King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Background: Halitosis is the unpleasant and offensive odour in exhaled air; that associated with the presence of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSC). Different methods including mouthwashes have been used to treat halitosis.
Objectives: to test and compare the effect of a mouthwash contained 0.05% chlorhexidine, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.14% zinc lactate (CHX-CPC-Zn) and antioxidant (AO) mouthwash on VSC.
Methodology: Thirty five (n=35) subjects with confirmed halitosis were recruited from College of Dentistry /King Saud University to participate in a single center, randomized, double blind, placebo- controlled, crossover clinical trial. At baseline visit a breath sample was taken and analyzed for the level of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and dimethyl sulphide (CH3SCH3) using portable gas chromatography(OralChroma™). Two mouthwashes were randomly provided to each subject in addition to saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) as negative control. Subjects were instructed to rinse with 20 ml of the mouthwash for 1 minute twice daily for 2 weeks. At the second visit, post-treatment breath sample was taken. Afterward, the patient was asked to refrain from using mouthwash for a washout period of 1 week. A similar procedure was repeated for each mouthwash interval.
Results: No significant differences in VSC level between all three groups were detected at baseline. A significant reduction in VSC level was noticed after using CHX-CPC-Zn mouthwash. On the other Hand, both AO mouthwash and saline, had no significant impact on VSC.
Conclusion: This study has shown that CHX-CPC-Zn mouthwash has a significant effect in VSC level reduction in subjects with confirmed halitosis. In addition, using antioxidant mouthwash regularly for 2 weeks did not have any impact in improving the level of halitosis.
Duaa Ali Alsaffar is a Graduate Student at Division of Periodontics, College of Dentistry/ King Saud University. Dr. Alsaffar completed her dental education at King Saud University and received Bachelor degree in Dental Surgery at 2006. She had her internship training for 12 months at King Fahad Military Medical Complex (KFMMC), Dhahranincluding: General Dentistry, Maxillofacial Surgery, Pedodontic, Periodontics and dental treatment under GA. She has been working at Armed Forces Hospital since January 2007. She is currently a Graduate Student in Master of Science Program in Periodontics (College of Dentistry/ King Saud University).
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Aim of the study: To compare the translucency of different thicknesses of different CAD/CAM ceramic materials (zirconia reinforced lithium silicate (Suprinity), Lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD), and hybrid ceramic (Enamic)) against different background colors.
Materials and Methods: 180 disks of three different materials: zirconia reinforced lithium silicate (Suprinity, VITAZahnfabrik, Bad Sackingen, Germany), Lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD, IvoclarVivadentAG, Schaan, Liechtenstein), and hybrid ceramic (Enamic, VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Sackingen, Germany) wereprepared. Each material was cut flat to five different thicknesses (0.4 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2 mm) 12 disks of each thickness.
A Spectrophotometer (Color-Eye 7000A Spectrophotometer, X-Rite, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA) was used to measure the translucency and color change of all thespecimens on different backgrounds (black, white, gray, A2 dentin, C4 dentin and metal).
The translucency was measured using a contrast ratio (CR) in which CR=Yb/Yw: thereflectance of light of the material on a black surface (Yb) to the reflectance on a white surface(Yw).
Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and Anova test.
Results: When comparing the translucency according to thicknesses, there was a statistically significant translucency difference between the 1mm, 1.5mm, and 2mm thicknesses (p value= 0.001). On the other hand, The translucency of the smaller thicknesses (0.4 mm and 0.5mm) did not have a statistical significance.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the more the thickness increases, the less the translucency. The differences between the materials become more apparent with the increase in thickness. In addition, When comparing the three types of materials, zirconia reinforced lithium silicate (Suprinity) appeared to have the highest translucency values.
University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers.
The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicansadheredto acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eightyacrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided intosix groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following theconventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups wereprocessed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in aconcentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubatedin artificial saliva rich with Candida albicansat 37 _C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicanswasevaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitativeassay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in theconcentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, betweencontrol group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statisticallysignificant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, whenthe concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling.
Candida albicansproliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties ofacrylic resin denture need further studies.
Amal Nawasrah a Jordanian lady living now in Saudi Arabia, working as prosthodontist in the University of Dammam as a lecturer since 2010. She is really very interested in teaching and in conducting research and eager to continue in this field. On more note, she got a patent in incorporation of henna powder to PMMA during processing, as antifungal agent to prevent denture stomatitis. The patent was accepted from United States Patent and Trademark Office, with the confirmation number 7326. And now she is starting studying the mechanical and physical properties.