1Stem cell laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, India
2Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, LV Prasad Eye Institute, India
Bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency is the disease caused by loss of limbal stem cells in both the eyes. The treatment for it includes transplanting the cultured cells from the allogenic donor which is having drawbacks of graft rejection and continuous use of antibiotics for long term. The other ways includes differentiation of the oral mucosal epithelial cells, induced pluripotent stem cells or Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) like adipose stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, and dental pulp stem cells into limbal stem cells. These all cells having disadvantage that cell yield depends on donor age and the procedure is invasive. Other choice of cells which are largely abundant and the procedure is noninvasive are human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hUC-MSC). The objective of the paper includes characterization of hUC-MSCs, checking their inherent property to differentiate into corneal/limbal epithelium and stimulating them to transdifferentiate into corneal/limbal epithelium. The hUC-MSCs were positive for MSC markers CD73, CD90, CD105, and vimentin. The cells are also expressing the Pax-6, Wnt7a, CK-8/18 but not CK-3/12 which is specific to corneal epithelium. After conditioned media treatment the hUC-MSCs are changed their morphology and also expressed corneal epithelial specific marker CK-3. The hUC-MSCs inherently possess few characteristics of corneal epithelial cells and by using conditioned media we can transdifferentiate them into corneal epithelial cells in vitro.
Santhosh Kacham (Reg No.714046) doing his Ph.D in National institute of Technology (NIT), Warangal under the guidance of Associate Professor Dr. P. Sreenivasa Rao. His research is on labeling the limbal stem cells and exploring the human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a cell source for the treatment of bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. He had 3 international publications (1 review article and 2 research articles). He had cleared national level exams Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) during my graduation.
Psychiatric Hospital of Havana, Cuba
There is increasing evidences that favor the prenatal beginning of schizophrenia. These evidences point toward intra-uterine environmental factors that act specifically during the second pregnancy trimester producing a direct damage of the brain of the fetus . The current available technology doesnʼt allow observing what is happening at cellular level since the human brain is not exposed to a direct analysis in that stage of the life in subjects at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Methods. In 1977 we began a direct electron microscopic research of the brain of fetuses at high risk from schizophrenic mothers in order to finding differences at cellular level in relation to controls.
Results: In these studies we have observed within the nuclei of neurons the presence of complete and incomplete viral particles that reacted in positive form with antibodies to herpes simplex hominis type I [HSV1] virus, and mitochondria alterations .
Conclusion: The importance of these findings can have practical applications in the prevention of the illness keeping in mind its direct relation to the aetiology and physiopathology of schizophrenia. A study of the gametes or the amniotic fluid cells in women at risk of having a schizophrenic offspring is considered. Of being observed the same alterations that those observed previously in the cells of the brain of the studied foetuses, it would intend to these women in risk of having a schizophrenia descendant, previous information of the results, the voluntary medical interruption of the pregnancy or an early anti HSV1 viral treatment as preventive measure of the later development of the illness.
Segundo Mesa Castillo. As Specialist in Neurology, he worked for 10 years in the Institute of Neurology of Havana, Cuba. He has worked in Electron Microscopic Studies on Schizophrenia for 32 years. He was awarded with the International Price of the Stanley Foundation Award Program and for the Professional Committee to work as a fellowship position in the Laboratory of the Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke under Dr. Joseph Gibbs for a period of 6 months, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, Washington D.C. USA, June 5, 1990. At present he is member of the Scientific Board of the Psychiatric Hospital of Havana and give lectures to residents in psychiatry.
Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), INDIA
Review literatures indicated two broad-types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) and Adult Stem Cells (ASCs) with main differences between them as follows:
1. ESCs are derived from inner cell mass of blastocyst and three germ-layers of embryo while ASCs are localized amongst differentiated cells in adult body like skeletal muscle, liver, brain, dental-pulp, skin, bone-marrow etc.
2. ESCs as pleuripotent have potential of differentiation into various cell-types whereas ASCs as multipotent cannot be differentiated into any kind of a specialised cell.
3. Embryonic Stem Cell Based Therapies (EBTs) are insecure, more prone to develop cancerous cells and with less advantage compared to Adult Stem Cell Based Therapies (ABTs).
4. ESCs use in research and therapy is controversial as derived from 5-days old embryos generated by In Vitro Fertility (IVF) clinics while use of ASCs is uncontroversial.
5. ESCs are used to treat blood & lymphatic related genetic-diseases, cancers disorders, juvenile-diabetes, Parkinsonʼs, blindness and spinal-cord injuries while ASCs have potential to increase healing/regenerating entire organ from few cells.
Conclusion: ASCs are frequently used in medical-therapies like bone-marrow transplantation. Stem cells can be artificially grown and transformed/differentiated into specialized cell-types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues like muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous ESCs generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies. Stem cells may form tumors after transplantation, especially pleuripotent ESCs are linked to tumor formation; sometimes it is with fetal stem cells despite their multipotency.
Dr D K Sharma was born on 16th June 1956 and has done his education in Ravishankar University, Raipur, India. At present he is a Professor and head of the Department of Anatomy AIIMS, Raipur. As founder Faculty-member and Head Department of Anatomy he established Department and its major constituents Dissection-Hall, Microanatomy-Lab and Museum for UG/PG teaching and research-activities.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Cell, Developmental, and Regenerative Biology, USA
Epithelial and neuroepithelial cells are polarized with respect to the body/organ axis. This feature is widespread in all animals, ranging from insects to humans, and also critical for asymmetric stem cell divisions. The difference between epithelial tissue (such as the disc-epithelia in Drosophila) and cells in tissue culture is that, in addition to apical-basolateral polarity, epithelial tissues develop an obvious polarity with respect to the body axes, called planar cell polarity, or PCP for short. The core PCP pathway is a Wnt-Frizzled pathway that regulates cytoskeletal elements via Dishevelled (Dsh) and Rho-family GTPases, from Drosophila to human tissues. PCP mutations result in loss of cellular orientation and cell polarity. This is easiest and best studied in Drosophila, in wings, thorax and abdomen, and in compound eyes. The underlying Wnt-signaling pathway(s), Wnt-PCP and canonical Wny-sisgnaling are conserved and regulate related developmental and stem cell aspects of coordinated cellular polarization in mammals. My lab focuses on the regulation of the Wnt-pathway regulation. Recent work utilizes patient derived data from neural tube closure defects (a mammalian PCP regulated feature) that inform our functional and mechanistic studies with the Vang/Vangl genes of the PCP pathway. In parallel we have completed genome wide screens with focus on cilia associated factors, and have identified functions of several cilia associated protein complexes in a non-ciliated contexts, which can affect Wnt signaling, in the Wnt-PCP pathway or canonical Wnt/b-catenin signaling. Our recent mechanistic insights into these cilia complex functions in the Wnt-pathways will be discussed.
Marek Mlodzik was born in Prague, Czech Republic. He completed his Undergraduate and PhD studies at the Biozentrum, University in Basel. Switzerland in Cell Biology and Genetics; subsequent postdoctoral training at the University of California, Berkeley USA, in the Dept of Biology. 1991-2000 Faculty/group leader appointment at the EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany, in the Developmental Biology Program. Since 2000 at the Icahn School of Medicine in New York as Professor in Cell, Developmental and Regenerative Biology; Chair of the department since 2007, with secondary appointments in Oncologoical Sciences and Ophthalmology.