International Journal of Biotechnology and Recent Advances

ISSN: 2639-4529

2nd International Conference on Biotechnology

April 15-16, 2019, Valencia, Spain
Scientific Session Abstracts
DOI: 10.18689/2639-4529.a2.002

Novel Combination Strategies Targeting HDAC and IKK in Solid Cancer

Ivana Vancurova* and Ales Vancura

St. Johnʼs University, USA

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDIs) were developed as anticancer agents based on their ability to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Unfortunately, while HDIs have been remarkably effective in the treatment of hematological malignancies, they have been far less effective, as single agents, in solid tumors, however, the responsible mechanisms are not fully understood. Interestingly, our recent studies have shown that, in addition to inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, HDIs induce expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), which induces survival, proliferation and migration of solid tumor cells. In ovarian cancer (OC) cells, the IL-8 expression induced by HDAC inhibition is dependent on IkB kinase (IKK) activity and associated with a gene-specific recruitment of p65 NFkB to IL-8 promoter. In addition, HDAC inhibition induces acetylation of p65 and its occupancy at the IL-8 promoter in OC cells. Importantly, inhibition or neutralization of the HDIinduced IL-8 expression attenuates proliferation of OC cells in vitro and combining HDAC and IKK inhibitors significantly reduces ovarian tumor growth in vivo, when compared to either drug alone. Together, our results suggest that using IKK inhibitors may increase effectiveness of HDAC inhibitors in treating ovarian cancer and perhaps other solid tumors characterized by the increased IL-8 expression. Future studies and clinical trials should examine whether IKK inhibitors might potentiate the effectiveness of HDIs in OC and other solid cancers.

Funding: This work was supported by St. Johnʼs University and by National Institutes of Health Grant CA202775.

Ivana Vancurova, Ph.D, is a Professor of Biological Sciences at St. Johnʼs University in New York. Dr. Vancurova is the author of more than 75 peerreviewed publications. Her research focuses on understanding the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate expression of immuno-regulatory genes, as they relate to cancer development and progression, as well as to numerous inflammatory disorders. Dr. Vancurova has trained many graduate and undergraduate students, who after graduating from her laboratory, assumed research positions at premier research institutions. Her research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Acetyl-CoA as a Link between Metabolism, Chromatin and Gene Expression

Ales Vancura* and Ivana Vancurova

St. Johnʼs University, USA

Histone acetylation is a dynamic modification that affects chromatin structure and regulates diverse cellular functions, such as gene expression, DNA repair and cell proliferation. Perturbation of the balanced action of his tone acetyl transferases (hats) and histone deacetylases (hdacs) alters the expression pattern of genes involved in cellular growth, resulting in tumor genesis. Histone acetylation depends on intermediary metabolism for supplying Acetyl-CoA in the nucleocytosolic compartment. Acetyl-CoA is thus a key metabolite at the crossroads of metabolism, chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation. Our results show that decreased synthesis of nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA in yeast leads to histone hypoacetylation, decreased expression of histone genes, decreased nucleosome occupancy, globally altered chromatin structure and altered transcriptional regulation. In addition, decreased expression of histones or a defect in nucleosome assembly result in increased mtDNA copy number, oxygen consumption, ATP synthesis and expression of genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). This represents a novel signaling mechanism, where by decreased histone transcription and globally altered chromatin structure triggers mitochondrial respiration and increased synthesis of ATP. The metabolic shift from fermentation to respiration induced by altered chromatin structure is associated with induction of the retrograde pathway and requires the activity of the Hap2/3/4/5p complex as well as synthesis of theme. Together, our data indicate that altered chromatin structure relieves glucose repression of mitochondrial respiration by inducing transcription of the TCA cycle and OXPHOS genes encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

Funding: This work was supported by St. Johnʼs University and by National Institutes of Health Grant GM120710.

Ales Vancura, Ph.D., is a Professor of Biological Sciences and Chairman of the Department of Biology at St. Johnʼs University in New York. Dr. Vancura is the author of more than 60 peer-reviewed publications. His research focuses on understanding of the interdependency between metabolism, chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation. One of the current research efforts in his laboratory is directed at the role of chromatin structure in regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Dr. Vancura has trained many doctoral and undergraduate students and his research is funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Conformational Analysis and Biological Evaluation of Ferrocene Peptidomimetics

Lidija Barisic*, Monika Kovacevica, Visnja Gaurina Srcek and Kristina Radosevic

University of Zagreb, Croatia

The low metabolic stability as well as poor absorption and undesired side effects caused by interaction of conformationally changeable peptides with diverse receptors represent the major obstacles to their pharmaceutical application. The development of peptidomimetics with rigidified conformation and improved biostability has proven as an efficient step towards overcoming these drawbacks. One of the strategic approaches to the peptidomimetic design is based on the utilization of small molecular scaffold capable of inducing the secondary structure upon incorporation into peptide backbone. In this respect, 1,1′-disubstituted ferrocene (Fc) scaffolds, equipped with hydrogen bonding functionalities, have been employed to nucleate turns and β-sheet-like structures.1

The previous results2 obtained on peptides I composed of ‒NH‒Fc‒CO‒ scaffold and Pro confirmed the presence of γ-turn, realized through intrachain hydrogen bonding. Their biological evaluation, performed with regard to antiproliferative effect on MCF7 and He La cell line, has been demonstrated no or rather modest cytotoxic effect. In order to improve the biological activity of the ferrocene conjugates with Pro I, we have synthesized their higher homologues II with inserted Ala unit between ferrocene unit and Pro. This structural modification was found to influence the conformational pattern of the peptides II, but the significant impact on their biological activity with respect to cytotoxicity toward human tumor cell lines was not observed.

1M. Kovačević, I. Kodrin, S. Roca, K. Molčanov, Y. Shen, B. Adhikari, H.-B. Kraatz, L. Barišić, Chemistry-A European Journal 23 (2017) 1037-10395.

2M. Kovačević, K. Molčanov, K. Radošević, V. Gaurina Srček, S. Roca, A. Čače, L. Barišić, Molecules 19 (2014) 12852-12880.

Lidija Barisic, Ph.D, is Professor of Organic Chemistry, Instrumental Analysis, Peptidomimetics and Bioorganometallic Chemistry at Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Croatia. Her main research interest is focused on the synthesis and biological evaluation of peptidomimetics and ferrocene-derivatized biomolecules. She has published 31 papers in peer reviewed journals and has attended 19 international conferences with presentation of own research. During doctoral education, she visited Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, University of Heidelberg, Germany. She had a postdoctoral appointment at Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, USA.

Fullerene C60–Conjugated Doxorubicin for Advanced Tumor Therapy

Kamila Butowska1*, Witold Kozak2, Aleksandra Hać3, Anna Herman-Antosiewicz3, Janusz Rak2 and Jacek Piosik1

1Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland
2Laboratory of Biological Sensitizers, University of Gdańsk, Poland
3Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, University of Gdańsk, Poland

After heart disease and stroke, cancer is the third leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018 [1] and breast cancer is one of the most deadly diagnosed cancer amongst women. The anthracycline antibiotic– doxorubicin (DOX) is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in chemotherapy of a wide range of cancers e.g. leukemia, but also in the treatment of solid tumors such as breast cancer [2]. However, doxorubicin may induce cardiotoxicity and congestive heart failure, which justifies an increasing demand for developing of new strategies minimizing its side effects. In this context, nanomaterials seem to be attractive agents that might allow to keep a balance between therapeutic efficacy and adverse after effects.

A fullerene–doxorubicin conjugate (Ful–DOX) was obtained using the malonic diester scaffold via the modified procedure described by Lu et al. [3]. An alcoholysis reaction of malonyl chloride was followed by functionalization with the fullerene C60 (Bingel–Hirsch addition) and the selective hydrolysis of tertiary esters. Next, activation reaction in the presence of DCC (N,Nʼ-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide) and NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) led to the bis-N-succinimide activated diester, which was coupled with doxorubicin to give the final conjugate. The identity of the obtained product was confirmed with 1HNMR and mass spectrometry. The Ful–DOX conjugate was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetric measurements and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In order to determine biological activity of Ful–DOX, the MTT assay and confocal microscopy were employed.

Intra- and inter-molecular interactions in conjugate solutions lead to the substantial quenching of DOX fluorescence. It can be related, at least partially, to the aggregation of conjugate, as indicated by its DLS hydrodynamic diameter equal to 825.0 nm. The results of biological assays, carried out using the MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB 231 cell lines, confirma substantially higher cytotoxicity of free DOX compared to the conjugate. This result seems to be in line with confocal fluorescence images, which suggest that the distribution of free DOX and conjugate in the studied cells differs dramatically. The former accumulates in the nucleus, while the latter concentrates on nuclear membrane, which probably prevents the cytotoxic activity of DOX.

In summary, DOX covalently conjugated with fullerene could be a potential drug delivery system to alleviate anthracycline toxicity. Our future efforts will goes in to development of a conjugate which will release the drug Specifically on target, i.e. cancer cells.

Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the Grant Nos. DS/530-M045-D674-17 (Jacek Piosik) and DS/530-8227-D494-17 (JanuszRak).


[1] F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, A. Jemal, Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries, CA: Cancer J. Clin. 68, 394-424 (2018).

[2] C. Carvalho, R. X. Santos, S. Cardoso, S. Correia, P. J. Oliveira, M. S. Santos, P. I. Moreira, Doxorubicin: the good, the bad and ugly effect, Curr. Med. Chem., 16, 3267-3285 (2009).

[3] F. Lu, S. A. Haque, S-T. Yang, P. G. Luo, L. Gu, A. Kitaygorodskiy, H. Li, S. Lacher and Y-P. Sun, Aqueous Compatible Fullerene-Doxorubicin Conjugates, J. Phys. Chem. C, 113, 17768-17773 (2009).

Kamila Butowska, M.Sc. in 2017 she defended Masterʼs thesis at the Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk and specialty: Chemical Analytics and Diagnostics, under the supervision of Professor Janusz Rak. In the same year she commenced her PhD study at the Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology of the University of Gdańsk and Medical University of Gdańsk under the supervision of Professor Jacek Piosik. During her Masters she won “AMBER” contest and as consequence, played a role of principal investigator for the project entitled “Radio sensitizers with high affinity to electron. Physicochemical and cellular research” founded by European Social Found of EU under Inno-Agro Chem Ośinitiative. She was also an intern in the group of Professor Andreas Kornath at the Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich. Her main scientific interests are chemical synthesis and studies on biological activity of conjugates of metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9-sensitive peptides with doxorubicin to be used for targeted anticancer therapy.

Understanding the Metabolic Processes that Shape the Adaptation of Escherichia Coli to the Mammalian Gastro-Intestinal Tract

Miguel F. M. Pedro*, Joao Batista-Barroso, Catarina Pinto, Joana Dias, Isabel Gordo and Karina B. Xavier

Gulbenkian Institute of Science, Portugal

Many microbes colonise the gut establishing interactions with their host and their nutritional environment. Studying genetics and metabolism brought about the drive and potential to engineer communities to promote health and improve industrial processes. However, structuring artificial communities in predictable ways is underdeveloped. We studied Escherichia coliʼs genetic targets and physiological mechanisms during gut colonization and adaptation and how metabolic environment microbiota complexity shape these processes.

We introduced a tractable E.coli K-12 in mice Germ-free or with polymicrobial communities. Whole Genome Sequencing identified potential adaptive targets. Here, we established phenotypic assays as well characterizing effects of key mutations and metabolomics was performed with 1H-NMR of intestinal contents. Genes for sugar alcohol metabolism (gat) was the only target common to both mouse models, evidencing specificity. Facing complex microbiota E.coli targeted use of sugar alcohols (srlR, kdgR) and anaerobic respiration (dcuB, focA) [1] whereas alone, we observed instead mutations pointing to increased ability for amino acid use (lrp, dtpB, alaA). Mutations selected correlated dinamically with metabolomics: our results fit the model whereby other microbiota members scavenge oxygen and breakdown complex sugars, limiting E.coli to anaerobically respire simple by-product carbon sources. In the opposing scenario (functional absence) improved amino acid use are favoured colonisation factors.

Through experimental evolution we gained insight on shaping E.coliʼs metabolic traits through genetic engineering to colonise specific host environments. This work also highlights the versatility of E.coli as potential biotic sensor.

[1] Barroso-Batista, J. et al. The first steps of adaptation of Escherichia coli to the gut are dominated by soft sweeps, 2014.

Miguel has been working at one of the main research institutes in Portugal, Gulbenkian Institute for Science, a relatively large, multidisciplinary Molecular biology center focused mostly on fundamental science. Here, he has developed his project with a scientific article in preparation, having attended various conferences and also shared his knowledge through several scientific poster presentations. With a sound training on Molecular Microbiology acquired ever since he started his Masters, Miguel has also had the opportunity to develop various complementary skills such as omics techniques in sample processing and manual curation of Metabolomics and metagenomics datasets; Accredited training in Animal use, handling & welfare in experimentation, including extensive use of Gnotobiology techniques with rodents; As well as basic bioinformatics skills with interest in further integrating them on future work. When he is not trying to answer existential questions or doing actual research work, he enjoys getting lost in mountains and Rock climbing.
Finally, Miguel is very keen on transitioning from academia to academia-to-industry research allocation, particularly in the environmental/agro-forestry industries fueled by his early experiences during training in Agronomics (Animal Production Engineering Bachelors) at the Agronomy Superior Institute of Lisbon.

Enhancing Thermal Stability of Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase I by in Vivo selection

Diana M. Mate*, Noé R. Rivera, José Berenguerand and Aurelio Hidalgo

Department of Molecular Biology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain

Thermal stability of an enzyme increases its half-life and co-solvent compatibility as well as allows its storage, transport and reuse under non-natural conditions, being thus a desirable property for industrial enzymes. A generalized trend in biotechnological industries is the development of directed evolution platforms -complementary to functional meta genomics- to obtain thermo stable variants of the mesophilic enzymes of interest. Indeed, there is a real need to implement more efficient, simple and inexpensive methods that allow both the screening of thermo stable variants and the detection of thermo stable activities from libraries isolated from thermophilic environments.

In the present study, we have targeted Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase I (E.C.; PFEI) for thermo stabilization by directed evolution, using an in Vivo thermo selection method previously developed in our group [1]. Transformants of Thermus thermophilus were selected by growth at 48 h at 68 °C and 60 and 80 μg/ml kanamycin. After screening a total of 90,000 clones, 34 active mutants were recovered. These PFEI variants were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Thermal stability of PFEI variants was evaluated in terms of dynamic stability (melting temperature; Tm) and kinetic stability (half-life). In addition, kinetic parameters were determined with para-nitrophenyl acetate as model substrate. The most thermostable variant showed a Tm of 77.3±0.1 °C (4.6 °C higher than the wild-type) and a half-life of over 13 h at 65 °C (7.9-fold longer than the wildtype), but unchanged kinetic parameters. Stabilizing mutations were incorporated into a previously reported PFEI variant that showed enantio selective activity towards the (-)-enantiomer of the lactam Vince (2-azabicyclo [2.2.1] hept-5-en-3-one). Finally, molecular modeling studies on the improved thermostable mutants were carried out to investigate the effect that introduced mutations had on the structure and thus, on the overall stability.

[1] Chautard H, Blas-Galindo E, Menguy T, GrandʼMoursel L, Cava F, Berenguer J, Delcourt M (2007) Nat Methods 4: 919-921.

[2] Torres LL, Schließmann A, Schmidt M, Silva-Martin N, Hermoso JA, Berenguer J, Borscheuer UT, Hidalgo A (2012) Org Biomol Chem 10: 3388-3392.

Diana Maté obtained the Bachelorʼs degree in Chemistry from the Autonomous University of Madrid in 2008. She did her PhD studies in the Dr. Miguel Alcalde group at the Institute of Catalysis (CSIC, Spain) between 2008 and 2013. Her PhD dealt with the engineering of fungal Laccases for biomedical applications. In June 2013 she received the PhD in Molecular Biosciences from the UAM. In 2014 and 2015 she was a postdoctoral researcher at Prof. Ulrich Schwaneberg group at the DWI-Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials (Germany). There, she was involved in collaborative projects for the application of sortases in microgel synthesis. In 2016 she rejoined Alcalde group where she worked in a project in collaboration with industry. In 2017 she joined the Department of Molecular Biology of UAM, where she currently works as a researcher and collaborates as lecturer. She is co-author of 20 SCI articles, 4 book chapters and 4 patents.

Metabolite Profile Analysis of Aurantiochytrium limacinum SR21 Grown on Acetate-Based Medium for Biotechnological Applications

Charose Marie Ting Perez*, Kenshi Watanabe, Yoshiko Okamura, Yutaka Nakashimada and Tsunehiro Aki

Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Hiroshima University, Japan

Thraustochytrids, a group of marine protists, are continuously gaining attention due to their capability in producing lipids for various biotechnological applications towards foods, medicines, chemicals and biofuels. Although various substrates, predominantly glucose, have been used as carbon source for this microalga, it is desirable to adopt cheaper and more diversified substrate to expand their application range. In this study, we aimed to examine the ability of acetate, which can be easily generated from various resources by acetogenic microorganisms, as a substrate of Aurantiochytrium limacinum SR21. As a result of flask-scale analysis, specific growth rates (μ) of the strain SR21 grown in 3% acetate- or glucose-based medium were 0.55 and 0.98 h-1, respectively. The maximum yield of total fatty acid in acetate medium was 4.8 g/L at 48 h while that in glucose medium was 6.8 g/L at 30 h, indicating that acetate has potential as substrate. Metabolome analysis was performed to comprehensively elucidate characteristic metabolic fluctuations caused by acetate assimilation to understand the difference in growth profile between two substrates. It was found that the use of glyoxylate cycle, which bypasses release of energy molecules such as NADH and GTP and the inhibition of utilization of compounds from TCA cycle for anabolic reactions, may cause the slow growth in acetate which has an effect also in lipid productivity. The activity of the pentose phosphate pathway was found to be weak in acetate cultivation, thus NADPH was mainly produced in malate-pyruvate cycle. Lastly, amino acids synthesized from tricarboxylates were significantly lower in acetate assimilation suggesting that acetate assimilation inhibits the transportation or conversion of TCA cycle related-compounds.

Keywords: Acetate, Aurantiochytrium, lipid production, metabolomics.

Charose Marie T. Perez is currently a Ph.D. student under the Molecular Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Advanced Sciences of Matter in Hiorshima University, Japan. Their laboratory focuses on genomic breeding of oleaginous microorganisms for provision of new health food, pharmaceuticals and sustainable bioenergy. Specifically, her research is on the use of acetate, an intermediate substrate in a two stage fermentation system being developed, as an alternative substrate to glucose in producing lipids for biotechnological applications. Before pursuing her Ph.D. degree, she graduated with a degree in Bachelor of Science in Biology major in Microbiology and Master of Science in Microbiology from the University of the Philippines, Los Banos Laguna. She published her masterʼs thesis entitled “Bacterial laminarinase for application in ethanol production from brown algae Sargassum sp. using halotolernt yeast”. She is determined to deepen her knowledge in the field of biotechnology.

Relationship between Induction of Novel Somaclonal Variants and types of Organogenesis in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)

A. K. M. Mohiuddin1*, Zaliha Christine Abdullah2, M. K. U. Chowdhury3, K. Harikrishna4 and Suhaimi Napis5

1Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh
2Craun Research, Malaysia
3Department of Biology, Claflin University, USA
4Biotechnology Division, Sime Darby Technology Centre, Malaysia
5Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

A comparative study on induction of somaclonal variation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) regenerants obtained through two types of organogenesis (e.g. direct and indirect) was carried out. Two different non-meristematic explants e.g. cotyledon and petiole were used for this study. A significantly lower (p<0.05) frequency of variation was observed in muskmelon somaclones regenerated via direct organogenesis compared to indirect. Morphological study showed that the somaclones regenerated from proximal cotyledon, petiole and distal cotyledon explants through direct organogenesis showed lower number of morphologically somaclonal variants, when elongated in elongation medium at the concentrations of BAP 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/l, respectively. In contrast, higher number of variants was obtained from these explants at the same concentration of BAP obtained through indirect organogenesis. Hormone (BAP) free MS medium as well as medium containing different concentrations of BAP, added to the elongation medium showed different types of novel variations e.g. early flowering, slow growth of shoots, higher number of flower formation, stubby shoot apices, flattened stem and leaf with long and thick petiole, etc. These variations could be the prime genetic materials to develop early variety of cucumber, late variety, high yielding variety, dwarf variety needs less nutrients, variety with explicit body configurations, etc. The results suggest that specific concentrations of BAP (direct organogenesis) or combinations of BAP and 2.4-D (indirect organogenesis) have a significant (p<0.05) influence on studies will reveal the novel genetic constitutions in DNA level of chromosomes in somaclonal the induction of novel somaclonal variations in muskmelon regenerants. Future cytogenetic and molecular variants confirm cucumber variety development.

Keywords: Muskmelon, novel somaclones, direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis, variety development.

A. K. M. Mohiuddin, Ph.D. is Professor of the Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering of Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. He was Dean of Life Science Faculty, Chairman of the Department as well as Director of Mawlana Bhashani Research Centre. He has recently been selected as Member of Executive Committee, Bangladesh Association of Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. He was participated in 31 different national and international training and workshop programs as trainee especially in Malaysia, Thailand, Italy and Japan. He has extensively visited over 12 countries in Asia and Europe for performing academic and research activity together with a number of universities and research institutes of Brunei, Malaysia, India, Nepal, Japan, Italy, Singapore and Thailand. He was Visiting Research Fellow and Visiting Scientist of Japan International Research Centre for Agricultural Science. His previous research background was built on rice, muskmelon, cucumber and sugarcane biotechnology. He has published 26 research articles in peer reviewed national, international and ISI indexed journals and presented research findings in about 35 national and international seminar, symposium and conferences.

Biomimetic Interfaces in Solution for Sustainable Ion Gradient and Biocompatible Logic Operation

Ekaterina V. Skorb*, Nikolay V. Ryzhkov, Natalya A. Mamchik and Pavel Nesterov

ITMO University, Russia

In our work we summarize the achievements and discuss perspectives of chemical systems in solution for information processing. Chemical computing systems working in aqueous environments provides possibility to design biocompatible logic circuits overcoming physical and technological limitations of classical semiconductor logic devices. In living cells transduction and processing of information is caused by ion transport across cell membranes. Finding inspiration in nature we suggest using electrochemically and photo electrochemically generated ion fluxes [1-5] for constructing basic logic gates. Layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte multilayers [2-7] allow to perform fine tuning of ionic fluxes through membrane. Spatial and temporal distribution concentration of particular ions in close proximity to the surface of electrode were investigated using Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET) and Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET) unique tool for characterization of local ionic currents in solution and ion concentration gradients measurement respectively [1, 2]. Based on obtained results we present model electrochemical system allowing to perform simple Boolean operations using ions as input or/and output signals and suggest concept of light-driven chemical logic gates. Taking into account growing interest to biocompatible neuro interfaces providing solution of challenging task neuron-mimic information processing, we believe that the discussed findings and perspectives will appeal to broad interest of interdisciplinary audience of Biotech 2019.

[1] H. Maltanavaet al. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 9 (2017) 24282.

[2] S. A. Ulasevich et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55 (2016) 13001.

[3] N. V. Ryzhkov et al. J. Royal Society Interface16 (2019)20180626.

[4] D. V. Andreeva et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.19 (2017) 23843.

[5] A. A. Nikitina et al. Bioconjugate Chem.29 (2018) 3793.

[6] S. A. Ulasevich et al. Macromol. Biosci. 16 (2016) 1422.

[7] E. V. Skorb and H. Möhwald, Adv. Mater. 36 (2013) 5029.

Ekaterina V. Skorb is a Professor at ChemBio Cluster at ITMO University working on different projects from the synthetic cell and biofilm programming to smart dynamic materials and system for personal diagnostics, study and modeling of nonlinear chemical processes. She received her Ph.D with “summa cum laude” in physical chemistry (2008). From 2013 she was a group leader at Biomaterials Department at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces (MPIKG, Germany). She was a Visiting Scholar at Chemistry and Chemical Biology Department (Harvard, USA) in Prof. Whitesides group (2016-2017). Ekaterina has authored more than 80 research papers and received various fellowships. (e.g. LʼOréal UNESCO, AvH, DAAD, LG Chem, etc)

Effect of Ultrasound Treatment on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Hypoallergenic Besgluten Test

Olga Yu. Orlova*, Svetlana A. Ulasevich and Ekatina V. Skorb

ITMO University, Russia

Modern population studies have shown that the gene responsible for susceptibility to celiac disease is quite common and the disease itself is present in about 0.5–1% of the world population [1]. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease caused by damage to the villi of the small intestine in the gastrointestinal tract [2]. The causative agents are some food products that contain certain proteins, such as gluten and similar proteins contained in wheat, rye and barley [3].

The use of rice flour, starch and gum in the preparation of food helps to produce the products for ill people. However the created recipes for diet gluten-free dough cannot be used in industry, as they do not allow obtaining dough with the necessary characteristics for machine fabrication.

In this regard, the purpose of this work is to develop a method for producing dough with the necessary characteristics, as well as to study the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the physical and chemical characteristics of the hypoallergenic gluten-free dough.

Ultrasonic treatment of the dough components at a frequency of 22 kHz during the whole time of its preparation and kneading leads to fabrication of a more viscous and malleable product, which can be easily used when molding dumplings with a production apparatus. In addition, there is about 2–3 times increase of as prepared dough volume. It may obtain more product without increasing the initial amount of components that can also have a beneficial effect on the economic effect.

[1] Catassi C. et al. Antiendomysium versus antigliadin antibodies in screening the general population for coeliac disease //Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. – 2000. – Vol. 35, № 7. – P. 732–736.

[2] Patrick C.A. et al. Multiple common variants for celiac disease influencing immune gene expression // Nature Genetics. – 2010. – Vol. 42, № 4. – P. 295–302.

[3] Michalski J.P. et al. HLA-DR, DQ genotypes of celiac disease patients and healthy subjects from the West of Ireland // Tissue Antigens. – 1996. – Vol. 47, № 2. – P. 127–133.

Olga Orlova is the head of the Committee on Innovation and Technology Implementation, a member of international research centre “Biotechnologies of the Third Millennium”, Associate Professor of the Applied Biotechnology Department at ITMO University, Russia. She is also an expert of Skolkovo Foundation, FoodNet adviser in Saint-Petersburg, Leader of St. Petersburg “Nutrition for the Future” Project. Olga Orlova had her tertiary degree in 1989 and she had her PhD degree in 2009 from St. Petersburg State University of Refrigeration and Food Engineering. Working experience: head technologist of a dairy factory, supervisor of the bakery and confectionery production line. The range of research interests includes: food biotechnology, functional foods, extending shelf-life, adjustment of trace element content of foods in Russia.

Risk and Safety Considerations of Precision Plant Breeding: Expert Opinion

Stuart J. Smyth1*, Diego Maximiliano Macall1, Hayley Hesseln1 and Peter W.B. Phillips2

1Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
2The Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

The advents of targetable nucleases and the amalgamation of a number of scientific disciplines, have enabled the development of a set of approaches and technologies that enable scientists to alter an organismʼs genome with greater accuracy and celerity. When applied to agriculture, these have resulted in new plant breeding technologies (NBTs) that provide technical and economic advantages over conventional breeding. Akin to the historical debate around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the discussions about precision breeding are much more socio-political than scientific. This paper shows that such debate is both risk and non-risk motivated. It reports survey results and an analysis of expertʼs opinions of potential risk issues related to the use of gene edited crops in food and feed production. We also we examine the role that framing plays in decision making about the adoption of biotechnological innovation. A risk preferences test indicated no framing effects among experts regardless of their expertise and region of residence.

Keywords: Agriculturalgenome editing; biotechnology; confidence; expert opinion; food security; regulation; risk.

Dr. Stuart Smyth is an Associate Professor in the Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics at the University of Saskatchewan, where he holds the Industry Research Chair in Agri-Food Innovation. His research focuses on sustainability, agriculture, innovation and food. Dr. Smyth publishes a weekly blog on these topics at: Recent publications include an authored book with William Kerr and Peter Phillips, Biotechnology Regulation and Trade, published by Springer (2017) and a co-edited book with Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes, Peter Phillips and Justus Wesseler, The Coexistence of Genetically Modified, Organic and Conventional Foods, published by Springer (2016).