-air batteries is discussed in this paper. This study is a preliminary step in surface modification of anode for aluminium air batteries by using chiefly available polymers and hydrophobic coatings. The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the corrosion characteristics of bare aluminium with hydrophobic and polymer coatings on aluminium and analyze their ability to be used as an anode after modifying the surface for primary aluminium-air batteries. In this experiment sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution as electrolyte and stainless steel mesh coated with MnO2 catalyst as other electrode with the same active area as of anode to help in oxygen reduction reaction. The electrochemical behavior of both the bare and coated samples is examined with techniques such as weight loss method (to know corrosion rate), Potentiodynamic polarization, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Galvenostatic (discharge) techniques with the help of a potentiostat.
Lakshman Vedavyas Kilari is currently a Bachelor of technology-4th year (final year) student who has a great passion towards research, especially in the field of energy production. He earlier did a couple of minor-projects on foundry technology and iron making. He works for Indian society for technical education (ISTE) which helps students to enhance their technical skills. Being an enthusiast in material science due to the attractive advancements and the challenges offered by it, he is willing to pursue his career in it hoping that he can be a helping hand by solving any of those challenges.
Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Technology, India
Concentrated Solar power (CSP) systems require reflectors whose reflectance is above 95%. This can be achieved if the plasma frequency of the reflector material falls in the UV region of the solar spectrum. The plasma frequency of Cu0.86Sn0.14 phase of Cu-Sn alloy system is found to satisfy this condition. This compound exists as β-phase in the Cu-Sn phase diagram. The objective of this work is to deposit on mild steel substrate by using aqueous based sulphate solution. Cyclic Voltammetry and Potentiostatic studies were carried out to determine the equilibrium potential for the deposition of Cu0.86Sn0.14 phase. Then by using three electrodes (working electrode, counter electrode, reference electrode), the Cu0.86Sn0.14 phase was deposited on mild steel. The deposited samples were characterized by SEM, XRD and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The electrodeposited film at 0.0608 A constant current using PEG as additive has better adhesion, uniformity than compared with using laprol 2402C as additive. The reflectance of the deposited sample was found to be 23.94%.
V. Tejaswini is pursuing B.Tech final year from Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Technology. She had done her project work in Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. She is very passionate about her studies and is a recipient of Ministry of Steel Chair Scholarship. She had presented various papers in college wise seminars and stood in top position.
1Advanced Materials Lab, Department of Applied Physics, S.V. National Institute of Technology, India
2Computational Materials and Nanoscience Group, Department of Physics, St. Xavierʼs College, India
3Applied Nanomaterials Group, Department of Physics, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia
We present the electronic, magnetic, thermoelectric and optical properties of ferromagnetic metal nanowires (NWs) made of iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) atoms using a first principles approach. Each property has been investigated as a function of atomic arrangement and nanowire diameter. Magnetic anisotropy is predicted originating from the spin–orbit coupling. Significant delocalization of electronic charge density is found in Fe nanowires with the increase in nanowire diameter, while the charge distribution anisotropy manifests in all the studied nanowire configurations. The thermoelectric properties exhibit strong coupling to the nanowire configuration and diameter. Thermal conductivity shows large divergence from the bulk iron and cobalt. The optical properties show the strongest increase for nanowires with large diameters. The theoretical modeling of configuration- and diameter-dependent nanowire properties serves as a cornerstone for future utilization of nanowire films in a variety of applications.
Mr. Shivam Kansara working on low dimensional and multi-layered structure of transition metal in the framework of density functional theory using QE and VASP code. Mainly focusing on electronic, vibrational and transport properties to design new catalysts from transition metals
Aiming on the dynamical stabilities of the d block ultrathin nanowire to establish in nanodevices using Density Functional Perturbation Theory
In previous work [DOI: 10.1039/C7CP02072D], calculated the thermoelectric and optical properties of Fe and Co NWs using modelling of diameters. As well as, calculated the dynamically stable ultrathin nanowires of Pd and Pt NWs, which manuscript is under preparation for the 2D materials, he symmetrically investigated changes in electronic properties and phonon structures using induce strain [Computational Materials Science 141 (2018) 235–242] of dichalcogenides monolayers. The DFPT electron-phonon interaction is naturally screened as it is computed from the derivative of t
National Research Centre (NRC), Egypt
Pulsed laser ablation in a liquid medium is a promising technique as compared to the other synthetic methods to synthesize different materials in nanoscale form. The laser parameters (e.g.; wavelength, pulse width, fluence, and repetition frequency) and using an appropriate liquid medium (e.g.; aqueous/nonaqueous liquid or solution with surfactant) were tightly controlled during and after the ablation process. By optimizing these parameters, the particle size and distribution of materials can be adjusted.
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, India
The cyanide ion is a physiological relevant anion, also, known for its high toxicity, harmful effects to living creature and the environment. Thus, we have been interested in qualitative nad quantitative estimation of cyanide ions. We would like to present the designing and synthesis of a novel probe 3, synthesized by conjugating anthraquinone with 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) acetonitrile. The probe 3 potentially detects CN- ions in H2O/CH3CN (1:9; v/v), solid state, and plasma-like solution via chromofluorometric approach. The probe 3 displayed an absorption redshift from 415 nm to 472 nm and emission redshift from 510 nm to 610 nm in the presence of CN- ions, in H2O/CH3CN (1:9; v/v). The instantaneous colour change for probe 3 from yellow to orange along with red emission in the presence of CN- ions accompanied witha very low detection limit of 37 × 10-9 M. Furthermore, probe 3 is also utilized as a portable paper strip for on-site detection of CN- ions. The 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations analysis confirmed the nucleophilic addition of CN- ions to probe 3.
Gulshan Kumar received his bachelorʼs Degree (B.Sc. Non-Medical) in 2009 from Punjabi University, Patiala and Masterʼs Degree (M.Sc. Chemistry) in 2011from Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla. Presently he is pursuing his doctoral degree (PhD) under the supervision of Dr. Vijay Luxami at School of Chemistry andBiochemistry, ThaparInstitute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala. His research areas include Physical organic chemistry, supramolecular materials, photochemistry in solution and aggregationand their applications in sensing.
The Pennsylvania State University, USA
We are the inventors/discoverers of magnetoelectric laminated composites, photostrictive actuators, and converse flexoelectric devices, ‘monomorphs’. This paper introduces the general design principle of these multifunctional materials, using so-called ‘functionality matrix’, which is composed by a 5 x 5 matrix to correlate the input parameters (electric field, magnetic field, stress, heat and light) with the output parameters (charge/current, magnetization, strain, temperature and light).
In order to create the ‘magenetoelecric effect’, we can combine ‘magnetostriction’ and ‘piezoelectric’ effect (i.e., product of individual functionality matrixes) as this sequence: first, magnetostriction matrix multiplied by piezoelectric matrix. A PZT disk is sandwiched by two Terfenol-D (magnetostrictor) disks. When a magnetic field H is applied on this composite, Terfenol-D expands, which is mechanically transferred to PZT, leading to the high detection performance (∂E/∂H).
Similarly, photostrictive effect can be obtained by coupling photovoltaic effect and piezoelectric effect. A bimorph unit has been made from PLZT 3/52/48 ceramic doped with slight addition of W. The remnant polarization of one PLZT layer is parallel to the plate and in the direction opposite to that of the other plate. When a violet light is irradiated to one side of the PLZT bimorph, enormous photovoltage of 1 KV/mm is generated, causing a bending motion. The tip displacement of a 20mm long bimorph with 0.4mm in thickness was ±150μm.
Stress-gradient in terms of space in a dielectric material exhibits piezoelectric-equivalent sensing capability (i.e., ‘flexoelectricity’), while electric-field gradient in terms of space in a semiconductive piezoelectric can exhibit bimorph-equivalent flextensional deformation, as converse flexoelectricity (‘monomorph’). When the piezoelectric or electrostrictor is slightly semiconductive, contraction along the surface occurs through the piezoelectric effect only on the side where the electric field is concentrated via the Schottky barrier effect.
Dr. Kenji Uchino, the pioneer in ‘piezoelectric actuators’, is Director of International Center for Actuators and Transducers, Professor of EE and MatSE, and Distinguished Faculty of Schreyer Honors College at The Pennsylvania State University. He was Founder and Senior Vice President of Micromechatronics Inc., PA from 2004 till 2010, and Associate Director at Office of Naval Research – Global from 2010 till 2014. After his Ph. D. degree from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, he became Research Associate (1976) at this university. Then, he joined Sophia University, Japan as Associate Professor in 1985. He was recruited from The Penn State in 1991. Fellow of American Ceramic Society and IEEE.
Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Wind turbine blade erosion is now the largest issue of wind energy development, affecting all wind turbine types and offshore operators. Leading edge erosion (LEE) is responsible for more than 5% reduction of annual energy production for a utilityscale wind turbines [1,2]. Leading edge erosion leads to huge maintenance and downtime costs. For example, the power company Ørsted announced in 2016 that all 273 blades at their Horns Rev 2 offshore wind farm, which has been operational for six years, were severely eroded. The way to protect the wind turbines against erosion is the using of advanced polymer coatings. In order to develop the new optimized coatings, computational modelling and numerical testing can support the materials development and testing. In this presentation, the methods of computational modelling of leading edge erosion and the numerical studies of the effect of the coatings on the blade degradation.
In the computational model, the material under droplet was designed as multilayered materials, with two layer protective coating, gelcoat, and filler, all on the top of laminate.
In this way, the model can be used for optimization of protective coatings and their structures, testing various parameters of the protective systems and development of recommendations to their improvement.
The model is used to study various coating structures, and compare two extreme cases, namely, stiff upper coating/soft lower coating and, inversely, soft upper coating/stiff lower coating placed on homogeneous gelcoat, filler and laminate. It was demonstrated that varying the stiffness and amount of protective layers, one can control the damage initiation and growth if composites. Highest stresses are observed for the case of stiff upper coating, while soft upper coating (placed on the top of stiff) keeps the stresses relative low.
Electrical Engineering Department, Assiut University, Egypt
The optical characteristics of a cluster consisting of zinc sulfide (ZnS) particles doped with a nonconcentric spherical copper (CU) cores illuminated with an arbitrarily focused Gaussian beam are presented. The presented aggregations of nonconcentric doped particles (i.e. core with offset origin) form linear chains or densely packed clusters. The laser beam is modeled using angular spectrum of plane waves method and then combined with the cluster T-matrix method which is modified to solve such difficult multiple scattering problem. This combination provides a powerful mathematical technique to obtain the phase (scattering) matrix of a cluster illuminated with any incident electromagnetic fields. The scattering matrix provides complete descriptions of the scattering characteristics in the far field zone. The computed results are shown for different beam waist with respect to the cluster. The scattering processes and its results help understanding many cluster characteristics and nonlinear processes. The presented numerical results show that the elements of the scattering matrix are sensitive to the focusing of the incident beam and characteristics of the cluster constituents. The illustrated results are important for researches aim to improve polymer properties and to study several branches of practical sciences and industries such as nanotechnology, pharmaceuticals, chemistry, and biology.
This paper represents the first attempt to study the multiple scattering from a cluster of nonspherical particles with nonconcentric spherical cores illuminated by an arbitrarily focused laser beam.
Dr. Elsayed Esam M. Khaled is currently a mature professor in Electrical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Assiut University. He received B.Sc. And M.Sc. Degrees from Elec. Eng. Depat, Assiut University in 1976 and 1982 respectively. In 1985 to 1987 he was a research assistant at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada where he pursued some Graduate courses at McGill and Concordia Universities. He received his Ph.D degree from Clarkson University, New York, USA in 1992. He worked as an Assistant professor in Sultanate of Oman from 1998 to 2004. He was a Vice Dean for students affairs, Engineering Faculty, Sohag University in 2008 - 2012 and Vice Dean for community services and environment affairs in 2008 – 2009. He was the Dean for the same Faculty in 2012 - 2014. His publications are around 85 in international journals and conferences. His research interests are Laser scattering by particles and clusters, Microwave propagation and scattering, Antennas designs in different bands, Light wave and micro- nano-electronic devices.
British University in Egypt, Egypt
In Lubricated Machines, wear particles analysis is a condition monitoring technique used to monitor the contact condition of two surfaces in contact and in relative motion. Wear is resulting from the generated friction between the two surfaces. Wear and friction are two main disciplines of Tribology, the science dealing with interacting surfaces including wear, friction and lubrication. Qualitative, quantitative and morphological data could be obtained from the wear particle analysis through the periodically taken samples of the lubricant. This is implemented through different techniques to indicate the wear mode and severity.
In human joints, hips, knees, ankles, shoulders, elbows and finger joints, the phenomena of Tribology is found including wear, friction and lubrication. Wear particles are generated from cartilages and bones and released into the synovial fluid. The generated wear particles could be used for monitoring the joints condition. This is applied for natural and artificial joints and artificial joints as well. Debris materials could be metals, polymers, ceramics, cements as well as cartilage and bone materials. Analysis of these particles could be an effective tool for disease diagnosis especially in the early stages.
In this study, a survey of the applications of the wear particle analysis in human joints is presented, the similarity of the Tribological aspects between the lubricated machines and human joints is introduced and the different techniques used in this analysis is are indicated. Recommendations for future works are offered.
Dr. Sayed Akl is a Professor in the Mechanical Department from British University in Egypt (BUE). He completed his Ph. D in Mechanical Engineering, Tribology, National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon, France, 1983. His Fields of Interest in Planning, Supervising and Participating in Applied Researches in different areas like Wear, Material, Lubrication, corrosion, Vehicle Power Pack, Transmission and Suspension, Nano-materials and also in Modules: Production Technology.
1Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China
2Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China
Mini-generators converting other forms of energy into electric energy are ideal power supplies for widely used microelectronic devices because they need only a low power supply in the range of µW to mW. Among various creative strategies to fabricate mini-generators, recently developed functionally integrated systems combining self-propulsion of small objects and the application of Faradayʼs law show advantages, such as facile, noncontact, low resistance and durable. However, wide application of such functionally integrated systems is currently restricted by artificial energy inputs, such as chemical fuels or mechanical work, and harvesting energy available in the environment or nature is urgently required. Herein, we have developed a light-responsive functionally cooperating smart device as a mini-generator that can directly harvest naturally available light energy for divingsurfacing motions, thus converting mechanical energy into electricity through Faradayʼs law. The mini-generator generates a maximum voltage of 1.72 V with an energy conversion efficiency of 2.44 × 10-3 % to power LEDs and shows a lifetime of at least 30,000 s. By using environmental energy, this study may promote the concept of a functionally cooperating system as an economic and facile power supply for microelectronics, reducing their dependence on batteries.
1Bar Ilan University, Israel
2The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
In this study we present a novel class of 19F-nanoformulations based on small (<10 nm) fluoride-nanocrystals (specifically CaF2 nanofluorides) for MRI applications. We show that homonuclear dipolar interactions can be averaged out by the fast tumbling of the PEG-coated nanocrystals thus enabling the acquisition of high-resolution 19F-NMR. Using this feature, we demonstrate that our newly developed nanofluorides could be used as 19FMRI tracers and present a “hot-spot” mapping in an animal model inflammation. The proposed nanofluorides combine the advantages of using nanocrystals (small, high 19F-equivalency, maximal 19F-density, and surface modifiability) with the merits of 19F-MRI tracers.
Dr. Idan Ashur has completed his PhD at 2006 from The Weizmann Institute of Science and postdoctoral studies from Arizona State University. He served as researcher the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology and as a senior intern with the Weizmann Institute of Science. During that period, he was engaged in the development of new tools for in-vivo MRI under the supervision of Dr. Amnon Bar-Shir. He is now working as a senior researcher in the Department of Physics at the Bar-Ilan University at Ramat-Gan, Israel. His research involves the study and development nanosensors in brain research under the supervision of Prof. Shimon Weiss.
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, India
Development of smart material using ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) is a demanding area of research [1-2]. The IPMCs are now recognized to have potential applications in developing bio-mimetic sensors, actuators, transducers, and artificial muscles. The IPMCs offer several advantages such as bio-compatibility, low power consumption and miniaturization. We have been engaged in developing IPMC based actuators and sensors [3,4]. Recently we have reported results of the actuation and sensing studies of a five-fingered miniaturized robotic hand fabricated by using IPMC . Very recently, we have explored the possibility of using Nafion based IPMC for sensing the rhythm of human pulse and hear rate. In this talk the concept of a novel pulse rate sensing device is introduced exhibiting the proof-of-principle of the mechano-electrical functions of the device, namely IPMC film prepared by surface platinization of the ionic-polymer film.
Dr. Debabrata Chatterjee is former Head of the Chemistry and Biomimetics Group of CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute at Durgapur, India. He is now engaged as Research Advisor in the Vice-Chancellorʼs Group at the University of Burdwan, Burdwan, India. His present research interests lie in the development of bio-inspired devices using electro-active polymers. He is an elected fellow of National Academy of Science, India (FNASc) and Fellow of the Royal Society. of Chemistry, UK (FRSC). Childhood polio has left him physically challenged with a considerable mobility problem.
1Department of Electronic Engineering, Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
2Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
A nonvolatile graphene memory device was fabricated using the transfer process. When transferring graphene to a substrate, a ferroelectric polymer film was used as the supporting film. After the transfer process, the ferroelectric polymer film was used without being removed. This is because the ferroelectric polymer itself has a memory function. When a unit block of ferroelectricgraphene film is stacked twice, two layers of graphene are used. One graphene is used as a gate electrode, and another graphene is used as a channel of a transistor. As voltage is applied to the gate graphene, it is possible to distinguish the recorded data by the resistance difference of the channel graphene.
However, we observed that memory characteristics depends on the substrate to be fabricated. The graphene memory fabricated on the silicon oxide did not show much difference between ON state and OFF state. On the other hand, the ON state and the OFF state of the memory made on the polyimide substrate were greatly different. In this paper, we explain the difference of two memory characteristics by the initial concentration difference of graphene by the substrate. If the initial concentration of graphene is high, the difference in concentration due to the external electric field is small. Therefore, it was confirmed that selection of the substrate in the graphene device fabrication is an important factor determining the device characteristics.
Mr. G. H. Lee is an undergraduate student at Jeju National University in Korea, and her research interests are semiconductor memory devices. Mr. S. A. Khan and Mr. S. A. Rahman are graduate students in master course. Prof. Dr. W. Y. Kim is an assistant professor at Jeju National University in Korea since 2017. His research fields include applications of ferroelectric polymer and graphene process.
1Department of Electronic Engineering, Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
2Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
A nanometer - thick polystyrene thin film was formed on the ferroelectric polymer film by a solution process. A metal electrode was deposited for electrical measurements. A typical ferroelectric hysteresis curve was observed in the polarization - voltage characteristic measurement. It was confirmed that the coercive voltage increased as the thickness of the polystyrene thin film increased. The voltage value applied to the polystyrene thin film was extracted by using the increased coercive voltage value, and the capacitance and the dielectric constant of the thin film were calculated. However, the dielectric constant tends to increase as the thickness of the polystyrene thin film decreases. It is more reasonable to assume that the effective thickness of the capacitor decreases because metal particles diffuse and penetrate into the polystyrene rather than presuming that the material properties of the actual polystyrene film are changed. The diffusion depth of metal particles extracted from this paper is expected to be an important factor in organic electronics engineering. The minimum thickness of the organic thin film can be determined from the diffusion depth, because it affects the operating voltage.
Mr. J. W. Kim is an undergraduate student at Jeju National University in Korea, and her research interests are semiconductor memory devices. Mr. S. A. Rahman and Mr. S. A. Khan are graduate students in master course. Prof. Dr. W. Y. Kim is an assistant professor at Jeju National University in Korea since 2017. His research fields include applications of ferroelectric polymer and graphene process.
1Department of Electronic Engineering, Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
2Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
A multi-bit memory is a memory device that can store more than two states in a single memory cell. Since the degree of integration can be increased, many studies have been carried out in various aspects. In this paper, we propose a method to store two bits in one memory cell using ferroelectric polymer. A ferroelectric polymer was used to fabricate a structure in which one capacitor had two different thicknesses. The structures of different thicknesses were fabricated by various methods using the characteristics of polymer, and the polarization values of four different states were confirmed.
In addition, the proposed multi-bit memory cell is applied to the memory architecture of the conventional 1 transistor-1 capacitor structure to derive the correlation between the main parameters. Also, we investigate the expected problems of multi-bit memory devices and propose a more advanced multi-bit memory device structure.
Ms. J. Y. Lee is an undergraduate student at Jeju National University in Korea, and her research interests are semiconductor memory devices. Mr. S. A. Rahman and Mr. S. A. Khan are graduate students in master course. Prof. Dr. W. Y. Kim is an assistant professor at Jeju National University in Korea since 2017. His research fields include applications of ferroelectric polymer and graphene process.
1 Department of Electronic Engineering, Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
2Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
A memory device was fabricated using graphene. When transferring graphene to the specific substrate, a ferroelectric polymer was used as the supporting film. When the ferroelectric-graphene hybrid film is stacked twice, two grapheme films are used. One of them is used as a gate electrode, and the other graphene can be defined as a channel of a transistor. Since graphene is a material, the doping concentration of which can be changed, the stored data value can be read by the difference of the channel resistance of the transistor.
However, since the ferroelectric polymer film is crystalline, surface roughness is inevitably generated. The surface roughness is expected to form an imperfect interface between graphene and ferroelectric film. The smaller the surface roughness, the better the memory characteristics will be. In this paper, it was confirmed that the surface roughness can be reduced by using the solubility-controlled solution. As a result, we confirmed that graphene memory function is enhanced.
Ms. J. H. Lee is an undergraduate student at Jeju National University in Korea, and her research interests are semiconductor memory devices. Mr. S. A. Rahman and Mr. S. A. Khan are graduate students in master course. Prof. Dr. W. Y. Kim is an assistant professor at Jeju National University in Korea since 2017. His research fields include applications of ferroelectric polymer and graphene process.
2Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
Graphene is a unique two-dimensional material whose electrical and optical properties can be changed by doping concentration. Therefore, to measure the doping concentration of graphene, a method of measuring the electrical resistance value or the light transmittance and converting it into a doping concentration has been mainly used. In this paper, doping concentration of graphene was observed in real time using Raman spectroscopy. In the Raman spectroscopy, there is a unique trend in the position of G peak and 2D peak and relative intensity change as graphene doping concentration changes. From the analysis, it was confirmed that the graphene used in the experiment was initially doped with p-type and that the doping type did not change within the measurement range. In general, the tendency of G peak and 2D peak was similar to that of the previous literature, but the tendency of the ratio of the two peaks and the full-width-half-maximum of the G peak were different.
Ms. S. Jeon is an undergraduate student at Jeju National University in Korea, and her research interests are semiconductor memory devices. Mr. S. A. Khan and Mr. S. A. Rahman are graduate students in master course. Prof. Dr. W. Y. Kim is an assistant professor at Jeju National University in Korea since 2017. His research fields include applications of ferroelectric polymer and graphene process.
2Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
A fullerene film was formed on the ferroelectric thin film by vacuum evaporation. To measure the electrical properties, a metal was deposited and the polarization-voltage curve was measured. As a result, the overall hysteresis loops were very similar to the simple ferroelectric capacitors. However, the hysteresis curves showed very different characteristics depending on the polarity of the measured voltage. When a positive voltage was applied, the data was stored normally. In other words, almost the same polarization value as that of the ferroelectric capacitor was stored, whereas when the negative voltage was applied, it was found that the data was hardly stored. This means that the size of the depolarization field varies greatly depending on the applied voltage polarity. The depolarization field occurs when the ferroelectric capacitor is connected in series with the non-ferroelectric capacitor. From these measurement results, it was confirmed that the deposited fullerene film had an n-type semiconductor characteristic. It was found that the characteristics of the n - type semiconductor are represented even though the temperature of the substrate is maintained at room temperature during vacuum deposition.
Ms. S. M. Kim is an undergraduate student at Jeju National University in Korea, and her research interests are semiconductor memory devices. Mr. S. A. Khan and Mr. S. A. Rahman are graduate students in master course. Prof. Dr. W. Y. Kim is an assistant professor at Jeju National University in Korea since 2017. His research fields include applications of ferroelectric polymer and graphene process.
2Jeju National University, Republic of Korea
Since graphene has excellent electrical properties and flexible mechanical properties, much research has been done as a key material for flexible electronic devices. To fabricate a large-area graphene electronic device, graphene usually synthesized on a copper foil is used. However, the copper foil and high temperature processing consumed to synthesize graphene is becoming a major cause of reduced graphene efficacy by raising the price of graphene. Therefore, there is a demand for a method to fabricate an electronic device while reducing graphene consumption. In this study, we will demonstrate a method for fabricating electronic devices that minimize the amount of graphene used. That is transferring graphene to a desired location by using a graphene-ferroelectric hybrid film. The ferroelectric polymer is utilized as a main material of a memory device. When the hybrid film is transferred twice, it can be utilized as a memory transistor, and when it is transferred three times, it can be used as a logic gate such as AND or OR gate.
However, when the hybrid film is transferred many times, there is a problem that graphenes between layers are connected. For example, in the case of a transistor, a gate electrode and a channel are connected to each other. In this study, the possibility of electrical connection between graphenes was blocked by using solubility-controlled solution. As a result, it was possible to fabricate a graphene device which normally operates as a memory device and a logic device.
Ms. S. H. Ko is an undergraduate student at Jeju National University in Korea, and her research interests are semiconductor memory devices. Mr. S. A. Rahman and Mr. S. A. Khan are graduate students in master course. Prof. Dr. W. Y. Kim is an assistant professor at Jeju National University in Korea since 2017. His research fields include applications of ferroelectric polymer and graphene process.