Queenʼs University, Canada
Conventional chemotherapies targeting tumor suffer from limitations such as poor aqueous solubility, causing elevated toxicity, lack of selectivity toward cancer cells and multiple drug resistance against treatments. This presentation will discuss the development of ‘smart’ drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer. Here, we engineered drug carrier systems with three delivery strategies that allow drug carriers to initiate the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects at tumor sites, actively and specifically targeting cancer cells with prolonged circulation time and controlled drug release and thirdly, stimuli-responsive drug carriers. Firstly, the metronomic therapy of a slow-released oseltamivir phosphate (OP) encapsulated in a biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-OP) cylinder implanted at the tumor site without the need for repeated drug administration impeded tumor neovascularization, growth and metastasis in heterotopic xenografts of tumors growing in a mouse model of human pancreatic cancer (Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2015:9 4573–4586). Secondly, OP-conjugated polymeric micelles prepared by RAFT living radical polymerization specifically targeted and halted tumor growth followed with the cancer cell internalization of the micelle loaded with a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic (Biomater. Sci., 2016, 4, 511). Thirdly, a pH-responsive, active targeting delivery system was designed using folic acid functionalized amphiphilic alternating copolymer poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (FA-DABA-SMA) via a biodegradable linker 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) (Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2016:10 4101–4110; Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 588). This latter study revealed that the novel interactions between the modified FA-DABA-SMA polymers with the cells could lead to enhanced hydrophobic drug delivery efficiency as a probe for cancer chemotherapeutics. Lastly, we fabricated and characterized Pickering water-in-oil emulsions as a reservoir delivery platform for the sustained release of low molecular weight hydrophilic therapeutic molecules disabling human pancreatic cancer cell survival (Oncotarget 2018, Vol. 9, (No. 16), pp: 12754-12768).
Dr. Szewczuk is Full Professor of Immunology and Medicine for over 38 years at Queenʼs University, Kingston, Ontario Canada. Dr. Szewczukʼs research has focused on the role of glycosylation in receptor activation with a particular focus of Toll-like, neurotrophin Trk, EGFR and insulin receptors. A novel receptor-signalling platform was discovered and its targeted translation in multistage tumorigenesis. He is now in the development of engineered drug delivery systems.
New York Medical College, USA
Using very sensitive electromagnetic field resonance phenomenon between 2 identical molecules as well 2 identical cancers for which author received US patent in 1993. Using this method, accurate organ representation area of the face, hand and rest of the body were obtained. In addition, author developed simple method of detecting cancer from rapidly changing QRS complex from ECG recordings and also developed one-page Mouth Hand and Foot Writing Form, from which almost any cancer can be detected without any knowledge about the patient. Using the form, we can also evaluate any therapeutic effect. During the past few years, our research indicated that individually determined optimal dose of Vitamin D3 has 10 unique beneficial effects. For example, in terminal cancer patients of pancreatic cancer with Integrin α5β1(which is increased in cancer) of over 2000ng with 8-OH-dG (which is proportional to DNA mutation and DNA mutation is required for cancer cell growth) of over 60-70ng. Integrin α5β1 can be reduced to 1-4Pg and the 8-OH-dG can be reduced to 0.1ng with excellent urinary excretion of viruses (increased HPV-16 & HHV-8 in cancer), bacteria etc. Our study also indicated that optimal dose of white fleshed Dragon Fruit contains near optimal dose of DHEA, zinc, magnesium and lithium etc; with similar anticancer effects as D3 but when both are given together anti-cancer effect become much stronger than each one of them alone. The amount of the Integrin α5β1 become anywhere between 0.1 to 0.01pg and 8-OH-dG becomes less than 0.1-0.01 ng. When these extreme low cancer parameters are obtained, application of additional selective drug uptake enhancement method by stimulation of the organ representation area of the pathological organ of hand plus manual stimulation of thymus gland at the back of each hand not only markedly increased anti-cancer effects, but also this very significant cancer inhibiting effects last much long-time duration and cannot detect regular cancer response. Thus, we were able to induce for the first time the possibility of complete inhibition of cancer for prolonged time.
Dr. Yoshiaki Omura received Oncological Residency training at Cancer Institute & Doctor of Science Degree on Pharmaco-Electro-Physiology of Single Cardiac Cells in-vivo and in-vitro from Columbia University. He researched sensitive EMF Resonance phenomenon between 2 identical molecules for non-invasive detection of various molecules & cancers, at Graduate Physics Dept., Columbia University, for which he received U.S. Patent. He published over 290 original research articles, many chapters & 9 books. He is currently Adjunct Prof. of Family & Community Medicine, New York Medical College President & Prof. of International College of Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics, NY; Editor of few journals. He was Director of Medical Research Heart Disease Research Foundation and also Adjunct Prof. or Visiting Prof. in Universities in USA, France, Italy, Ukraine, Japan, Korea & China.
Tel Aviv University, Israel
The talk will focus on the contributions of psychooncology to the study and treatment of cancer. The major themes will be the role and contributions of psychooncology in medical cancer research and treatment. Special emphasis will be placed on discussing psychological risk factors in the occurrence of cancer, the cancer-prone personality, the impact of coping with cancer by the patients, of the interrelations between the patient and the health professionals, of provision of information and support to the patient and the family. The last part of the talk will be devoted to the role of emotional reactions including despair, anxiety, fear of death and depression and the contributions of hope and enhancement of the meaningfulness of life.
Dr. Shulamith Kreitler has graduated in psychology and psychiatry at Bern University, Switzerland. She has been a full professor of psychology at Tel Aviv University since 1986, has worked at the universities of Princeton, Harvard, Yale University, Vienna and Buenos Aires. She is a certified clinical psychologist and health psychologist. She has established the psychooncology unit (Ichilov) and the Center for Psychooncology Research (Sheba Medical Center). She has developed a new approach to meaning, to predicting and changing behavior and identifying psychological risk factors for cancer. She has published over 200 articles and 18 scientific books and is preparing a book about psychooncology (Springer).
Queenʼs University, Canada
Insulin signaling, as mediated through the insulin receptor (IR), plays a critical role in metabolism. Aberrations in this signaling cascade lead to several pathologies, the majority of which are classified under the umbrella term “metabolic syndrome”. Although many of these pathologies are associated with insulin resistance, the exact mechanisms are not well understood. One area of current interest is the possibility of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) influencing or regulating IR signaling. This concept is particularly significant, because GPCRs have been shown to participate in crosstalk with the IR. More importantly, GPCR signaling has also been shown to preferentially regulate specific downstream signaling targets through GPCR agonist bias. This signaling complex suggests a molecular link regulating the interaction and signaling mechanism between these molecules on the cell surface. These findings uncover a biased GPCR agonist-induced IR transactivation signaling axis, mediated by Neu1 sialidase and the modification of insulin receptor glycosylation. Although GPCR-IR cross-talk has previously been established, the notion that GPCRs can regulate the activation of the IR is particularly significant in relation to metabolic syndrome and other pathologies that develop as a result of alterations in IR signaling. As such, an overview of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the IR within metabolic syndrome and its related pathologies will be presented. Furthermore, we propose that the GPCR-biased agonism may perhaps mediate some of the downstream signaling effects that further exacerbate these diseases for which the mechanisms are currently not well understood.
Dr. Myron R Szewczuk is Full Professor of Immunology and Medicine for over 38 years, Queenʼs University, Kingston, Ontario Canada. Dr. Szewczukʼs research has focused on the role of glycosylation in receptor activation with a particular focus of Toll-like, neurotrophin Trk, EGFR and insulin receptors. A novel receptor-signalling platform was discovered and its targeted translation in multistage tumorigenesis. He is now in the development of engineered drug delivery systems.
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, USA
Vibrational optical coherence tomography (VOCT) is a new technique that combines the imaging power of optical coherence tomography with the use of sound to characterize the physical properties of tissues. This technique has been developed to perform “virtual” biopsies and biomechanical measurements on normal and malignant tissues non-invasively and non-destructively. It has been previously reported that cutaneous wound healing and the development of malignant skin lesions are associated with changes in tissue stiffness. VOCT produces images of groups of cells as well as biomechanical information in three dimensions that can distinguish normal from pathological tissue. In addition, the biomechanical properties of the tissue margins can be characterized. The images and the biomechanical data from measurements made on different skin lesions and carcinomas together can help plan surgical interventions and monitorthe healing processof skin lesions. VOCT produces images of groups of cells as well as measurement of the tissue resonant frequency in three dimensions which assists in distinguishing normal from pathological tissue.
We have imaged and studied several types of skin lesions including a BCC, SCC Actinic Keratosis and a Nevi using VOCT to evaluate the morphology, stiffness, depth and margins of these structures. While cellular components present in skin and carcinomas have resonant frequencies in the range of 30 to 60 Hz, normal collagen has a resonant frequency in the range greater than 90 Hz. In comparison, fibrotic collagen is shown to have resonant frequencies above 150 Hz as does collagen from skin lesions.
It is concluded that the ratio of the resonant frequency squared to the tissue thickness obtained from VOCT can be used to grade the type of tissue response seen. Further studies are underway to establish the relationship between tissue stiffness and lesion morphology for cellular and fibrotic lesions based on the characteristic ratios of resonant frequency and tissue thickness. Enhanced OCT image of BCC (left) and histopathology of lesion stained with H&E (right). OCT Enhanced OCT image (left) and histopathology (right) of Actinic Keratosis.
Dr. Frederick H Silver is a Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at RWJMS, Rutgers University. He did his Ph.D. in Polymer Science and Engineering at M.I.T. with Dr. IoannisYannas, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in Developmental Medicine at Mass General Hospital with Dr. Robert L. Trelstad, a connective tissue pathologist. He has published over 200 research papers and book chapters and is co-inventor on over 20 patents. His research interests include wound healing, mechanobiology, implant pathology and artificial implantable materials.
Tata Memorial Centre, India
Cervical cancer is highly preventable and can be easily treated if detected at early stages. However there is disproportionate high burden of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in low-middle income (LMIC) country settings that lack organised screening and prevention programs. Robust evidence for prevention and screening of cervical cancer is currently available. However there are barriers for country specific adoption and implementation. These pose unique challenges such as organising prevention and screening services delivery through the current health infrastructure, access to screening facilities, follow up management and adequate linkages for confirmatory diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Overall cervical cancer screening rates and cancer screening among women still remains suboptimal in many LMICʼs. Considering the complexities involved in organisation, service uptake and delivery of population based cervical cancer prevention and screening programs, this article aims to provide evidence based appropriate, affordable and effective standardised cervical cancer prevention and screening guidelines that are operationally feasible to help adopt best practices for uniform adaptation and implementation leveraging with the existing public health care settings.
Cost-effective strategies and tools to reduce cervical cancer burden worldwide to mitigate the existing disparities in cervical cancer burden between low-resourced and high-resourced settings are needed. The current cervical cancer prevention and screening guidelines are drawn from the most robust evidence generated from the randomised trials and cross sectional studies undertaken in the socioeconomic, cultural and health systems context of varied geographic settings and therefore conform towards applicability for wide-scale, sustainable and uniform implementation of population based cervical cancer screening and prevention program.
Keywords: Cervical Cancer, screening, prevention
Dr. Sharmila A Pimple, M.D, is Professor in the Department of Preventive Oncology at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. Dr. Pimple did her medical schooling and post graduation in Community Medicine at Grant Medical College, Mumbai University and leads the WHO Collaborating Centre for Cancer Prevention, Screening & Early Detection, WHO CC IND-59 [SEARO]. Dr. Pimple has successfully undertaken numerous research projects and International collaborative research trials in the capacity of Principal Investigator for evaluating various low cost technologies for cervical and oral cancer screening, including HPV Vaccine trials. She has played a prominent role in Capacity building, planning and implementing Tobacco Control and Tobacco cessation interventions in Hospital and workplace settings including National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) and Oral Health Program (ORHP) of Government of India. Dr. Pimple has contributed on the Technical Working and Advisory Group for the Development of evidence based Standard Protocols for Screening of Breast, Cervical and Oral Cancers in India, has publications in National and International Journals to her credit.