Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Diesel fuel is one of the most important fuels that can be used in automobiles, trucks, boat, and many other machinery. Typically, diesel produced from crude oil has a high sulfur content. Therefore, when this diesel is burned, sulfur oxides will be released to the environment. These gases are very harmful and therefore diesel must be treated before it is used.
Different treatments methods have been proposed such as hydro-desulfurization and oxidative desulfurization. Here we present desulfurization of diesel using an ionic liquid extraction. This method uses low energy and a reagent that is abundant and it can be regenerated. Furthermore, it is safe and has high efficiency of sulfur removal, and it is environmentally friendly.
Process simulation has been carried out using ASPEN PLUS. Different factors such as temperature, time and mixing rate were examined to study their effects on deep extraction of sulfur using ionic liquid.
Nabil Abdel Jabbar is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at American University of Sharjah (AUS). He has worked as a director of Gulf Ecosystem Research Center at AUS. He also worked as a faculty member at Jordan University of Science and Technology, as a Fulbright visiting professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and as a senior project engineer at Aspen Tech. He has published several journal and conference articles and organized many international and regional conferences. His areas of research and teaching interest are advanced process control, process synthesis and optimization, mathematical modeling and computer simulation.
1Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India
2Jhanjra Project Colliery, Eastern Coalfield Limited, India
In general, the critical reservoir parameters which control the flow behaviour in porous media are permeability and porosity. The permeability measurements of five different gassy coal samples from Raniganj coalfield of India were carried out by using two different techniques i.e., steady state method and pressure transient (pulse decay) method. Similarly, determination of porosity was carried out for the same samples using Helium porosimetry technique and Buoyancy method. Experimental setups were fabricated and used for the measurements. The gas permeability of coal samples was measured using helium as flowing fluid. In both the methods, permeability values (K) of all samples vary within a very small range thereby proving the effectiveness of both techniques in measuring permeability of porous rock samples. In steady state analysis, plots for flow rate (F) and inlet pressure follows a power relationship whereas permeability and applied pressure also has a good non-linear relationship. An exponential relationship between permeability and flow rate was observed with respect to applied pressure. The permeability value is exorbitantly high for some samples compared to other computed values which may be due to presence of some weak planes/hidden-fractures in it.
The permeability values determined by both the methods for the selected coal samples lie between 0.034mD and 6.653mD. Differences in the effective porosity values determined by the two methods vary within a small range of 0.01% to 0.56%. The inter-relationship between effective porosity and permeability was also examined. The gas permeability co-efficient and effective porosity for the selected coal samples under this study holds a good exponential type relationship.
Samir Kumar Pal is currently working as a Professor in the Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India where he obtained his Bachelor, Master and Doctoral degrees. In the course of his career, he has been closely involved with many sponsored and consultancy projects. Much of his work has been on improving the understanding, design and performance in the broad area of mining, mainly through the practical field applications. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Engineers (India) and an active member of the Mining, Geological and Metallurgical Institute (MGMI) of India. Prof. Pal is an author and co-author of over 65 journal papers and 5 book chapters; along with this he presented his works in several national and international conferences. He has received many external and professional awards and has widespread recognition for most of his works.
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Earth Science Museum, Russian Federation, Russia
Changes in maturity level of organic matter (OM) and realization of hydrocarbon potential by of the South Caspian Basin are analyzed numerically by the example of sedimentary sections of the South Absheron and Pre-Elburz depressions. The modeling suggests that the “oil window” is located at depths from 4.5 to 9 km in the modern sections of the depressions and includes the rocks of the Productive and Pontian formations. However, these rocks are no source rocks, because they have very low TOC and contain mainly kerogen of the type III. Source rocks in the Basin are the deposits of the Diatomic and Maikop formations. The non-steady thermal regime of the mantle in the region and avalanche sedimentation in the Pliocene-Quaternary had a significant influence on the history of hydrocarbon generation in the basin, shifting the time of intense hydrocarbon generation to the present time. According to the calculations, the maximum generation of light oil by the rocks of the Maikop and Diatomic formations occurred for the last 2 to 7 million years. Such recent hydrocarbon generation and significant role of vertical migration of hydrocarbons determine leading contribution of the Maikop and Diatomic suites to formation of oil and gas accumulations, despite these suites in present-day sedimentary section locate below “oil generation window”.
Dr. Yurii I. Galushkin (born 1941) is leading scientist in the Earth Science Museum in Lomonosov States University. He graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. His main scientific interest is focused on thermal evolution of the lithosphere, basin modeling, numerical estimation of organic matter maturity and oil and gas generation.
Poznań University of Technology, Institute of Technology and Chemical Engineering, Department of Process Engineering, Poland
The aim of this article is to present the effect of external action of air-borne ultrasound (US) upon biological wet materials subjected to drying. The study allows to determine the drying effectiveness of such products like fruits and vegetables by convective drying with ultrasound enhancement. The vibration and heating effects induced by power ultrasound are considered. The mathematical model of drying is developed and validated experimentally using the data obtained from the experimental tests carried out on the hybrid dryer equipped with ultrasonic generator. The obtained results prove that the vibration effect induced by ultrasound has a great impact on the acceleration of mass transferwithout significant elevation of product temperature, and thus on thedrying efficiency with respect to energy utilization and the quality of dried products like fruits and vegetables.
Keywords: Drying;Ultrasound;Biological materials; Experimental; Mathematical modeling.
Kowalski Stefan Jan is a Full Professor in Poznań University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Stefan Jan is a Menager of Editor Process Engineering.
University of São Paulo, Brazil
The discovery of new reservoirs in the Pre-Salt layer, located in Santos Basin (Brazil), have brought technological challenges. Among them there is the fact that a lot of these reservoirs have a high concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), near 20%. In addition, these reservoirs are located far from the coast, the rigs have a very limited capability to store this gas and the environmental impacts related to its release in the atmosphere are very high. Thus the injection of water alternating gas, as known as WAG, using CO2 has become a popular method of enhance oil recovery in these reservoirs. The WAG injection, however, is more complex than traditional EOR methods due to the hysteresis effect and also the computational simulation becomes more complex. The development of the proxy models that emulate the output of the simulators are considered the appropriate technical alternative. This work aimed to develop a methodology to perform the optimization of CO2 -WAG injection in the miscible condition in an efficient and robust way. It proposed the optimization of CO2 through of injection flow rate that leads to a maximum Net Present Value (NPV), increasing the oil production and at the same time reducing the water production and CO2, using a proxy model to reduce the computational time required. The-CO2–WAG EOR in a miscible condition was modeled in heterogeneous and not realistic carbonate reservoir, using a scale of a quarter of five-spot, in which there is a pair of producer and injector. The methodology developed was composed by four steps: physical phenomenon modeling, adjustment of the numerical control, critical parameters selection and, finally, the optimization using proxy models. Three study cases were created in relation to the so called “WAG cycle” that consists in the elapsed time between the beginning of gas injection and the end of water injection. The operational parameters chosen had changed inside a pre determined interval of values and the related NPVs were then evaluated. A traditional optimization method was used as a reference. The results showed that while the NPVs were very close (0,42% of maximum error) the simulation times were quite low (55% of difference in the slowest case) in the proxy models. It was noted also that the NPV increases with the WAG cycle, suggesting that should have a maximum WAG cycle with a higher impact in the NPV of the field.
Guilherme A. F. Patrocinio is a bachelor degree student of Petroleum Engineering in the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. During the years 2014 and 2015 Guilherme was member of the Society of Petroleum Engineering (SPE) student chapter of the University of São Paulo, helping with the organizations of two workshops related to the oil industry. During the year 2017 he worked in the Laboratory of Simulation and Management of Petroleum Reservoirs (LASG), located in the campus of University of São Paulo in the city of Santos, Brazil. Nowadays he participates of an exchange program in the Politecnico di Torino located in Turin, Italy.
Department of Environmental Engineering, Montana Tech, USA
Combustion of fossil fuel especially coal releases small amounts of mercury into the atmosphere. There are efforts to reduce the mercury emissions from combustion sources due to the concernthat mercury being a toxic substance. About 810 metric tons of mercury is emitted from fossil fuel fired power plants per year across the world. Developing control technologies have been challenging mainly due to the cost and implications of new technologies on the byproducts. This research is focused to use natural fibers impregnated with metallic nanoparticles to capture the hard to control mercury vapor from gas streams. The metallic nanoparticles were incorporated in a filter media that provided enormous surface area for the mass transfer of the contaminant from gas stream to the filters. The laboratory and the field-testing showed consistently over 90 % efficiency for mercury in a coal fired power plant flue gas. Although, the test is conducted in a stack of a coal fired power plant the filter is capable of removing mercury from any gas streams containing mercury including oil and gas production and combustion operations.
Dr. Kumar Ganesan is a Professor and the Head of the Environmental Engineering Department at Montana Tech. He has over 45 years of experience in the Environmental Engineering field. He earned his Ph.D. from Washington State University, Pullman, Washington State, USA. His MSc (Engg) degree is in Public Health Engineering and the BE degree is in Civil Engineering, both from the University of Madras, India. Dr. Ganesanʼs research in the past ten years included mercury pollution in air, soils and water. He has developed and patented a metallic filter to remove mercury from air streams including coal-fired power plants. He is an editor of one textbook “Toxics in Air” and co-author of three text books, Pollution Prevention (Two editions) and Unit Operations in Environmental Engineering. He is also the author of an “Air Pollution Chapter” in an upcoming Environmental Engineering Handbook. He has received multiple awards from Regional, National and International professional organizations for his achievements in the field of Environmental Engineering.
Nazm Pooyan Sanat Novin, Iran
A review of 5-years published reports has presented the probability of cost and time overrun of oil & gas projects which is around 60.5%. By studying similar statistics, an important question comes to mind: is the project still stable and feasible with such a big amount of uncertainty? The further researches on the challenges force us toredefinethe concepts and reengineeringthe process of forecasting, estimation, budgeting, control and risk analysis of oil & gas projects.
This article provides a method for conceptual engineering of cost of the projects in the Persian Gulf region (Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, Qatar and Saudi Arabia). Findings from the research present a methodology which addresses us to: projectsʼ stakeholders, engineering of cost, interactions between project environmental characteristics, project technical specifications, technology, consultants, design, procurement, subcontractors, methods of forecasting schedule of rates, structure of management and risks which cause costs overrun.
Chaos theory is used to explain how cost overrun occurs in projects and Chi-square method is used for generalizing the developedmethodology. This article, also, provides a case study for cost engineering of an oil production offshore platform in order to explain the methodology clearly.
As a result, it is suggested that the methodology is usedfor some on-going projects in other regions in order to globalization.
Sadegh Yazdani is an International energy industry leader with over 25 years of experience, Managing Director of NPSN Co. and a published author of 15 books in the area of energy management, operation management, financial and cost engineering. High-profile executive providing technical and business expertise helping the project owners how to maximize benefit from the energy projects.
Offers comprehensive training solutions in Project / Operational Management, Risk Management, Cost Engineering / Management. Conducted training for 1255 trainees in the total of 40160 hours in 11 countries. Developer and simulator for cost modeling and financing of Oil & Gas in Upstream, Midstream and Downstream sectors. Directed 6 onshore projects in the fields of wellhead facilities, Gas Gathering Units, Central Processing Facilities, Gas Compression Station, and Gas Pipeline and was a Project Director Deputy for 2 offshore platform projects.
1Department of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, China
2Henan Electric Power Survey & Design Institute, China
In this paper, a novel LPG vaporization system utilizing direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump (DX-SAHPV) is presented to reduce the conventional energy consumption of LPG vaporization as well as to broaden various applications of solar assisted heat pump technology. Six operation modes of the DX-SAHPV system were introduced according to the particular character of LPG spontaneous vaporization, variational gas loads and different meteorological parameters. Dynamic models for solar assisted heat pump, thermal storage water tank, LPG vaporizer and auxiliary gas burner were developed and used for the evaluation of the system performance.
The thermal performance of the DX-SAHPV system was investigated in three different climate zones (Beijing, Shanghai and Lhasa) using a simulation program. The simulation results show that the system can operate stably and the variation of operation performance has a similar trend under different weather conditions. The annual coefficients of performance of this system are 3.10 in Beijing, 3.09 in Shanghai and 3.25 in Lhasa, while the corresponding annual collector efficiencies are 1.19, 1.47 and 1.04, respectively. The higher both solar radiations and ambient temperatures are, the better the thermal performances become.
Guo-Hua Shi obtained his Ph.D. from the North China Electric Power University. Dr Guo-Hua Shi serves as an Associate Professor at the North China Electric Power University and is an academic visiting scholar at the University of Melbourne. He has extensive experience in the utilization of clean or renewable energy. His research interests involve utilization of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, solar thermal energy, renewable energy with specialization in distributed energy system, and energy efficiency. Now his research focus on the vaporization of LPG and LNG by use of solar assisted heat pump.
1Environmental Biotechnology Program, Life Sciences Department, College of Graduate Studies, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain
2Biotechnology, Research and Development Center, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science. Kuwait University, Kuwait
Heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO) is a complex and viscous hydrocarbon stream produced as the bottom side product (boiling range 398-565 °C) from the vacuum distillation units in petroleum refineries. HVGO is conventionally treated with thermo chemical process, which are costly and environmentally polluting. This is because they operate under sever conditions of temperature (up to 480 °C) and pressure (up to 4000 psi), and require huge amounts of catalysts. As compared to conventional physicochemical treatments, biotechnological processes are environmentally compatible, economic and endowed with high selectivity. In this research, we investigated two petroleum biotechnology applications as green approaches for processing or treatment of HVGO. The first application aims at provoking desirable compositional changes in HVGO via bioconversion of the high-molecular weight and high-boiling fractions to lighter components to increase the distillate yield. The second application explores the valorization of HVGO via bioconversion to value-added products such as biosurfactants. We performed bioconversion experiments using HVGO as a sole carbon and sulfur source for the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U. HVGO was then recovered from the cultures, and the maltene fraction was separated and subjected to fractional distillation (SimDis) analysis to explore any changes in the major distillation fractions. Moreover, detailed analysis on the separated maltene fractions was conducted by TOF-MS and FT-ICR-MS to unravel changes in the chemical composition. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain grew on 20% (v/v) of HVGO. It produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants in a growth-associated mode with a maximum crude biosurfactants yield of 10.1 g/L, which reduced the surface tension of the cell-free culture supernatant to 30.6 mN/m within one week of incubation. The rarely occurring dirhamnolipidRha–Rha–C12–C12 dominated the congenersʼ profile of the biosurfactants produced from HVGO. SimDisanalysis of the bio-treated maltene fraction showed a relative decrease in the high-boiling heavy fuel fraction (BP 426-565 °C) concomitant with increase in the lighter distillate diesel fraction (BP 315-426 °C). Chemical analysis of the maltene fraction revealed compositional changes. The number-average (Mn) and weight-average (Mw) molecular weights, as well as the absolute number of hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocycles were higher in the bio-treated maltene fraction of HVGO. These findings suggest that HVGO can be potentially exploited as a carbon-rich substrate for production of the high-value biosurfactantsand to concomitantly improve/upgrade its chemical composition.
Keywords: Asphaltene; Maltene; Rhamnolipid congener; Aromatic hydrocarbons; SimDis
Wael A. Ismail is professor of Microbiology/Environmental Biotechnology and coordinator of the Petroleum/Environmental Biotechnology Program, Arabian Gulf University-Bahrain. He is also the former director of the Biotechnology Program. He has more than 20 years of experience in the applications of Biotechnology/Microbiology in the environment and petroleum industry. Prof. Wael got BScin Microbiology and Chemistry from Ain Shams University-Egypt. He then, joined the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI-Petroleum Microbiology Group) to get MSc in Petroleum Microbiology. He received PhD in Microbiology from the University of Freiburg-Germany. The research of Prof. Wael Ismail deals with the applications of microbial biotechnology in the environment and petroleum industry with particular focus on the biodesulfurization of diesel, bio-upgrading of heavy oils and refining residues, bio-rejuvenation of spent hydrotreatment catalysts, biodegradation of hydrocarbons, as well as biosurfactants production and applications.
Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia
With the objective to reduce the uncertainty of the models used in the production forecasting process, other methodologies have been explored to allow improvements in the process. One of these methodologies used is the developed in 1970 by Box & Jenkings for the analysis of time series (ARMA and ARIMA models). However, there are some limiting factors such as the high degree of complexity of the models and the loss of robustness of the forecasts in the long term.
To reduce the complexity of the analysis, a statistical analysis automation tool called Decline R was developed, which combines the Box & Jenkins methodology with the Arps curves, improving the prognosis and significantly reducing the complexity and time of the process.
Decline R is a developed tool using software R integrated with visual basic to facilitate de user experience using a friendlier interface allowing the user to select himself the ARMA or ARIMA model for the process or to use the self-selection of the model by the software. Five (5) wells were analyzed with the most commonly used commercial tools and Decline R. Short-term forecasts were higher than those found with commercial tools. For the values of the one, two and three year forecasts the results were similar in all models. In the process of cross validation for 7 years, the adjustment of the forecast using ARMA or ARIMA models was lower in comparison with the commercial models.
In conclusion, when the wells have marked declination trends in long-term, it is possible to represent them using Arps curves and then to model the other components through the Box & Jenkins methodology, obtaining more accurate forecasts. For short-term forecast, ARMA or ARIMA models are better option.
Dr. Carlos Alfonso Mantilla Duarte is an Economist, Specialist in statistics, M.Sc (c) and Ph.D (c) in Applied Statistics. Assistant professor in School of Economics and School of Petroleum Engineering from Universidad Industrial de Santander (Industrial University of Santander) in Bucaramanga, Colombia and Assistant Professor in the area of statistics of the speech-language pathology program from Universidad de Pamplona (University of Pamplona) in Pamplona, Colombia. Researcher in the areas of: time series, spatial statistics and spatio-temporal data, multivariate analysis, panel data, big data, Bayesian statistics, computational statistics, biostatistics and multi-dimensional scaling.
1Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada
2College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, China
3College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, China
4BitcanGeosciences & engineering Inc, Canada
Reducing the viscosity of heavy oil can improve its mobility, thereby improving the displacement efficiency. The challenge is how to reduce the oil viscosity to significantly improve heavy oil recovery and to make the process profitable. Thisstudy is aimed at coupling the low-temperature catalytic aquathermolysis process with thermal process for enhanced heavy oil and oil sands recovery.
The catalytic aquathermolysis process can break the C-S, C-N, and C-O bonds of heavy oils, thereby reducing oil viscosity and enhancing the flow of heavy oils in reservoirs. Many laboratory catalytic aquathermolysis tests have shown a significant reduction in heavy oil viscosity and some degree of upgrading of heavy oils. However, the reported laboratory and field tests were carried out at high temperatures ranging from 200°C to 300°C. Ourresearch has shown that some low-temperature catalysts are effective in low temperature catalytic-aquathermolysis for heavy oil samples. Specifically, tests at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 150°C showed promising results in viscosity reduction. The catalyst used in this study have the special features which are required for field application. To achieve a good distribution of the catalyst in the reservoir, the catalyst system has different properties at the following injection stages: 1) During the catalyst slug injection at relatively lower temperatures than that required for aquathermolysis, the water soluble catalyst has a tendency to adsorb at the oil-water interface whenever the solution contacts the oil in the reservoir; 2) when the temperature is raised to catalytic reaction temperature by the thermal process (such as hot water injection), the catalyst becomes oil soluble and is transported in the pores in the form of nano-particles which can then react with the oil. Field tests of SAGD dilation start-up in oil sands re
servoirs showed that injecting a unique catalyst can evoke the in-situ catalytic aquathermolysis mechanism. The reservoir is first dilated to form a high-porosity and high-permeability conduit connecting the SAGD well pair. The catalyst is then injected into these newly created pore space, contacting the heavy oil in a large volume and helping to reduce its in-situ oil viscosity. This technology has been applied on more than ten SAGD well pairs and excellent field results are generated in terms of reduced steam use, shortened steam circulation time and increased initial oil production.
Dr. Mingzhe Dong is a professor in the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary. Prior to the appointment at the University of Calgary in 2007, he was a professor of petroleum systems engineering in the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Regina (2001-2007). He holds a B.A. Sc from Northwest University, Xiʼan, an M.A. Sc from the China University of Petroleum, Beijing, and a Ph.D. from the University Of Waterloo, Ontario, all in chemical engineering. He was a senior research engineer in the Petroleum Branch of Saskatchewan Research Council between 1998 and 2001. Previously, he worked in the Department of Research and Technology of Imperial Oil Limited, Calgary, as an NSERC industry post-doctoral fellow. His research interests include multiphase flow in porous media, enhanced oil recovery, unconventional oil and gas development, reservoir simulation, and interfacial phenomena in oil recovery processes. He has published over 150 peer-reviewed journal papers, 50 conference papers and more than 30 technical reports.
University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Asphaltene aggregation and precipitation is usually responsible for many flow assurance problems such as wettability changes, pore clogging in the reservoir and fouling in wellbore tubing and production surface facilities. The application of chemical additives (surfactant and polymer) is a well-known way to control asphaltene precipitation. Ultraviolet−visible (UV−vis) spectroscopy is the most common analytical technique thathas been applied to study the effectiveness of inhibitors in keeping asphaltene particles dispersed into crude oil. However, this technique requires being performed in diluted solutions, which can interfere significantly in the aggregationphenomena. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of two chemical additives, 4-dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) and a novel inhibitor (Poly (vinyltoluene-co-alpha-methylstyrene) (PV)), on the asphaltene aggregation behaviour of Iraqi crude oil using Turbiscan transmission. This is a new methodology developed to study theaggregation kinetics and settling of asphaltenes around its n-heptane precipetation onset. The resultsobtained were compared to those determined with the traditional UV−vis method (λ = 800 nm) and showed qualitatively similartrends. Settling measurements suggest that the stabilization provided by the inhibitors can occur by slowing both formation and growing of asphaltene particles and delaying the phase separation process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to study the effect of inhibitors on the shape and size of asphaltene particles. The findings in this study show that both DBSA and PV were effective in keeping the asphaltene particles dispersed in solution and prevented them from settling. It was demonstrated that theme thodology developed using Turbiscan was more accurate and sensitive.
Mahmoud Alhreez completed his bachelorʼs degree in in Chemical Engineering from the University of Technology/ Baghdad – Iraq and his master degree at the same academic department. He was working in South Refineries Company/ Iraq and he has more than nine yearsʼ experiences in atmospheric distillation units as a shift engineer. He has extensive knowledge of oil and gas refining engineering for crude oil. He is currently doing his PhD studying in the University of Leeds/ United Kingdom. He is working on using a novel chemicals and methods for controlling asphaltene problems in reservoirs and refineries. Also he interests in colloid and particle science, flow assurance problem and synthesis emulsions and nanoemulsions for oil and gas applications.
AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Poland
In the autochthonous Miocene strata of the Carpathian Foredeep between Sedziszow and Polish-Ukrainian border over 70 gas deposits were discovered since the 1960s. In this study area, fourteen natural gas samples were collected from the Miocene sandstone reservoirs. Molecular and isotopic (δ13C in CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iC4H10, nC4H10, iC5H12, nC5H12 and CO2, δ2H in CH4, C2H6 and C3H8, and δ15N in N2) compositions of natural gases were analysed. Additional 65 results of molecular and an incomplete, previously published set of isotopic analyses of gases from the study area were used for genetic interpretation. Methane concentrations in natural gas usually exceed 95 vol%. Isotopic studies reveal that methane and partly ethane and even propane accumulated within the autochthonous Miocene strata were generated by microbial reduction of carbon dioxide in marine depositional environments, mainly during sedimentation of the Miocene clays and muds. Generation and accumulation of microbial methane, ethane and propane, formation and loading of multiply stacked Miocene sandstone reservoirs and claystone source rocks were facilitated by rhythmic and cyclic deposition of clays, muds and sands at very high sedimentation rates. The higher light hydrocarbons (butanes and pentanes, and partly ethane and propane) were originated during diagenesis and at the initial stage of the low-temperature thermogenic processes. Carbon dioxide and molecular nitrogen were generated by both microbial and early thermogenic processes. Thermogenic gas which migrated from the Upper Jurassic strata of the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement occurs only in the lowest Miocene horizon of the Gora Ropczycka deposit.
Maciej J. Kotarba is professor of petroleum geology and geochemistry at the Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology. He earned his M.Sc. degree in 1971 and Ph.D. in 1979 from AGH University of Science and Technology. His research interests include petroleum geochemistry, coal methane, isotope geochemistry and origin, kinetics and simulation of petroleum generation and expulsion processes. He has graduated 11 PhDs and published 12 monographs and books, and over 180 scientific articles.
University of Miskolc, Hungary
A soft computing approach is applied to estimate the vertical distribution of hydrocarbon saturation along the borehole. In the framework of the suggested interval inversion method, oilfield well logs measured at an arbitrary depth interval are jointly inverted, where the depth variation of hydrocarbon saturation and other important volumetric parameters are expanded into series using Legendre polynomials as basis functions. In the interval inversion procedure, the series expansion coefficients are estimated using an adaptive float-encoded genetic algorithm. From the inversion results, one can derive the movable and irreducible parts of hydrocarbon content. Since the solution of the inverse problem using linear optimization tools highly depends on the selection of the initial petrophysical model, a meta-heuristic search is made to reduce the initial model dependence of the interval inversion procedure. The optimization strategy used in interval inversion seeks the global extreme of the objective function and provide an estimate to the vertical distribution of petrophysical parameters even starting the inversion procedure from extremely high distances from the optimum. As a significance, the interval inversion method does not require prior knowledge (e.g. from core information) or strong restrictions on the values of petrophysical properties and gives quality-checked inversion results practically independent of the initial model, which serves a more reliable estimation of hydrocarbon reserves. The feasibility of the inversion method is demonstrated in a Hungarian unconsolidated gas-bearing shaly-sand formation. The interval inversion method can be further improved by estimating some petrophysical parameters outside the inversion procedure. For instance, factor analysis can be used to estimate the shale volume or other critical unknowns. In the future, well logs of unconventional reservoirs are inverted to interpret multi-mineral rock matrices, organic content, and complex pore-space and fluid saturation conditions.
Norbert Peter Szabo graduated as a geophysical engineer in 1999, and gained his PhD in 2005 at the University of Miskolc (UM), Hungary. He is currently working as associate professor in the Department of Geophysics at the UM. In 2015, he obtained the “dr. habil” title. His main research interest is related to borehole geophysical logging methods. He participates in the development of joint inversion and geostatistical methods for an improved evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. In recent years, he wrote several Q1 ranked articles about global optimization methods and exploratory multivariate statistical methods and their well-logging applications.
1DI, Prozess Optimal CAP GmbH, Austria
2TU Graz, Austria
To prevent corrosion many condensers are operated with a thermal safety distance to the water dew point in terms of pressure and temperature. To overcome such limitations, this paper suggests a process prediction method for the real-time estimation of the lowest possible heat exchanger surface temperature in view of fully utilizing the optimization potential of the process. The key features of the new approach comprise (i) application of rigorous thermodynamics, considering all relevant facility components that are needed for a complete mass and energy balance, and (ii) a rigorous heat exchanger calculation providing surface temperatures and dead zone temperatures for the current thermodynamic state.
The thermodynamic calculation provides the theoretical water dew point as a function of the process parameters. Considering that sensitive variables such as the composition of the multi component process stream have a significant influence on the water dew point, the accurate thermodynamic description of the complete system poses one challenge of the method.
The customized CFD simulation which is interacting with the simulation model provides the complete spatial distribution of the heat exchanger surface temperatures and dead zone temperatures.
Both components are combined to a process prediction model, where an interface between the process prediction model and the process control system (PCS) is used for real-time transmission of the current process parameters to the model, and of recommended process parameters generated by the model back to the PCS. These recommendations can either be used as guidelines for the operator or directly be implemented as PCS command variables in view of an automated optimal operation mode.
Conclusion: The proposed methodology couples rigorous thermodynamics with CFD simulation into a novel process prediction model which enhances the overall availability of the process significantly, ensures the definite prevention of ‘pitting’ and increases the efficiency of the process significantly.
Guenther Holzer is Managing Director of the company Process Optimal, which was founded in 2007 and is very specialized in thermodynamic process simulation. For many years he also has been a lecturer at Graz University of Technology for Process Simulation.
University of Rome, Italy
The rapid growth of human population has led to an increasing global energy demand that natural petroleum cannot fulfill. Furthermore, the use of fossil fuels has a great impact on the environment, through green house gas emissions and consequent climate change. Therefore, researchers are focused on the efficient production of sustainable, economical and environmentally friendly fuel sources. Biofuels are among the alternatives that are currently being studied and implemented. Biodieselis a biofuel obtained from renewable biological materials and can be used in pure form or blended in a given proportion with the diesel derived from petroleum. Currently, biodiesel is obtained from crops, such as corn and soybeans, which are in competition with food uses and the amount required to produce a gallon of product is extremely high. Microalgae can efficiently convert sunlight, water and CO2 into a variety of products suitable for biodiesel production and represent one good possibility to overcome these drawbacks. Biodiesel produced from microalgal oil has important advantages. In fact, differently from diesel derived from fossil oil, it does not contain sulfur and is characterized by a smaller amount of combustion products (carbon monoxide, hydrocarbonsand sulfur oxides). However, the release of nitrogen oxides can be higher in some types of fuel. Moreover, the cost of biodiesel obtained from microalgae should be competitive with respect to other biofuels of vegetable origin and petroleum diesel fuel. A major cost of biodiesel production from microalgaeis represented by the energy required for lipid extraction, due to the thick and highly resistant cell walls, which must be disrupted or at least weakened. The most common pretreatments (high pressure homogenization, mechanical crushing, ultrasound and microwaves) allow a good lipid recovery, but require high energy consumption and expose other extractable algal components to potential damage. An alternative is the use of an enzymatic pre-treatment. Enzymatic methods allow operating under mild conditions, with high efficiency and specificity.
This work is focused on the screening and identification of suitable enzyme preparations, based on the characteristics of the cell wall of Nannochloropsissp., the microalga used in the present study. This microalga is of great industrial interest because of its ability to accumulate large amounts of lipids and other valuable components. The results obtained demonstrate that treating Nannochloropsis microalgae with optimized cell walled grading enzyme mixtures containing cellulase and mannanase can significantly improve lipidrecovery.
Antonio Zuorro is a Professor of Chemical and BioChemical Engineering Fundamentals at the Department of Chemical Engineering Materials & Environment of Sapienza University of Rome, where he received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. His research activity has been mainly focused on the development of innovative chemical and biotechnological processes for the recovery of high value-added compounds from by-products and agro-industrial residues, such as lycopene from tomato waste and phenolic antioxidants from artichoke and bilberries waste, olive pomace and coffee grounds. He also examined the possibility of including the extracts obtained in consumer food products to get new functional foods with high antioxidant activity. In the field of enzyme technology, he studied the use of multienzyme systems with enhanced activity for the recovery of lipids and bioactive compounds with high added value from microalgae. He is the author of over 100 scientific publications and also 5 industrial patents. At present, is Coordinator of an EU financed project of Research & Innovation in Horizon2020-BBI, of 7.2 million euros.
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Earth Science Museum, Russia
2Gramberg FGUP “VNIIOceangeologiya, St-Peterburg State University, Russia
The article analyzes the differences in the history of the hydrocarbons (HC) generation by rocks of the Bremer 1 – 6 formations on adjacent areas of non-volcanic passive continental margins of Australia and Antarctica. The problem is considered on the example of numerical reconstruction of the burial and thermal histories of two sedimentary sections of approximately equal thickness: the section of the 19-2012 well in the Bremer sub-basin of the south-western margin of Australia, and the section of pseudo-well 2 on the 5909 seismic profile crossing the Mawson Sea in the Antarctica margin. The asymmetry of the Gondwana rifting in the region under consideration resulted in the asymmetry in tectonic structure and development of the conjugate areas of passive margins: and, as a result, a significant difference in the history of hydrocarbon generation by the rocks of the Bremer 1 – 6 formations on the studied areas of conjugate margins. Modeling suggests that the rocks of the Bremer 1 and 2 are mainly gas prone in the Bremer basin, but they become oil prone in the Mawson Sea of Antarctica. In contrast, the rocks of the Bremer 4 and 5 formations must generate little volume of hydrocarbons in the area of the 19-2012 well according to the modeling whereas the same rocks in the conjugate area of Antarctica, in the Mawson Sea, could generate appreciable amounts of heavy and light oil.
Dr. Yurii I. Galushkin (born 1941) is leading scientist in the Earth Science Museum in Lomonosov States University. He graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. His main scientific interest is focused on thermal evolution of the lithosphere, basin modeling, numerical estimation of organic matter maturity and oil and gas generation.
Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Austria
Our research deals with polymer pipes for crude oil applications especially with the development of methods to detect the permeation of crude oil, the increase of the thermal stability of polymer pipes and the decrease of permeation by using barrier layer. High density polyethylene (HDPE) has been the preferred material for lining applications for crude-oil onshore and inland transport at higher temperature and pressure. The material shows a high chemical resistance to various metal-aggressive substances in the oil. However, one special aspect for materials in onshore pipe oilfield applications is the requirement of a high permeation resistance against low molecular weight hydrocarbons. It is known that polyethylene (PE) pipes have high permeation rates for hydrocarbons, but no investigations with crude oil exist. Therefore, the permeation process of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons through PEpipeswas investigated by gravimetric analysis. This method is limited because the permeation of one component of crude oil cannot be measured. To bypass limitation of the gravimetric method a new method based on GC-MS techniques was developed. Based on this new method the permeation rate of single solvents from crude oilwas detected and calculated. Permeation dataare also compared to crosslinked PE pipes because crosslinked pipes have higher thermal stability. The crosslinking process of PE was tested and optimized related to the permeation behavior.
Much attention has been paid to polymers to use them as barrier system for hydrocarbons. Therefore, several barrier materials were designed based on polyvinylalcohol (PVA) because PVA is water soluble and may be considered environmentally benign. For the use of PVA as barrier material, it is necessary to crosslink the PVA. An active filler and PVA were combined to a composite material. The active fillerhas azosulfonategroupson the surface and can be used as photo initiator for crosslinking of PVA. The coating technique was developed because this process strongly influences the permeation properties of PE-PVA-layers. Summarized, it was proved that such barrier layers are effective and prevent the permeation of hydrocarbon through PE pipes.
Gisbert Riess has finished his study of chemistry in 1990 with the diploma thesis (Arylazosulfonates and their Reactions) at the University of Bayreuth. Afterwards he started his PhD thesis in polymer chemistry dealingwith Novel Blockcopolymers via Cationic Polymerisation. In 1993 he get his PhD at the University of Bayreuth. Until 2001 he was senior researcher atthe university of Bayreuth and Munich. Since 2001 he is head of a workgroup in polymer engineering and science at the University of Leoben. His research interests are surface functionalization of fillers, barrier layer for polymers and foam materials.
Mount Royal University, Canada
The remediation of groundwater impacted by NAPL is of public interest and remains a significant challenge facing many industrial sectors in Alberta and around the world. NAPL constituents are hazardous compounds which have been shown to be toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. All sorbate-sorbent systems yielded the S-type isotherms. Sorption of the sorbates on representative core samples retrieved from the site could be best described mathematically by the Freundlich than the Langmuir sorption model. Kd values derived at 6°C ranged from 3.05 to 0.89 L/kg. Chemical degradation of DNAPL constituents could be best fitted to a first-order kinetic with a three hour optimum reaction time. The results also indicated that UV radiation combined with ClO2 can be an effective method for chemically degrading PAH, PCB-S, SVPHEN-S, F24FIDE-S and BTEXHSAB-S contaminants. Under the most efficient treatment system, 76 to 98% of the chemicals of concern were destroyed. Calculated travel time for potential off site migration ranged from 150 to 80,817 years. Bench-scale of fluorescein as an applied tracer was also investigated. A pilot testing program is currently under way to test this innovative treatment technology. If successful, this approach represents a quick and cost effective approach to groundwater remediation.
Roger Saint-Fort has completed his Ph. D in the University of Nebraska; M. Sc., University Laval; B. Sc. University of Manitoba Roger Saint-Fort, Ph.D., P.Ag., My current research activities investigate chemical and electrochemical innovative approaches for remediating NAPL contaminated groundwater, use of surfactant to enhance soil bioremediation, landfill leachate treatment, application of electro - coagulation-ClO2 and nano bubble technology to reclaim industrial wastewater streams. The last few years, I have been working passionately and successfully on developing, prototyping and implementing innovative water treatment systems in order to bring sustainable drinking water to remote and economically challenged communities around the world.
1KAUST Catalysis Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
2Laboratoire de Chimie, Catalyse, Polymères et Procédés, France
3Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, France
“Predictive catalysis” or “catalysis by design” in heterogeneous catalysis has recently benefited from using “surface organometallic fragments” (SOMF) or Surface Coordination fragments (SCF) to enter any presumed catalytic cycle. These conceptual tools in which one or several fragments of the molecule are linked to metal grafted on the surface (M-H, M-R, M=CR2, M≡CR, M=O, M=NR) became the logical continuation of the abundant work published in the field of Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC). To note, SOMC has produced new catalytic reactions (e.g. Ziegler Natta depolymerisation, alkane metathesis, non-oxidative methane coupling etc…) and had improved the activity or selectivity or life time of known ones. The catalytic mechanisms employs the concepts of molecular chemistry (organic, organometallic, coordination chemistry) to explain how bonds can be broken and reformed. In this context, the reactivity of “surface organometallic fragments” (SOMF) or Surface Coordination fragments (SCF) is pivotal to the outcome of the catalysis.
Both types of fragments were identified within SOMC as it allows the isolation of single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalyst. SOMC can generate catalytic sites that are in principle identical (single-site or single atom) by grafting transition metal atoms onto highly dehydroxylated metal oxide support handled under controlled atmosphere. This strategy presents considerable advantages over traditional heterogeneous catalysts in which various populations of metallic potentially active sites coexist.
In this framework, all the steps of the preparation are carefully controlled with the concepts and tools of organometallic and/or coordination chemistry. Hence, the coordination sphere of the grafted metal can be determined with a high degree of accuracy (welldefined catalytic site) by the modern solid characterization tools (Surface Microanalysis, in situ IR, in situ UV, in situ solid state NMR, EXAFS and in operando EXAFS, etc… ). It means that all atoms coordinated to the metal or in its close vicinity are identified. Another benefits came from the surface to be considered as a rigid ligand, preventing in most cases undesired interferences between the catalytic sites (e.g. by bimolecular deactivation in homogeneous catalysis).
Within this framework, the relationship between structure and activity become possible; with the addition of the SOMF tools, it becomes predictable. It is now possible to follow the various steps of the catalytic cycle, understand deactivation, increase activity and/or selectivity by changing the support or ligand environment of the active site. The existing gap which was existing between heterogeneous catalysis and homogeneous catalysis has completely disappeared and a new domain is emerging. We shall review here some of the recent catalytic results obtained on oxides.
Jean-Marie Basset is the Distinguished Professor for Chemical Science in the Physical Science and Engineering Division at King Abdullah University of Science & Technology. Prof. Basset, who has authored more than 500 scientific papers 50 patents, pioneered the field of “Surface Organometallic Chemistry”, which focuses on possible relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Professor Basset received his PhD in 1969 from the University of Lyon, France. After a postdoctoral position in Toronto he moved to the Institute of Catalysis in Lyon where he became vice-director. In 1987, he founded the Laboratory of Surface Organometallic Chemistry that became later the laboratory of Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymer, Process (C2P2). Professor Bassetʼs Lyon lab was home to 100 scientists, including Nobel Laureate Yves Chauvin who got his Nobel in 2005. In 2009 he moved to the King Abdulla University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia as director of the KAUST Catalysis Center.
Petrochemicals Europe, Belgium
The intervention will focus on the following elements: How the European Petrochemicals industry contributes in a sustainable way to the economic and societal well-being of Europe. How chemical markets evolve. Why a lower oil price doesnʼt change the situation for the European Petrochemicals industry. The competitiveness challenge for the European Petrochemicals industry: Feedstock price, electricity price, regulatory challenge, investment leakage. Debrief on the European Commissionʼs cumulative costs assessment of its legislation on the European Petrochemicals industry. The performance of the European Petrochemicals industry in reducing GHG emissions.
Dorothee Arns, a German national, completed her university studies in Saarbruecken (Germany), Dublin (Ireland) and Granada (Spain) with two Master degrees: one in Applied Languages & Linguistics and the other one in Business Administration with special focus on Marketing, International Management and private law. Her professional career in the chemical industry started in 1995 when she joined the marketing & sales trainee programme of BASF in Ludwigshafen. In the course of the years she held senior management positions in various areas of BASF ìs chemicals business, notably in marketing, sales, eBusiness and controlling. On 1 July 2013 she was appointed Executive Director of Ceficʼs Petrochemicals and Plastic Additives Programme as well as of Petrochemicals Europe, the Association of Petrochemical Producers in Europe.
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Romania
This paper presents a study regarding Jet fuel production from kerosene, which was obtained by atmospheric distillation of a naphthenic Romanian crude oil. Physicochemical characteristics of kerosene must be upgraded in order to achieve Jet fuel specifications (JET A-1). This objective was obtained using a dual catalytic system consisting of two layers of different catalysts. The first catalytic layer contains a zeolite (Erionite) with a good acidity for cracking and isomerization of long chain paraffins, and the second catalytic layer contains a Ni-Mo/Alumina catalyst to hydrogenate the olefins formed in the first step. The catalytic tests were performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at different temperature of 225 - 320°C and a pressure of 15 bar. The final product has a better freezing point, lower sulphur content and the smoke point increases over 25 mm achieving JET A-1 specifications entirely.
Dorin Stanica-Ezeanu was born in Vatra-Dornei (Suceava County, Romania) in 1958. He received a M.S. degree in Petroleum Processing and Petrochemistry from the Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti (Romania) in 1983 and a Ph.D. degree in Chemical Engineering from the same university in 1997. After 2 years as production engineer at Brazi refinery (Romania) and other 4 years as scientific researcher at Research Institute for Petroleum Refining and Petrochemistry of Ploiesti (Romania), he joined, in 1989, the Department of Petroleum Processing and Petrochemistry from Petroleum-Gas Institute of Ploiesti (Romania) as Assistant. In 1992 he became Lecturer, over 7 years, in 1999, he became Assistant Professor and in 2004 he became Professor in the same Department. Over the years, in 2012 he became the Head of the Department of Petroleum Processing and Environmental Protection. His current research interests include catalytic systems for hydrogen production by steam reforming of bioethanol, waste PET recycling by glycolysis and hydrolysis, pyrolysis of waste rubber and biofuels from waste oils recycling. Prof. Dorin Stanica-Ezeanu is a member of Romanian Chemical Society and Romanian Catalysis Society, and he received many awards of excellence (2013, 2015) for his contribution in research of biofuels and waste recycling.