Madridge Journal of Cancer Study & Research

ISSN: 2640-5180

4th International Cancer Study & Bacteriology Conference

April 3-4, 2019, Philadelphia, USA
Scientific Session Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2640-5180.a4.002

Use of Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate Skin Lesions

Frederick H Silver1*, Michael Richard2 and Dominick Benedetto3

1Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, USA
2Neigel Center for Cosmetic and Laser Surgery, USA
3Center for Advanced Eye Care, USA

Vibrational optical coherence tomography (VOCT) is a new technique that combines the 3D imaging power of optical coherence tomography with sonic vibration to characterize the physical properties of tissues. This technique has been developed to perform “virtual biopsies” and make physical measurements on tissues non-invasively and non-destructively. It has been reported in the literature that cutaneous wound healing and the potential to metastasize are associated with changes in tissue stiffness. In this talk we present data illustrating how images and measurement of the resonant frequency of different skin lesions can help plan surgical interventions and assist the analysis of healing.

We have imaged and studied several types of skin lesions using VOCT to evaluate the 3D morphology, stiffness and margins of these structures. While images obtained with VOCT predominantly show the epidermis and collagenous dermal structures, the measurement of the tissue stiffness provides a mechanical picture of the components present. While cellular components present in skin have resonant frequencies in the range of 30 to 40 Hz, normal collagen and elastic tissue have resonant frequencies in the range of 90 to 100 Hz. In comparison, fibrotic collagen is shown to have higher resonant frequencies above 200 Hz.

The components of skin and skin lesions can be characterized non-invasively and non-destructively using VOCT. Using this technique, images of tissues and lesions can be overlaid with a map of the tissue stiffness. A calibration curve for skin component properties can be used to evaluate tissue pathology. The ratio of the resonant frequency and the tissue thickness obtained from VOCT can be used to grade the type of tissue response seen. Further studies are underway to establish the relationship between tissue stiffness and lesion morphology for cellular and fibrotic lesions based on the characteristic ratios of resonant frequency and tissue thickness.

Dr. Frederick H Silver is a Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at RWJMS, Rutgers University. He did his Ph.D. in Polymer Science and Engineering at M.I.T. with Dr. IoannisYannas, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in Developmental Medicine at Mass General Hospital with Dr. Robert L. Trelstad, a connective tissue pathologist. He has published over 200 research papers and book chapters and is co-inventor on over 20 patents. His research interests include wound healing, mechanobiology, implant pathology and artificial implantable materials.

Predicting the Course of Cancer by Medical and Psychological Indicators

Shulamith Kreitler

Tel Aviv University, Israel

Two studies are briefly reported. The objective of both was to predict the course of disease in cancer patients. The first study was devoted to examining the predictive power of the psychological factors. The second study was devoted to checking the joint predictive power of medical and psychological factors. The psychological predictors were scores in a specially constructed questionnaire assessing the motivation for survival on the basis of the Cognitive Orientation approach. This Cognitive Orientation Questionnaire of Survival provided scores on four types of beliefs (about oneself, about reality and others, about rules and norms and about goals and wishes) in regard to items presenting themes that had been identified as related to survival, such as acceptance of uncertainty, compromising in regard to perfectionism and readiness to get help. In study 1 the number of participants was 166 (melanoma, breast, colorectal). Their survival was assessed four years after initial diagnosis, on the basis of the psychological factors. The scores of the survival questionnaire provided good prediction of survival after 4 years in 78.9% of the cases. In the second study the predictive power of both medical and the psychological factors was assessed. The major hypothesis was that both the medical and psychological factors would contribute to predicting survival. The medical factors were the standard ones used in medicine for the specific disease. The psychological ones were the survival scores of the questionnaire. The number of participants was 89. They were followed for 12 years. Both kinds of predictors contributed significantly to the prediction jointly, with the medical ones being more important in the first five years and the psychological ones gaining in importance in later years.

Dr. Shulamith Kreitler has graduated in psychology and psychiatry at Bern University, Switzerland. She has been a full professor of psychology at Tel Aviv University since 1986, has worked at the universities of Princeton, Harvard, Yale University, Vienna and Buenos Aires. She is a certified clinical psychologist and health psychologist. She has established the psychooncology unit (Ichilov) and the Center for Psychooncology Research (Sheba Medical Center). She has developed a new approach to meaning, to predicting and changing behavior and identifying psychological risk factors for cancer. She has published over 200 articles and 18 scientific books and is preparing a book about psychooncology (Springer).

Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Antioxidants in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

George G Chen*, Sangsang Wang, Lingbin Xue, Dahau Fan, Mingyue Li, Alexander C Vlantis, Jason Chan, Siu Kwan Ng, Shirley YW Liu, Enders KW Ng, C Andrew van Hasselt and Michael CF Tong

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, China

The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is dominant in female, suggesting a role of sex hormones in its development. Increasing data have shown that estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) has a positive role in the growth/progression of PTC. Antioxidants are a buffering system to control the activity/level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the role of which is debatable in PTC. The relationship between ERa and ROS remains elusive in PTC. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of ERa was increased in PTC tissue samples, compared with non-tumor thyroid tissues and that estrogen (E2) treatment could significantly stimulate the expression of ERa. We demonstrated that E2-mediated ERa elevation accompanied the upregulation of intracellular ROS measured by the oxidation-sensitive probe DCFH-DA. Furthermore, we found that the level of antioxidants including manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) were increased in PTC tissue samples. In cell cultures, PTC cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a well-known source of ROS, markedly upregulated the levels of antioxidants. Since antioxidants functions to control the levels of ROS, thus our findings suggest that the upregulation of antioxidants is likely a defensive deployment against the surge of ROS.

Conclusion and Significance:

PTC is associated with ERa upregulation as well as the increase of ROS. The upregulation of ERa can trigger the production of ROS, which is balanced by antioxidants to maintain the survival and growth of PTC. (This study was supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: 14109716).

Dr. George G Chen is a professor in the Department of Surgery, Director of Surgical Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, China. He has extensive experience in cancer research. He has authored or co-authored more than 220 papers and has written a number of books or book chapters, with Web of Science Core Collection h-index: 33 and Google Scholar h-index: 41.

Tumor Microenvironment Modulation Enhances Tumor Response to Chemo- and Radio-Therapy using Lonidamine in Cancers

Kavindra Nath1*, David S Nelson1, Jerry D Glickson1, Ian A Blair1 and Dennis B Leeper2

1University of Pennsylvania, USA
2Thomas Jefferson University, USA

We seek to employ the natural tendency of cancers to convert glucose to lactate as a method for selective intracellular acidification of the tumor, which has been reported to potentiate tumor response to platinum alkylating agents, N-mustards and anthracyclines as well as hyperthermia, radiation therapy and photodynamic therapy; it may also enhance tumor uptake of targeted therapeutics. As a consequence of high levels of aerobic glycolysis, tumors exhibit an acidic extracellular pH (pHe) and a neutral to alkaline intracellular pH (pHi) leading to an acid-outside/neutral to mildly alkaline inside plasmalemmal pH gradient. This gradient also impacts tumor response to certain chemotherapeutic modalities. Manipulation of pHe and/or pHi of tumors have considerable impact on tumor growth and metastasis as well as response to therapy. Extracellular tumor acidification has been modified by administering sodium bicarbonate in order to increase the pHe and thereby reduce tumor invasiveness and facilitate uptake of weakly basic chemotherapeutic drugs. In contrast, our aim was to decrease the pHi in order to increase the intracellular activity of chemotherapeutic agents. We accomplished this by administering lonidamine (LND, 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), an inhibitor of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT), mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and complex II of electron transport chain that blocks cellular export of lactic acid and also inhibits transport of pyruvate into mitochondria, thereby inhibiting tumor energy production. LND sensitizes tumors to radiation therapy by increased tumor oxygenation and decreased ATP levels and decreased levels of glutathione. Other MCT inhibitors such as AZD3965 manufactured by AstraZeneca, alone or in combination with complex I inhibitors (metformin, phenformin) may exhibit similar properties to LND in modifying tumor pHi and bioenergetics. These agents may therefore, play an important role in modifying the tumor microenvironment to make more susceptible to certain classes of chemotherapeutic agents and to radiation therapy.

Dr. Kavindra Nath is a Research Assistant Professor of Radiology at the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine. He did Ph.D. in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy (MRI/MRS) from a premier medical institute in India. In Ph.D. he studied the role of MRI/MRS techniques in the differential diagnosis of cystic intracranial mass lesions in patients. His current research at the University of Pennsylvania in Department of Radiology is to utilize multi-nuclear (1H, 31P, 13C) MRS in vitro and in vivo and other techniques such as mass spectrometry in order to delineate the mode of action of lonidamine and various other metabolic modulators, which distinguishes normal cells from malignant cells and potentiates the activities of various chemotherapeutic drugs, radiation therapy and hyperthermia in a variety of human cancers. He has published 36 peer reviewed research papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of many reputed journals. He has delivered many invited talks at various conferences and institutions.

Prevalence and Determinants of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), among Women Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Mumbai, India

Sharmila A Pimple* and Gauravi Mishra

Tata Memorial Hospital, India

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunosuppression predisposes co-infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). India shares 25% of global burden of cervical cancer and a large burden of HIV-infected women with good longevity due to improved access to antiretroviral therapy. The current study estimates the prevalence of HPV and the risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) among HIV positive women in Mumbai, India.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was undertaken for 291 HIV positive women attending cervical cancer screening services in a tertiary centre in Mumbai. All underwent simultaneous screening with Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), Pap cytology and HPV DNA testing followed by colposcopy and histopathology. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors for HPV infection and CIN.

Results: Screen positivity rate for cervical cancer screening by VIA, Pap cytology and high-risk HPV DNA was 36.1%, 5.8% and 32.3% respectively. Histopathology confirmed prevalence of 7.6% CIN II and above lesions in HIV positive women. Women over 35 years [p=0.045], unemployed housewives [p=0.003], multiple pregnancies [p=0.023] and young age at marriage [p= 0.017] were more likely to have HPV infection. Again single or separated women [p=0.009] and young age at marriage [p=0.010] were found to be independent predictors for prevalence of any grade of CIN lesion.

Conclusions: The prevalence of HPV infection and CIN are significantly higher in the HIV-positive women in Mumbai, India. There is urgent need to integrate and provide cervical cancer screening within STD/HIV testing and counselling centers which is currently nonexistent within the country.

Dr. Sharmila A Pimple, M.D, is Professor in the Department of Preventive Oncology at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. Dr. Pimple did her medical schooling and post graduation in Community Medicine at Grant Medical College, Mumbai University and leads the WHO Collaborating Centre for Cancer Prevention, Screening & Early Detection, WHO CC IND-59 [SEARO]. Dr. Pimple has successfully undertaken numerous research projects and International collaborative research trials in the capacity of Principal Investigator for evaluating various low cost technologies for cervical and oral cancer screening, including HPV Vaccine trials. She has played a prominent role in Capacity building, planning and implementing Tobacco Control and Tobacco cessation interventions in Hospital and workplace settings including National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) and Oral Health Program (ORHP) of Government of India.
Dr. Pimple has contributed on the Technical Working and Advisory Group for the Development of evidence based Standard Protocols for Screening of Breast, Cervical and Oral Cancers in India, has publications in National and International Journals to her credit.

20 years Experience of Pharyngolaryngectomy and Gastric Pull-up for Postcricoid Carcinoma

Alaa Eldin Elfeky

Delta Society of ORL & Zagazig University, Egypt

Patients with advanced cancer of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus have a very poor prognosis. Survival of these patients is approximately 50% at 1 year and 20-30% at 5 years. Reconstruction of a defect after resection of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus remains one of the greatest challenges to the head and neck surgeon, the most common reconstruction options are: Gastric pull-up, jejunal free flap, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap.

The aim of our work is to evaluate the results of 20 years of hypopharyngeal reconstruction with gastric pull-up for postcricoid carcinoma in our institution. Between July 1996 and June 2015, 104 patients underwent total pharyngolaryngectomy with gastric pull-up for hypopharyngeal reconstruction in our institution. Most patients had locally advanced tumors of the hypopharynx (n=80) with the remainder having cervical esophageal carcinoma (n=24). Patientʼs records were reviewed including location and stage of the primary tumor, gross and pathological surgical resection margins, operative complications and mortality.

Functional results especially the ability to resume oral intake, were determined and 3 years follow-up was complete for all patients. Postoperative complications were anastomotic leaks (9.6%), dysphagia (8.7%), pulmonary complications (26.9%), cardiovascular complications (10.6%), sepsis (2.9%), perioperative mortality (3.8%), tumor recurrence (17.3%) and distant metastasis (4.8%). The 3 year-survivals were (73.1%).

Results will be discussed and demonstrated by photos and videos.

Dr. Alaa Eldin Elfeky is a professor of Otorhinolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, faculty of medicine, Zagazig University. He is also the president of Delta Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Egypt & an International Member of American Academy of ORL-HNS, founder and senior of Cochlear Implant Unit, Zagazig University. He is also the founder and senior for Head & Neck Surgery Unit, Zagazig University.

Phenomenon of Bacterial f Pathogenicity as a Function of Bio-Molecules

Yurii V Ezepchuk

University of Colorado, USA

The bacterial pathogenicity phenomenon is the poly-functional biological potency of germs that are realized by factors (determinants) of pathogenicity (PF).

Biological functions are responsible for bacterial pathogenicity in a multi-cellular host organism: The adhesive function, the function of invasion and penetration into the cell, the function of evasion of host defense and the damage function. Factors of pathogenicity are representative bio-molecules possessed different functional activity. The ligand-receptor interaction of bacterial PF and receptors on eukaryotic cells is the basis of specific lesions caused by the pathogen.

Dr. Yurii V Ezepchuk has Ph.D., Dr. Biol. Sciences and the title Professor in Biochemistry. He graduated from Moscow State Universityʼs Department of Biology, where he majored in microbiology. For more than 30 years he worked in Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the Gamaleya Research Institute, where he founded the Laboratory of the Molecular Basses of Bacterial Pathogenicity, specializing in the study of the model of enzymes, toxins, antigens, produced by variety pathogens. He developed the biological concept of the phenomenon of bacterial pathogenicityl. In 1993 he was subsequently invited by the US government to conduct research projects and worked at the National Jewish Medical and Research Center in Denver and the Biomedical Center of the University of Colorado.

Elimination of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Livestock Feces during Manure Processing

Katsuji Watanabe1* and Akihiro Tanaka2

1Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Japan
2National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Japan

Antibiotic resistant bacteria in livestock feces will become a cause of community acquired infection, if organic manure originated from livestock feces were applied to fields without elimination of resistant bacteria. As the fecal bacterial flora in the feces changes into non-fecal flora during manure processing, antibiotic resistant bacteria in livestock feces can be eliminated by this process. In order to search the way to eliminate the resistant bacteria effectively, changes of multidrug resistant bacterial flora in livestock feces were monitored by identifications using MERFLP after cultivation of diluted samples in LB medium under antibiotics (streptomycin 25 mgl-1, chloramphenicol 25 mgl-1 and ampicillin 25 mgl-1) and quantifications using MPN. Total numbers of multidrug resistant bacteria in cattle feces (3.5x107MPN/g and 5.9x106MPN/g), which included γproteobacteria and Firmicutes as numerically dominant one and Chlamydia psittaci, Chlomydophila pneumonia and Leptotrichia buccalis as typical fecal one, decreased to undetectable level after thermophilic phase (4 weeks). Total numbers of multidrug resistant bacteria in pig feces (from 3.1x104MPN to 3.6x105MPN/g), which included Mycoplasma capricolum, Campylobacter jejuni and Prevotella intermedia as typical fecal one, did not decrease after thermophilic phase (from 2.7x105 MPN to >6.5x105 MPN/g), but decreased (from undetectable to 5.0x104MPN/g) after maturing process (3 Months). Decrease in water content of starting materials (54.5%-69.3%) after maturing process (24.0%-41.8%) might cause a decrease in resistant bacterial number. Although total bacterial numbers after maturing process remained as same as those in these feces, fecal flora of total bacteria in these feces changed to non-fecal flora after maturing process.

Dr. Katsuji Watanabe is a Ph. D; Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Japan (April/1986). A Postdoctoral researcher (October/1986-March/1987) He was a researcher(April/1987-March/1991); Senior Researcher (April/1991-March/2010) from National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Japan. Later he became the Visiting researcher (OECD co-operative research programme) at Institut für Boden Biology, FAL, Germany (December/1994-May/1995). He also worked as a Visiting researcher (OECD co-operative research programme) at Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, USA (December/2000-May/2001). And a Visiting professor from Faculty of Agriculture, Tokai University, Japan (April/2006-March/2010) And is presently Professor; Department of Life, Environment and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Japan.

Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis as a Therapeutic Strategy for Colorectal Cancer

Kate Zaytseva

University of Kentucky, USA

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Activation of de novo lipogenesis and overexpression of lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FASN) in cancer cells correlates with a poorer prognosis in CRC.

Our studies demonstrate that an increased expression of FASN is associated with increased CRC stage. We are the first to show the importance of FASN upregulation in the development of CRC metastasis and demonstrate that shRNA-mediated inhibition of FASN significantly reduces lung and hepatic metastases in nude mice and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic CRC mouse model. Our recent studies, using primary CRC cells and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, show that FASN overexpression promotes CRC metastasis via an increase in sphingolipid metabolism. Moreover, overexpression of FASN promotes a metabolic switch that fuels bioenergetic pathways to enhance cancer cell survival and support metastasis, particularly under energy stress conditions. We show that even in the presence of exogenous fatty acids, CRC cells preferentially oxidize endogenous fatty acids synthesized by FASN, thus providing further evidence of the crucial role of de novo lipid synthesis in CRC progression.

Utilizing novel FASN inhibitors in PDX models, our ongoing studies of correlation between mutation and metabolic profiles of tumors and tumor response to FASN inhibition aim to identify a subset of CRC patients that are likely to respond to FASN-targeted therapy. Further understanding of genetic and metabolic characteristics of tumors susceptible to FASN inhibition may enable patient selection and personalized medicine approaches in CRC.

Dr. Zaytseva completed a bachelorʼs degree at Rostov-on-Don State University in Russia with a major in biology and a minor in chemistry. In 2005 she was accepted to the Integrated Biomedical Science Graduate Program at the University of Kentucky. After obtaining her PhD in Biomedical Pharmacology in 2010 she joined Dr. Mark Eversʼ group as a post-doctoral scholar at the Markey Cancer Center. Dr. Zaytseva was awarded the NCI K22 career development grant and currently is an Assistant professor (tenure track) in the Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology at the University of Kentucky.

Effect of Opuntia joconostle Fraction Rich in Flavonoids on Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Cells A549

Rafael Silva Torres*, Eva Ramón Gallegos, Alfonso Antonio Sequeda Júarez and Reyna Elizabeth Rivero Rosas

National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico

There is great diversity of flora and fauna species in Mexico that remain to be studied. One example is Opuntia joconostle. An ethanolic extract from its fruit was prepared and its chemical composition showed several secondary metabolites. In addition since cancer is a disease with high incidence rate and mortality. Therefore there is great interest in developing new treatments for chemeotheraphy or chemoprotector, based in mexican plants.

Lung cáncer represents the third leading cause of death in Mexico and the leading cause of death in the world. According to the above, there is currently an increasing number of results in basic research that used compounds of plant origin and that have been proposed in alternative therapies, these are oriented towards chemoprevention of cancer.

A probable antitumor effect of the fruit of Opuntia joconostle (locally named xoconostle), is currently being conducted in our lab, using A549 cells in vitro model. The ethanolic extract from the fruit was further chromatographed on a dry silica gel columna. The fraction were obtained using 80-20 % metanol-acetone and numbers 4-8 tested positive for flavonois. The fractions were chemically and biological tested for their contect. The fraction was tested for treatments to the A549 cells in vitro and the cytotoxic effect was observed. The fraction showed cytotoxic effect in 99.9%.

Dr. Rafael Silva Torres has completed his PhD from Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas of National Polytechnic Institute an abroad studies M. Phil.; from Loughborough University of Technology Great Britain and sabbatical year from Musseum National Natural History Paris France. He has published more than 17 papers in reputed journals and 4 book chapters and has been serving as editorial board member of reputed journals. He has been director of more than 50 Bsc. tesis and participaded in more than 150 national and international congresses. He holds a membership of National Association of Pharmaceutical Sciences and American Chemical Society. He is investigating the properties antitumor of medicinal plants and fruits suchs as: Sedumpraealtum DC, Annonamuricata, Opuntia joconostle and Stenocereusgriseus H.

Polymorphism of Human Organic Cationic Transporter1 (C480G) in Egyptian Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients on Imatinib

Maha Mohamed Adel Elgammal*, Amal M Ghanem, Yasmen Samir, Nahla A M Hamed and Hashim Neanea

Alexandria University, Egypt

Background: Human organic cationic transporter1 (Hoct1) is a plasma membrane transporter responsible for the main influx of Imatinib into chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene coding for hOCT1 are important factors causing Imatinib resistance. We investigated the frequency of hOCT1 SNP C480G among Egyptian CML patients and its relation to early molecular response as an indicator of treatment outcome.

Materials and Methods: Two groups of CML patients were included in this study. Group I consisted of 25 patients responding to Imatinib treatment (Imatinib responsive) and group II consisted of 25 patients resistant to Imatinib (Imatinib resistant). Response criteria were assessed according to the NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network) guidelines 2017. Twenty healthy controls of matched age and sex were also included (group III). For all patients, we studied hOCT1 C480G at initial presentation using Taqman drug metabolism genotyping as well as BCR-ABL percent at diagnosis and after 3 months interval.

Results: hOCT1 C480G was present in 32% of studied CML patients. CC (wild) was detected in 68% of group I and 64% of group II. CG (mutant heterozygous) was present in 28% of group I and 36% of group II while GG (mutant homozygous) was detected in only one case in group I. CG was also detected in 15% of control subjects There was no significant difference between hOCT1 C480G polymorphism and Early Molecular Response (χ2 = 0.089, p = 0.765).

Conclusions: hOCT1 C480G polymorphism has no association with Imatinib resistance in Egyptian population. However, further studies on a larger number of patients are still needed to confirm this finding.

Dr. Maha Mohamed Adel Elgammal is presently Assistant professor of Hematology at Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt. Consultant of hematology in the Egyptian Health Insurance Highly interested in Hemato-oncology and she is also the Member of Egyptian association of hematology & BM transplantation, Egyptian association of blood diseases & Researches.

S.I.M.P.L.E. Permanent Hair Removal and its Application in the Predictable Elimination of Unwanted Hair Growth

Suzanne Anderer

Suzanne Anderer: Illinois School of Electrology, USA

The S.I.M.P.L.E. (Sequential, Inverted, Micro-Pulsed, Led, Energy) method is a unique, patented technology that employs alternating current (AC). S.I.M.P.L.E. is an acronym for the following formula: S is a sequential heating pattern; I is an inverted application, wherein each pulse point travels downwards to the base of the follicle; M is for micro, or the small heating patterns used in the method; P is for pulse, referencing the quick bursts of energy; L is for led, or the action of micro-pulses traveling downwards, contacting untreated tissue; and E is for energy, a term used to define electricity which has heat-producing effects.

I would like to expound on S.I.M.P.L.E. Permanent Hair Removalʼs needle-type application and usefulness in treating unwanted hair growth that may be caused by underlying health issues and cosmetic concerns. S.I.M.P.L.E. is a method with heat-producing properties and the distinct benefit of micro-pulse, or radio frequency (RF) contact throughout the ENTIRE dermis of each visible, hair-producing follicle. Hair is treated with one correct application of current. Typical variables such as texture of hair, stage of hair growth, endocrine disorders, drug-induced hair growth, as well as skin colour and type are both accounted for and treated effectively. This method is minimally invasive with shorter recovery periods and less damage to surrounding tissue.

Ms. Suzanne Anderer is a nationally-recognized expert in permanent hair removal. In 1982, Ms. Anderer founded Suzanne Anderer: Illinois School of Electrology (SA: ISE), an Illinois Board of Higher Education approved institution, which was in operation until 2016. In 1986, Suzanne became an AEA (American Electrology Association) Certified Professional Electrologist (CPE). Licensed since 2010, Suzanne has lectured in the field of electrology extensively. Lecture credits include annual AEA conferences and IGPE (International Guild of Professional Electrologists) conventions. Suzanne has presented on various electrology topics and on her specific method of S.I.M.P.L.E. Permanent Hair Removal across the USA.

Implications of HPV in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

Alaa Eldin Elfeky

Delta Society of ORL & Zagazig University, Egypt

HPV is a part of papova virus family which is known to infect epithelial tissues. HPV is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection. More than 150 types of HPV are currently known and approximately 120 types are fully sequenced. High-risk HPV 16 and 18 can be found in cancer cervix, penile carcinoma and oropharyngeal carcinoma.

Risk Factors: The greater number of sexual partners, the more likely patients have a genital HPV. When engaging in oral sex, this increase risk. Having sex with a partner who has had multiple sex partners increase the risk.

Transmission: HPV is passed on through skin to skin genital contact, most often during vaginal, anal and oral sex.

Treatment: There is no cure for the virus. Most of the time, HPV goes away by itself within two years and does not cause health problems. It is only when HPV stays in the body for many years, usually decades that it might cause oral cancers.

Vaccination: Two vaccines known as Gardasil and Cervarix protect against the strains of HPV that cause oropharyngeal cancers (HPV I6 and 18)

HPV in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma: In 2012, the International Agency of Research of Cancer (IARC) declared that there was sufficient evidence to associate a subtype of HPV 16 with oropharyngeal cancer. Approximately 20% of oral cancer and 60-80% of oropharyngeal cancer were thought to be attributable to HPV. HPV-positive oral cancers differ from HPV- negative oral cancers in their clinical response and overall survival rates.

Conclusion: The association of HPV and oropharyngeal carcinoma have been proved worldwide. HPV 16 is the most common subtype implicated in oropharyngeal carcinoma. Approximately 20% of oral cancer and 60-80% of oropharyngeal cancer were thought to be attributable to HPV.

Dr. Alaa Eldin Elfeky is a professor of Otorhinolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, faculty of medicine, Zagazig University. He is also the president of Delta Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Egypt & an International Member of American Academy of ORL-HNS, founder and senior of Cochlear Implant Unit, Zagazig University. He is also the founder and senior for Head & Neck Surgery Unit, Zagazig University.

Beta-Lactamase Producing Bacteria in Community and Hospital Setting in Riyadh: Occurrence and Susceptibility to Antibiotics

Lamiaa Abu Zaid1,2*, Najwa Al-Mously1 and Shazia Mukaddam3

1King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia
2Suez Canal University, Egypt
3Trinitas Hospital Group LCC, USA

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria (ESBL) pose an increasing challenge to both public health and hospital infection control services.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria, types of infection they cause and their susceptibility patterns to antibiotics in hospital and community settings. This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted at a Medical City in Riyadh. All clinical specimens with positive culture for gram-negative bacteria were collected from the microbiology laboratory for the year 2013. When bacteria are identified as ESBL strain, the antimicrobial susceptibility is analyzed. Demographic data were collected from patientsʼ records. Overall, 763/6993 (10.9%) were ESBL producing strains. The highest detection of ESBL bacteria were from specimens of patients over sixty years (34.2%) and 23.7% were from 0-<15-year-old. The most frequently detected bacteria was E. coli (76.5%) with highest detection from urine, skin swab, blood, wound and ulcer specimens, followed by K. pneumonia (23.1%) with highest detection from respiratory specimens including sputum. The resistance pattern to antimicrobials was (75.5%, 81.3%) totrimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, (69.7%, 42.6%) to ciprofloxacin, (38.9%, 58.5%) to gentamicin and (8.7%, 30.7) topiperacillin/tazobactam (E. coli, K. pneumonia respectively). However, very high sensitivity to imipenem and meropenem was reported for both bacteria. Generally, ESBL bacteria isolated from outpatients showed significantly higher resistance to ciprofloxacin than the isolates from inpatients (p=0.02), conversely is detected with piperacillin/tazobactam (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: Currently, carbapenems and amikacinare the first line antibiotics that can be used for the treatment of ESBL bacterial infections in both settings periodical monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated ESBL bacteria should be considered.

Dr. Lamiaa Abu Zaid is currently working as an assistant professor of Public Health & Preventive Medicine in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. She earned her MBBS from Suez Canal University, Egypt and her PhD in Public Health from the same university. She has many publications in National and International Journals and was invited as a speaker in a number of conferences. His research interests include Epidemiology of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases.

Undiagnosed Chilaiditi Syndrome Presenting with Pericarditis in a Patient with Congenital Anomalies

Mir Inzamam Ali1*, Basset El Essawy2 and Sasmith Menakuru3

1RAK College of Medical Sciences, UAE
2Brigham and Womenʼs Hospital /Harvard Medical School, USA
3Narayana Medical College and Hospital, India

A 19-year-old male patient presented to the emergency room with dyspnoea and severe retrosternal chest pain. The patientʼs medical history is significant for cerebral palsy with spastic tetraplegia. He layed in a semirecumbent position as pain was severe on lying down. The pain radiated to the back, neck and shoulder. Pain was associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and dysuria. On examination, he was breathless and lungs were clear to auscultation. On auscultating over the heart, pericardial rub was heard. Abdomen was tender on palpation and he did not defecate for 2 days. He had a history of recurrent pneumonia that needed frequent hospital admissions and currently receiving treatment as the last episode was 1 month ago. ECG showed widespread concave ST elevation and PR depression with reverse changes in a VR of ST depression and PR elevation with sinus tachycardia suggesting early stage of pericarditis. While examining the X-ray, the most remarkable finding was the presence of large intestine loops between the liver and diaphragm, which was previously undiagnosed. The chest X-ray finding in this case is in line with what is called ‘Chilaiditi signʼ. Chilaiditi syndrome is the anterior disposition of the colon near the anterior hemidiaphragm, which is associated with pain and is an extremely rare condition. A diagnostic feature of Chilaiditi syndrome is the presence of Chilaiditi sign as seen in the case, which occurs in only 0.1% of all X-rays taken

Dr. Mir Inzamam Ali is a final year medical student with multiple publications on PubMed and poster presentations internationally.

Isolation and Characterization of CronobacterSakazakiiin Powdered Infant Formularin the North Central States of Nigeria

Enem Simon Ikechukwu*, Okoli C E, Nafarnda W D, Godwin E E, Omeiza G K and Umeakuana P U

University of Abuja, Nigeria

Cronobactersakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen that has drawn attention to the scientific community in the last 50 years. Cronobacter spp. can cause illness in all age groups, but infants who are fed reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) are at higher risk. Immuno-compromised individuals are also gravely affected. The aim of the work was to establish the presence of C. cronobacter in PIF served to infants in North Central Nigeria. A total of 460 samples of powdered infant formula were collected from nursing mothers attending post natal hospital examination in the three of the North Central states of Nigeria (Nasarawa – 170; Abuja – 138; Kogi – 150). Two hundred and one (201) samples showed yellowish-white colouration when cultured in chromogenic Cronobacter broth. The samples were further sub-cultured onto a chromogenic Cronobactersakazakii agar procured from Oxoid, UK and 63 were positive exhibiting yellowish cultures typical of Cronobactersakazakii and were confirmed through biochemical tests. Further molecular characterization using specie specific PCR targeting ompA and cpa genes were carried out. Bands were observed for ompA gene on electrophoresis imager confirming the presence of C. sakazakii. The findings in this work established a new epidemiological evidence for the occurrence of C. sakazakii in PIF and this should be a strong indicator of potential risk to neonates. Adequate control measures should be introduced to reduce the risks of contamination.

Keywords: Isolation, Characterization, C. sakazakii, Powdered Infant Formular (PIF)

Dr. Enem Simon Ikechukwu is an Associate Professor of Veterinary Public Health at the Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine of the University of Abuja, Nigeria. He served as the Head of the Department, Exam officer and Postgraduate coordinator. He is currently on Sabbatical at the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. He has over 20 journal publications to his credit and has attended many conferences both locally and internationally. He has served as a reviewer to some journals. He has passion for research.