University College Hospital, Nigeria
Background: Dental caries has been commonly defined as a disease process which causes the demineralisation of dental hard tissues by microbial activity. It is a preventable disease which can be reversed in its early stages. Enamel formation is a natural process in the body which can be affected by environmental and genetic factors resulting in enamel defects like dental fluorosis and developmental defects of the enamel (DDE).
Objective: This study assessed the prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics and relationship between dental caries, DDE and dental fluorosis amongst 9-year old children with a view to providing information that will aid the prevention and treatment of these oral health problems.
Materials and Methods: This study was a cross sectional study involving 378 participants in Igboora, Ibarapa Central Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria. The research project was carried out in 3 phases that investigated the prevalence of dental caries, developmental defects of enamel and dental fluorosis and also the relationship between them among nine-year olds in Igbo-ora, Oyo State.
In Phase 1, dental examination for the presence of dental caries, DDE and dental fluorosis using the dmft/DMFT indices, modified DDE index and Deanʼs indices respectively was undertaken for 378 nine-year-olds. In Phase 2, 152 semi-structured questionnaire was administered to parent/guardian in order to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy history, delivery history, childhood illnesses, dietary practices and tooth cleaning. In Phase 3, a well labelled universal bottle comprising the identification number was used to collect a sample of drinking water from 378 participants who will be later assessed for fluoride concentration. Frequencies and means were generated. Chi square test was used to test the associations between categorical variables at (p<0.05) and continuous variables respectively.
Result: The prevalence of dental caries, DDE and dental fluorosis were 3%, 41% and 40% respectively. There was no relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis among our study participants (p=0.716), there was no relationship between dental caries and DDE (p=0.642) but we found a relationship between DDE and dental fluorosis (p<0.05). Fluoride toothpaste use, gender, exclusive breastfeeding and infant/childhood diseases were not statistically significant predictors of DDE and dental fluorosis.
Conclusion: Enamel formation is a process that is susceptible to many biological influences. This study confirms a common hypothesis which states that in population where the prevalence of dental fluorosis is high, the prevalence of dental caries is low.
Mansoura University, Egypt
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) on the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients, to evaluate the efficiency of OPG as a biomarker and to determine the effect of phase l therapy on the level of OPG in GCF.
Methods: Thirty subjects were included in the study; ten subjects as healthy control, ten patients with chronic gingivitis and ten patients with chronic periodontitis. Full-mouth clinical periodontal parameters including periodontal probing depth, plaque index, gingival index and papillary bleeding index were recorded at baseline in all groups and after treatment in both study groups. GCF sample was collected at baseline and four, six and eight weeks after therapy for study groups and at baseline for the control group. GCF level of OPG was measured using assay ELISA kits and data were statistically analyzed using SPSS.
Results: A significant reduction in all clinical parameters (GI, PI, PPD, PBI and CAL) after phase I periodontal therapy in chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis groups. At the baseline, the level of OPG in GCF was significantly lower in chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients than in healthy subjects. After a phase I periodontal therapy, there was an increase in GCF-OPG level in chronic gingivitis patients and chronic periodontitis patients was found versus its level at baseline.
Conclusions: Level of OPG in GCF could be considered as novel biomarker in chronic periodontitis, also it was negatively correlated with the progression of periodontal disease.
Fatma Mostafa holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Oral and Dental Surgery from the University of Mansoura, Egypt. For more than 10 years and in two different countries, her experience spans various areas of the modern dental practices including, digital radiology, cosmetic dentistry, small surgeries and conservative dentistry. During a five yearsʼ work experience in Saudi Arabia, Ms. Mostafa was the medical manager for a distinguished private dental center. Also, Ms. Fatma is a mother of two beautiful children who became her source of energy to always advances herself forward.
New York University College of Dentistry, USA
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine radiation exposure utilizing the Kodak 9000 CBCT machine with a small field of view for endodontic procedures. Previous studies have not been done to measure exposures taken with and without leaded glasses and thyroid shielding during such procedures.
Methods: Anthropomorphic phantoms corresponding to a 30 year old female and a 10-year-old male were used for all exposures. CBCT scans were taken using the Kodak 9000 CB CT at the preset endodontic settings and the field of view for maxillary anterior #6 and maxillary molar #14 regions. The images were performed with and without leaded glasses and a thyroid shield for the female. Dosimetry was performed using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. The effective radiation dose was calculated for the organs of the head and neck. Organ fractions irradiated were determined using ICRP-89 standards. Overall effective doses were calculated in micro-Sieverts and were based on the ICRP-103 tissue weighting factors.
Results: The effective doses measured with the CBCT for the adult female were 12.3 micro-Sieverts for tooth #6, 10.4 micro-Sieverts for #14 and 13.1 micro-Sieverts for #14 with thyroid collar and leaded glasses. The effective doses measured for the 10 year old pediatric patient were 17.8 micro-Sieverts for tooth #6 and 2.9 micro-Sieverts for tooth #14.
Conclusion: The effective dosages measured, are low enough to be considered an alternative or supplement to traditional 2-D imaging. This study confirms that small field of view CBCT imaging is an effective method to obtain additional useful information following ALARA principles.
1Faculty of Dentistry andalas University, Indonesia
2Baiturrahmah University, Indonesia
3Faculty of Dentistry andalas University, Indonesia
4Faculty of Medicine andalas University, Indonesia
5Faculty of Dentistry andalas University, Indonesia
6Center of Constitutional Studies (PUSaKO) Law School andalas University, Indonesia
Background: This paper discusses palatal rugae patterns and their contribution in the identification of individuals and the determination of family lineage in West Sumatera, Indonesia. Identifying an individualʼs a prerequisite for the issuance of death certificate as well as for personal, social and legal reasons. The most common techniques used in this context are dental records, fingerprint and DNA comparisons. However, under certain circumstances, these cannot always be used. But interestingly, palatal rugae patterns are preservable because they are impervious to disasters and hostile conditions and can be used as alternative human identification techniques. This paper argues that the study of palatal rugae (rugoscopy) cannot only help to reveal a personʼs identity but also to determine their family lineage.
Objective: The present study was carried out to ascertain whether there are any hereditary patterns in the palatal rugae patterns of the mother, father and the offspring in one family.
Method: This is a cross sectional study of 48 samples consisting of 12 families in Luhak Nan Tigo. The parents and offspring (son or daughter) of each family were randomly selected. Palatal rugae impression was recorded using alginate while palatal rugae patterns were noted and recorded. One Way ANOVA test (SPSS17) was used as statistical analysis method.
Result: The study shows that there is a significant similarity in curved, wavy and straight rugae patterns(p> 0.05) as well as in primary, secondary and fragmented rugae based on the family tie between the father, mother, sons and daughters of the Minangkabau ethnic. Unilateral and circular rugae tests are insignificant (p <0.05).
Conclusion: This is a cross sectional study whose results are only based on 48 samples consisting of 12 families, therefore further studies are needed with a larger sample quantity. The results of this study indicatethe role of factors in the patterns of palatal rugae.
Al-Azhr University, Egypt
Now a days, there is an increased tendency for researches to focus on accelerating methods for tooth movement due to the huge demand for adults for a shorter orthodontic treatment time.
Unfortunately, long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like higher predisposition to caries, gingival recession and root resorption.
A number of attempts have been made to create different approaches both pre clinically and clinically in order to achieve quicker results but still there are a lot of uncertainties and unanswered questions towards most of these techniques.
Most attempts can broadly be categorized into biological, physical, biomechanical and surgical approaches.
Due to the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, further investigations should be done to determine the best method to accelerate tooth movement.