Marmara University, Turkey
Aim: This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal levels in one portion of some fruits and vegatables thats old in different local markets of Istanbul and to examine the effects of the results on human health.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in March 2017. Apple as fruit; carrot, potato and spinach as vegetables are selected. Samples were taken from the local markets in Kartal, Maltepe and Sarıyer districts. The analysis of the samples was carried out by Agilent 7700 ICP-MS instrument in Central Laboratoryof Yıldız Technical University. The calculations have been done on the net amount, which obtained by removal of the calculated waste amount of the analyzed nutritions from the gross one gram of portions.
As seen in table above, arsenic content in the spinach was found to be highest as well as cadmium and lead contents. Arsenic, lead and mercury contents found to be the lowest in potato per portion.
Conclusion: According to Turkish Food Codexand JECFA(Joint Expert Committee for Food Additives) limits, cadmium and mercury are below the limits and lead datas are above the limits. There is no limit for arsenic. To make assessments on human health, there is a need for more studies in this area.
Fatma Esra Gunes has graduated from Hacettepe University, Nutrition and Dietetics Department in 1991, got her master degree from Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University in 1994, her master thesis was “Determination of vitamin C levels in the blood and urine of young people who are smoker and nonsmoker” and got her PhD from Department of Food Hygene and Technology, Veterinary Faculty, Selcuk University in 2007, her doctorate thesis was “The use of malt extract in production of yogurt and cheese”.
Interested in nutrition ecology, public health and epidemiology, nutritional epidemiology, food technology, clinical nutrition and nutritional medicine. Works since the December of 2008 at the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics of Health Sciences Faculty of the Marmara University, and is Associate Professor and the head of the department since 2016.
Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chile
In recent times, the benefits of edible coatings have been studied to maintain quality and prolong the post-harvest life of fresh fruits and vegetables. Its use is due to its ability to waterproof the fresh product by decreasing itsmoisture loss, regulating the oxygen uptake, and consequently, reducing its respiration, retarding ethylene biosynthesis and decelerating the oxidative reactions. The effects of soybean oil content and homogenization pressures on the physicochemical properties of alginate-based coating-forming nanoemulsions were evaluated. Coating-forming emulsions were developed based on alginate (1.0% w/v) and soybean oil (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% v/v) and using three homogenization pressures (50MPa, 100MPa and 200MPa). Emulsions were characterized in terms of droplet size, polydispersity index, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, and surface tension. Wettability was evaluated on the cherry tomato epicarp by measuring the critical surface tension and contact angle. Emulsions with smaller droplet size, lower polydispersity index, and higher ζ-potential were improved by increasing the homogenization pressures. Emulsions viscosity decreased when the homogenization pressures were increased for all soybean oil contents. Emulsion wettability improved with soybean oil content and by increasing the homogenization pressures. Incorporating soybean oil and using 200MPa of homogenization pressure produced emulsions with better functional properties, which could be used as a coating for fruit and vegetable products.
Acknowledgement: the FIA PYT-2015-0218 project and CONICYT commission supported this work.
Camilo Gutiérrez-Jara is a food engineer (Universidad delBío-bío, Chillán, Chile, 2013). Actually, he is a candidate to food engineering doctor (Universidad delBío-bío, Chillán, Chile, 2015). In this doctorate, his thesis is “Application of phytohormones and emulsified coatings to improve cracking tolerance of sweet cherry fruits”. The first thesis approach considers the application of phytohormones abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate(together and separately) in sweet cherry fruits. The second approach focus in the application of nano-emulsified edible coating alginate-based and soybean oil, in sweet cherry fruits. He is currently beginning to develop the second approach with the Dr. Ricardo Villalobos-Carvajal direction.
1Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania
2Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, Germany
3Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
4Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
5Institute of Food Technology, Serbia
6Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Portugal
The concept of renewable energy and waste recycling has recently received a lot of attention. Dairy wastewater and by-products, if not handled properly, are huge pollutants and at the same time, they are suitable materials for producing renewable energy –bio methane. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of utilizing Lactobacillus delbrüeckii spp. bulgaricus in the acidification stage in order to increase the yield of bio-methane. Using the nuclear magnetic resonance was determined that dairy wastewater is a good source of important bio-refinery relevant compoundssuch aslactose, lactic, acetic and citric acid, amino acids, alcohols, organic acids and others, therefore wastewater has a potential to be utilized during fermentation as nutrients source. The efficiency of the methanogenesis process and the biogas yield is significantly affected by the fermentation protocol and the wastewaters sample utilized. During the one-stage biogas production, lactic acid bacteria were not added to the wastewater. During the two-stage biogas production, acetogenesis and methanogenesis occurred separately with the addition of L. delbrüeckii during the acetogenesis stage. The separation of acetogenesis and methanogenesis in a two-stage process is preferable, as it increases methane content. The highest yield of methane was obtained from wastewater upon two-stage fermentation (76% two-stages compared to 38% one-stage). Therefore, L. delbrüeckii have the potential to be utilized to ferment dairy wastewaters and produce methane. Such treatment of wastewater not only produces methane, but also decreases the polluting effect of the waste streams, by reducing the chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand to 0.199 and 0.031 g/l, respectively. The content of H2S in biogas from the wastewater samples varied from 0 to 252.5 ppm and is dependent on the fermentation protocol and the wastewater sample utilized.
This work has received funding from the European Unionʼs Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (GrantAgreement Number 613589, SUSMILK).
Dalia Cizeikiene was carried out PhD study at Kaunas University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of Food Science and Technology during the years 2010-2014. The PhD thesis “Bioproducts of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria, their antimicrobial and phytase activities, and applications” was defended in 2015. From 2015 year a lecturer at Kaunas University of Technology. Research area: Food Science and Technology, Biotechnology, Lactic acid bacteria application for food technology and biotechnology, Lignocellulose material bioconversion in to valuable compounds, Biogas production from dairy waste water.
University of Venda, South Africa
Background and Objective: Cassava is an essential foodstuff in the tropical regions of the world. It is high in calories and also a very good source of revenue for many countries. Present study focused on optimizing quality of cassava (UVLNR 0005) flour in terms of color and thermal qualities.
Materials and Methods: A central composite rotatable drying experiments comprising of two factors: drying temperature (60-70°C) and drying time (15-20 h) was designed using Stat-Ease design expert software. The software was also used to carry out one way analysis of variance (P < 0.05), regression analysis, optimization of color and thermal properties and obtain contour plots for interactions between the drying conditions, color and thermal properties.
Results: Results indicated that the drying conditions used in this study had no significant effect on color and thermal properties of cassava (UVLNR 0005) flour. The range of L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma and WI were 87.67-93.57, -0.27-1.1, 8.4-11.83, 84.87-91.5, 8.4-11.87 and 82.88-89.42 respectively. The onset, peak, conclusion temperatures and enthalpy of gelatinization ranged between 93.68 to 114.21°C, 100.35 to 118.49°C, 108.73 to 123.51°C and 3.74 to 11.54°C respectively. Mathematical models obtained for the prediction of color and thermal properties at different drying temperatures and time were characterized with insignificant (P > 0.05) lack of fit test and high regression values. Drying conditions of 65.34°C drying temperature, 16.48 h drying time were found optimum for product quality at a desirability of 0.78.
Conclusion: It was concluded that use of the optimum drying conditions obtained in this study for drying cassava chips can help preserve the color and thermal qualities of cassava flour.
Keywords: Cassava; response surface methodology; thermal properties; flour; optimization; models; contour plots; drying
Patrick F. Kapila, a senior lecturer in the Department of Agricultural and Rural Engineering, University of Venda, South Africa. My research interest includes agricultural engineering and farm mechanization.
Menoufia University, Egypt
Fried eggplant one of the most important foods favored by man but during fry the eggplant change in color, oil uptake and texture occurred, so that Eggplant slices with thicknesses 1,2,3 cm were dried in microwave with powers 720, 540, 360 watt for 2,4,6,8 minutes before fry it in oil for 3,5,7 minutes. The study explained that 0.01% highly significant effect of microwave powers on frying yield, 0.05% high significant of drying time and non-significant effect of slices thicknesses and frying time. The firmness of eggplant slices was 0.01 % highly significant affecting by drying time but it was non-significant affecting by microwave powers, eggplant slices thicknesses and frying time. The frying time give 0.01 % highly significant effect on ΔE but the microwave powers and eggplant slices thicknesses give 0.05% significant effect where drying time give non-significant effect. Drying time give 0.01% highly significant effect on browning index but the microwave powers, eggplant slices thicknesses and frying time give nonsignificant effect on browning index. We can be conclude that drying eggplant slices with thickness 1 cm in microwave by power 540 Watt for time 8 minutes before frying it in oil at 180oc for 7 minutes give a good fried eggplant slice.
Keshek, M.H is a Demonstrator in Agriculture College, Menoufiya University from Dec 3, 2002 to Aug 19 2007. Teaching Assistant in Agriculture College, Menoufiya University from Sep 19 2007 to Feb 27 2012. Agricultural Engineering Lecturer in Agriculture College, Menoufiya university from Feb 27 2012 until now.
YuzuncuYil University, Van, Turkey
This study attempts to analyze the karyotype and chromosome structure in Ten populations of Camelina sativa in different part of Turkey. Pre-treatment, fixation, hydrolysis and staining were conducted using root meristem and then microscopic samples were prepared and studied. The results showed that in all studied cells of each population, the basic chromosome number was 2n=40 and all of them were diploid. Karyotype analysis of each population was conducted separately and several indices including length of the chromosome, length of the long arm, length of the short arm and centromer index were determined. The length of chromosomes in all populations was estimated as 0.64-2.08 micrometers. The longest chromosome was observed in chromosome number 1 from population 1 and the shortest one was related to the chromosome number 20 from population 7 in haploid karyotyping.
Keywords: chromosome, cytogenetic, camelina sativa, karyotype.